Skip to main content

Full text of "Mrs. Owens' cook book and useful household hints .."

See other formats








"Economical household management and the mysteries of the kitchen 
are as truly a part of domestic culture as are music, decorative art and the 
etiquet of the drawing room." 









6241 Kimbark Avenue, 

Copyright, 1884, by Mrs. FRANCES E. OW2NS. 
All Rights Reserved. 




^ui^ T 

it w 


EVERY housewife has a notably good way of doing certain things. When 
it became known that this book was being compiled, letters came to the 
editor from friends living in all sections, containing choice cooking recipe, 
and hints for the household, culled from practical, everyday experiences 
In many cases, the writers collected from their immediate friends, thus add- 
ing to their list. The province of this book, then, is to present a large num- 
ber of these successes in a desirable form for daily reference. The differ- 
ent departments will be found sufficiently elaborate for almost any occasion 
in domestic life. For the special benefit of our sisterhood who unite the 
qualities of wives, mothers and housemaids, the easiest way has been 
selected, whenever a choice could be made, with that end in view. 

The housewife whose means are unrestricted need not study little, har- 
rowing details, trying to make one dollar do duty for five in providing for 
her table. But the masses must count their pennies and tighten their 
purse-strings when tempted to indulge the appetite beyond a prescribed 
limit. There are suggestions in these pages which, if carried out, will vary 
a bill of fare and make it pleasing to the eye and appetizing to the palate, 
at the smallest possible outlay of money. 

In the section devoted to ' ' HASH ' ' there are directions for using up rem- 
nants of food that will go very far towards furnishing' the bulk of one meal 
per day to a family. These dishes are palatable, too, and very distinct 
from the often tasteless commodity known by that name. 

The inexpensive CAKE recipes in this book are good in every case, and 
the cakes, if eaten fresh, are as satisfactory as the more expensive ones. It 
is to be hoped they will be given a fair trial before being frowned upon. It 

was not the original purpose to introduce elaborate dishes ; but as all fami- 
lies on special occasions require such, there are some interspersed. 

"THE LAUNDRY " hints, if acted upon, will add years to the lives of our 
women who toil. This is actual knowledge. A woman with a house full of 
little ones, having but two hands to do the work which would give employ- 
ment to six, must husband her strength if she would be spared to her chil- 
dren. It is worse than folly to devote ten hours to a task which may be 
accomplished in five. These aids will make that difference. Give them 
one month's trial, and the old ways will belong to the dead past, never to 
be revived. 

The letter, ' ' An Old Citizen to a Young Wife, ' ' is from the pen of the 
well-known author and poet, MR. JOHN McGovERN. 

The recipes in this book are National, having been gleaned from the 
extreme East, West, North and South, as well as from intermediate points. 

In submitting this book to the public, it remains only to say that the 
most painstaking care has been exercised, and many months time devoted 
to the work, and it is hoped it will prove beneficial and eminently satisfac- 
tory to the busy housewife. 


A. to C. 

C. to I. 

Almonds 2193.116.318 

An Old Citizen's Letter. 377 

Ants To Destroy 475 

Baking Powder 152 

Bed-bug Poison 457 

Bills of Fare 389 

Biscuit 160-162 

Blanc-Mange 285-288 

Bread 149 

Buns 1 60 

Cake 217-284 

Candy-Making 393-397 

Canning Fruits 318-321 

Caramel for Coloring 1 1 

Care of Beds 420-426 

Care of Lamps 426-427 

Catsups 126 

Cements 457 and 476 

Cereals I7I-I7 2 

Charlotte Russe 295 

Cheese 282-283 

Cheese Cakes 284 

Children's Party 392 

Chocolate 309 

Clams 45-46 

Clarifying Soup 12 

Clarifying Sugar 333 

Cleaning House 451-454 

Cochineal Coloring 219 

Cocoa 309 

Coffee 305-308 

Colored Plates Described38i 

Crackers 168 

Creams 289-293 

Croquettes 107 

Croutons 10 

Cutting up Meats 459-462 

Carving Meats 398-401 

Curry Powder 1 1 1 

Custards 294 

Delmonico 302 

Digestion of Food. 446 

Dinner Etiquet 384 

Diseases of Animals. 463 -470 

Drying Fruits 342 

Dumplings 188 

Dyes 439-442 

Egg Balls 10 

Eggs 63-67 

Entertainments 359-360 

Extracts 222 

Filling for Cake 247-248 

Fire Kindlers 458 

Fish 29-36 

Floating Island 294 

Fondu 282 

Food in Season 448 

Forcemeat Balls 10 

Fresh Fruits 3 1 5-3 1 8 

Fritters 193 

Frogs 62 

Frosting 223-224 

Fruit Sauce 322-326 

Fruit Butters 341 

Furniture Polish . . . .450-457 

Game 49-62 

Garnishes ..... 117 

Gems .... 1 66 

Glue 457 

Griddle cakes 162-163 

Hash 103 

Heating the Oven 220 

Herbs lit 

Hints to the Invited 387 

Honey 298 

Ice Crea'm 300 

Ices 303 

Index 481-500 

Indigestible Foods. 


Road -Making. 

I. to Q. 

R. to Y. 

Indigestible Foods 447 

Ink 458 

Invalid Cookery 401-407 

Jams 338-339 

Jellies ,,326-332 

Kalsomine 455 

Laundry 427-438 

Lard To Render 102 

Lime-water 152 

Lunches 360 

Marmalades 339-34 

Meats 79-102 

Melons 317 

Meringues 296 

Mothers, Save Yourselves4O9 

Moths and Roaches 457 

Muffins 164 

Mush .172 

Noodles ii 

Nursery Hints 407-4*11 

Oil-ClothsTo Clean 457 

Omelets 67-68 

Paste 457 

Pickles ...-343-355 

Picnics 359 

Pies , 174 

Pones 158 

Poultry 69-78 

Preserves 332-338 

Puddings 197-216 

PufTs 167 

Quajada 283 

Remedies 41 1-420 

Road-Making 471-474 

Rolls 159-160 

Rusk 159 

Salads 119 

Sandwiches 170 

Sauces 1 1 1 

Sausage 101-102 

Set Table Described 383 

Shell-Fish 37-48 

Sherbets 302 

Shortcakes 191 

Soaps 436-438 

Soups 8-28 

Soup Powder 12 

Souffle Vanilla 288 

Steaming Food. . .81 and 221 

Substitutions 152 

Summer Drinks 309-3 14 

Syllabub 293 

Tea 308 

Terrapin 62 

Toast 169-170 

Toilet Articles 443-444 

Trifle 297 

Vegetables 129-148 

Vinegar 356-358 

Waffles 167 

Weights and Measures. ..151 

Welsh Rarebit 283 

Whitewash 454 

Yeast 153 





EEF is considered the best soup-meat for a stand- 
by ; but I subjoin recipes that include other 
kinds, all of which will be found palatable. It 
is well to keep a stock-pot of meat broth on 
hand for soups. Any bits of bones or trim- 
mings, the bones from roasts, the tough ends 
from porter-house steaks, or the cold bits of cooked meats, 
or fowls, should be put into it, and when cooked done the 
broth should be strained through a colander, and into an 
earthen vessel, for future use. Do not cook vegetables in 
the stock, as they will cause it to sour. Soup-stock may be 
made the basis of almost any kind of soup macaroni, ver- 
micelli, different vegetables, rice, or noodle. Keep it in a 
cool place ; take off the fat that rises. 

To dry parsley or celery, put in a slow oven ; watch, and 
when dry rub lightly to take out stems, and cork up tightly 
in a bottle for gravies or soups. 

Sassafras leaves, dried and powdered, are sometimes used 


Croutons. SOUPS. Force-Meat Balls. 

in Gumbo soup. A large spoonful to a pot of beef soup, put 
in a few minutes before taking from the fire, improves it. 

If soups or sauces, or beef tea, have an excess of fat, lay 
a piece of coarse brown wrapping paper or blotting paper 
on top, and it will absorb the fat. Lift the paper, and the 
liquid will run off. Repeat operation until freed sufficiently. 

If soup is over-salted, add a teaspoon of sugar and a ta- 
blespoon of vinegar, and it will help to modify it. 

Catsups and different sauces are added to soups, according 
to the taste of families. 

A quart of water and a teaspoon of salt is about the right 
proportion to a pound of meat. 

The soup recipes credited to Miss Corson were procured 
direct from her by the writer, while in attendance at her 
course of Demonstrative Lessons in Cookery. They are 
published with the full consent of Miss Corson. The writer 
has tested them with much satisfaction. 


Cut bread free from crusts, half an inch square. Fry in 
smoking hot fat. Keep on a plate, unless served immediately. 
Serve in pea soup. 


Yolks of 4 hard-boiled eggs mashed fine with the yolk of 
i raw egg and a teaspoon of flour. Season with a pinch of 
pepper, half a teaspoon of salt, and a sprinkling of parsley. 
Make into balls half the size of a thimble and boil in clear 
water for two minutes. Add to the soup when ready to 


Take bits of cooked meat or fowl ; mince fine, season well, 
and bind together with an egg. Roll in cracker or bread 
crumbs, and fry in hot lard in balls the size of the yolk of an 

German Soup-Balls. SOUP. To Color. 


Mix together butter and cracker crumbs into a firm round 
ball. Drop into the soup a very short time before serving. 
Very nice for chicken broth. 


Take one egg, a pinch of salt, half an egg-shell full of 
water. Stir in all the flour it will take ; roll as thin as you 
possibly can ; hang over a chair-back on a napkin to dry. 
Then roll up like jelly-cake and slice off as thin as a wafer. 
They will cook in 1 5 or 20 minutes. 


Caramel for coloring soups is made by putting a table- 
spoon of sugar and a pinch of salt in a dry saucepan over 
the fire. Stir constantly till it is slightly burnt. When very 
dark brown, pour in less than a teaspoon of water. Keep 
stirring, and gradually add a cup of water. See that the 
sugar is all dissolved. This gives a rich color, and is better 
than browned flour. 


Put a pint of flour in a skillet or saucepan over a moderate 
fire. Stir constantly with a small wooden paddle, if you 
have one, until it is a dark brown, and .do not let it burn- 
Put it away in a covered vessel and use it for soups, gravies, 
or sauces. It requires fully half as much more to thicken 
with, than of unbrowned flour. 



As soon as the scum has been taken off, put in grated 

Use caramel or browned flour. 


Soup Powder. SOUP. To Clarify. 


Pound the leaves of spinach, or use the green leaves of 
celery or parsley. Put this in five minutes before taking up. 
Okra also gives a green color. 


For coloring various dishes green, take a quart of spinach, 
wash and clean carefully ; pound in a mortar to extract the 
juice. Then put all through a fine sieve. Put the juice in 
a stewpan or basin. Place this in a vessel of boiling water 
till it sets. It should not boil. Then put it into a sieve that 
the water may drain from it, and the clear green will be left 
for coloring. This may also be dried for future use. 

Take the pulp and juice of ripe tomatoes. 


soups use none but white vegetables ; for thickening use rice, 
pearl barley, vermicelli, or macaroni. 


Take an ounce of as many of the following ingredients as 
can be procured : Thyme, basil, sweet marjoram, summer 
savory, dried lemon peel, celery seeds, two ounces of dried 
parsley. Dry, pound, sift, and bottle it tight for use. 

Mushrooms can be dried in a warm oven and reduced to a 
powder with a little mace and pepper, and kept for season- 
ing soups or gravies. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Skim off the cold fat that is at the top. Put in the bottom 
of a saucepan for each quart of soup-stock the white and 
shell of one egg and one tablespoon of water ; mix, and then 
pour the soup on. Set the saucepan on the fire, and let boil 
very slowly. As the soup heats, the white will harden, and 


Stock QJ Broth. SOUP. Stock or Broth. 

the egg will rise to the surface together with the blood and 
cloudiness that remain in the soup. Let boil slowly until the 
under portion is very clear ; then strain through a towel laid 
in a colander. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

For clear soup leave the vegetables whole, simply peeling 
them. This gives all the flavor, without the cloudiness 
arising from the vegetables cut up. Use the neck of beef, 
one pound of meat or bone for each quart of soup. Have 
the meat cut from the bone in a solid piece, to serve after- 
ward ; crack the bone and put in the bottom of the soup- 
kettle, the meat and the bone, then add cold water. Place 
over the fire to heat gradually ; as it boils, the blood and 
albumen will rise. For clear soup, this must be skimmed off. 
It is never necessary to wash meat if it comes from a clean 
market ; it detracts from its flavor and nutriment. Add a 
carrot, turnip, and an onion for 3 or 4 quarts. Stick six or 
eight cloves in the onion ; salt and pepper lightly ; add a 
bouquet or fagot of herbs ; a small bunch of parsley (two 
tablespoons), take the roots if you wish the green for a gar- 
nish ; the green stalk of celery is nice to add. A sprig of 
any kind of dried sweet herb, except sage, and one bay leaf. 
A single leek may be used instead of the onion. If wished 
for the gelatinous property, a knuckle of veal may be added 
to the soup stock. Cook slowly two hours after adding the 
vegetables ; that time will secure the flavor. If cooked 
longer, it will assume a jellied consistency. Strain through 
a sieve, or through a folded towel laid in a colander into an 
earthen vessel, not in metal. When cold, remove the fat 
that rises. This soup is perfectly clear. 

N.B. If it is desired to have it very light-colored, use 
veal instead of beef. A calf's foot, the skin from the head, 
or an old fowl may be used with good results in this stock. 


Oyster. SOUP. Lobster. 

If very rich soup is wished for, use only a pint of water to 
each pound of meat. The flesh of old animals contains 
more osmazome than that of the young. It is this property 
that gives flavor and perfume to the stock. Brown meat 
contains more than white, and the brown is more fragrant. 
The osmazome reaches its height by roasting. So that the 
remnants of roasts give a good flavor to stock. AUTHOR. 




One quart large fresh oysters. Take liquor and \\ pints 
water ; boil and skim off carefully the scum that rises ; then 
add 2 or 3 quarts fresh milk ; put in I dozen oyster crackers 
rolled very fine ; 2 large spoons of butter ; season lightly 
with salt. As soon as this becomes boiling hot, put in oys- 
ters. When it begins to boil, take up at once. Many per- 
sons prefer oyster soup without milk. The mode of cooking 
is the same, except that more butter should be used, and 
water instead of milk. 


TaKe 50 large clams and chop fine. To their liquor add 
3 quarts of water, and boil. Add the clams, and cook from 
3 to 5 minutes. Mix \ cup of butter with same quantity of 
flour very smoothly and stir into the soup with a quart of 
fresh milk. Add salt and pepper to taste. Set on back of 
stove and stir in 4 well-beaten eggs, and it is ready to serve. 
Add more butter if wanted richer. 

Take a large lobster from the shell after it is boiled ; cut 


Pepper- Pot SOUP. Catfish, 

small and mix it with 3 rolled soda crackers. Into a stew- 
pan put a quart of milk and a quart of water with a pod of 
red pepper, and salt to taste. When boiling hot, add the lob- 
ster, and the green inside if liked, and a full cup of butter, 
and boil 10 minutes. Serve hot. 


Take fish, flesh, and fowl, as nearly equal parts as you can 
get. Cut up small some lean mutton or beef, any fish, or the 
meat from a lobster, and a chicken or other fowl cut into 
joints. A tablespoon of rice and other vegetables that may 
be fancied. Pour over sufficient water and simmer slowly. 
Skim it well. When well cooked, season with cayenne pep- 
per and salt to taste. . 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

A pound of cold boiled fish will make about 2 quarts of 
soup. It must be rubbed through a fine sieve. For each 
quart take a tablespoon of butter, same of flour, mix smooth 
in a saucepan over the fire and add a quart of milk, or milk 
and water ; then add the sifted fish. Any game or vegetable 
soup may be made the same way. 


Any kind of fish will answer ; cut in small pieces ; roll in 
flour and brown in some olive oil or butter in a saucepan ; 
cover with hot water. Season with salt and pepper, and boil 
slowly for about 15 minutes. See that there is plenty of 
water. One pound will make a quart of soup. A clove of 
garlic may be added. 


Take 2 large or 4 small catfish. Clean well, cut off the 
heads, skin them. Cut them in 3 pieces, put into a soup- 
kettle with i pound of lean bacon, a sliced onion, a bunch 


Game. SOUP. Green Turtle. 

of minced parsley, salt to taste, and water sufficient, and 
cook till the fish are tender, but not broken. Add to the 
yolks of 4 eggs a tablespoon of butter, 2 of flour, and a cup 
of milk. Mix and add to the soup. Pepper if liked. 




In the game season, a good soup may be prepared at very 
little expense, and by using the remnants of different dishes 
a very agreeable flavor will be imparted. Take the legs and 
bones, break up, and boil in some broth for an hour, putting 
in all the meat from the breasts of birds left over. Boil 4 or 
5 turnips and mash them fine. Then pound the meat up fine 
and pass through a fine sieve. Put the broth a little at a 
time through the sieve. Heat it all up together in the soup- 
kettle. Do not boil. Mix the yolks of 3 or 4 eggs with J a 
pint of cream. Stir into the soup and remove just as it 
comes to a boil, as boiling curdles it. 


Chop the entrails (some cooks do not use the entrails), 
bones, and coarse parts of the turtle meat, and put into a 
gallon of water, with a bunch of sweet herbs, 2 onions, pep- 
per and salt. This must cook slowly but constantly for 4 
hours. In the meantime simmer the fine parts of the turtle 
and the green fat for I hour in ^ gallon of water. This must 
be added to the above soup after straining the latter, at the 
end of the 4 hours' boiling. Thicken slightly with browned 
flour, then simmer all together for another hour. If there 
are eggs in the turtle boil them alone in clear water for 3 or 
4 hours and add to the soup before serving. If not, use force- 


Rabbit SOUP. Partridge. 

meat balls. At the last add the juice of i lemon. For the 
force-meat balls, take the yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs, rubbed 
fine with 6 tablespoons of chopped turtle meat, I tablespoon 
of butter and, if you have it, a little liquor of oysters. Sea- 
son with mace, a pinch of cayenne, ^ a teaspoon of white 
sugar. Bind together with a raw egg. Roll into small balls 
dip into beaten egg, then in rolled cracker, fry in butter, and 
drop into the soup as before directed. 


Cut at the joints, dip in flour and fry in butter until a nice 
brown, and put into a soup-kettle. Add 3 onions, also fried 
brown. To 2 large rabbits allow fully 3 quarts water. Pour 
it over boiling hot. Add a teaspoon of salt ; skim frequently 
and carefully until it looks clear. Add a sprig of parsley, 3 
or 4 carrots, and season w r ith whole peppercorns. Boil gently 
for half a day. Season more highly if necessary. Strain, let 
cool, skim off the fat. Heat it afresh for serving, and send 
to the table with croutons. 


Sometimes rabbits or hares will be found very tough. They 
can then be made into soup that is excellent. Crack the 
bones of 2 rabbits and boil with i pound of ham or salt pork 
cut up small. Chop 3 small onions and put in, with a bunch of 
sweet herbs. Stew in 3 quarts of water slowly for 3 hours. 
Season and strain. Thicken slightly with browned flour, 
wet with cold water. Add tablespoon of catsup and tea- 
spoon of Worcestershire or some other kind of sauce. 


Clean 3 partridges, dredge them with flour and roast 
until they are half done, basting frequently. Take the 
flesh from the breasts and put aside. Joint the remainder 
of the birds, and stew gently in 3 quarts of strong beet 
broth for 2 hours. Strain, and let cool. Press the meat 

Giblet. SOUP. lota*e. 

from the bones. Then take all of the meat, including the 
breasts, mince fine, and pound smooth with half its bulk of 
butter and some dry bread-crumbs. Season with salt and 
cayenne, mace, and nutmeg. Moisten with 2 or 3 yolks of 
eggs, and make into balls half the size of a thimble. Skim 
the fat from the soup, and put the soup on to heat. When 
it boils add the balls and cook about 10 minutes. Grouse 
and partridge together make a very fine soup. 




Take a turnip, carrot, and onion, and slice them, and fry 
in hot butter ; add the giblets, sprinkled with flour, let them 
brown and then add the amount of water required. Sim- 
mer 4 or 5 hours. Season with salt and pepper and thicken 
with a spoonful of browned flour. Take yolks of hard- 
boiled eggs and put one in each plate of soup when it is 
served. The giblets of i chicken will make but little more 
than a quart of good soup. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Take bits of cold chicken, same quantity of rice, boil to- 
gether till very tender. Rub through a sieve ; then make 
of the consistency of cream, with boiling milk. Season to 
taste, with salt, pepper, and a little nutmeg. One pound of 
chicken and i pound of rice will make 4 quarts of soup. 


In order to serve the fowls for dinner, tie the feet down 
and turn the wings back before putting over to boil. Allow 


Chicken. SOUP. White. 

2 quarts of water for each fowl. When half done, add 2 
tablespoons of rice for each chicken. Before serving, add 
a chopped hard-boiled egg, a little thickening of flour (per- 
haps 2 teaspoons) and water, salt, pepper, and parsley. 
Make a drawn-butter dressing for the chicken. 


Get a fat hen. After washing, put it whole into a porce- 
lain kettle with a gallon of water ; boil 2 hours. Slice 3 or 

4 Irish potatoes, I large onion, I or 2 tablespoons of chopped 
parsley, I teaspoon of celery seed, and a bit of summer 
savory if you have it ; J a red pepper-pod, salt to taste. 
When the soup has boiled I hour, add the vegetables, and 
when nearly done put in I pint of sweet milk. 


One pint of flour, i dessert-spoon of lard, a pinch of salt; 
mix with cold water and roll thin, cut in small pieces, put 
in soup, and let them boil about 20 minutes. Thicken with 
a tablespoon of flour and cream. Boil up once and serve. 


Take I pint of the soup, i tablespoon of butter, and 4 or 

5 hard-boiled eggs chopped fine, i tablespoon of flour 
rubbed in the butter. Let it boil, and pour over the chicken. 


| pound of cold poultry. 
J pound of sweet almonds. 
A slice of dry bread. 
A shred of lemon peel. 
A blade of mace pounded, 
ij cups of cream. 
Yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs. 
2 quarts of white stock. 

Pound the almonds to a paste with a spoon of water. 
Add the meat, which should have been pounded with the 


Fela. SOUP. Gumbo. 

bread. Beat all together. Add the chopped lemon peel 
and the mace. Heat the stock to boiling and pour over the 
mixture and simmer for an hour. Mix the egg with the 
cream, add to the soup, let boil up and serve immediately. 




.Take an onion and cut it up fine ; let it fry a light brown 
in 2 tablespoons hot lard ; dust in 2 tablespoons of flour 
and stir all the time to keep from burning, and in a few 
minutes it will be brown. Pour in boiling water as much 
as will serve the family, allowing for boiling down. Have 
a nice fat chicken cut up ; put in the pot and boil until ten- 
der. Take 50 oysters from the liquor, and strain to remove 
all pieces of shell ; put the liquor in a stewpan, let it boil 
up once, then skim and put the liquor in the pot, and sea- 
son with salt, black and red pepper, also a small piece of 
garlic; after letting it boil 15 minutes, add the oysters; 
take 2 tablespoons of fela and dust in, stirring all the time. 
As soon as it boils once, it is ready to serve. Always serve 
with boiled rice. 

NOTE. Fela is prepared by the Southern Indians, and is 
simply the young leaves of the sassafras, dried in the shade 
and pulverized with a few leaves of the sweet bay. In the 
summer, young okra pods are used in place of fela. 


William H. Rochester, Bowling Green, Kentucky. 

Six squirrels or 2 chickens. Cut up small and cook till the 
flesh falls from the bones. Then take a handful of sassafras 


Meat. SOUP. Bouillon. 

buds for a gallon of soup, either green or dried (put in a 
bag in the soup), and I quart of okra, 2 onions, cut fine, 6 
large Irish potatoes cut in dice, a grated carrot, and a lit- 
tle cabbage. Pepper and salt to taste. When done, take 
out the sassafras bag and remove the buds and squeeze the 
bag. Use a pod of red pepper. Thicken with scorched 


Mrs. J. R. Jackson, Centerville, Miss. 

First fry a large tender chicken very brown ; then remove 
on a dish and fry a quart of sliced okra in the gravy. Add 
this to the chicken, but do not add the grease. Put the 
chicken and okra in a tin or porcelain vessel of cold water. 
Add a pint of peeled tomatoes sliced, one large silver-skin 
onion, a few chips of canvassed ham, and salt to taste. 
Cook slowly for an hour, then add I dozen soda crackers, I 
large tablespoon of butter, and a teaspoon of black pepper, 
Never boil pepper in soup. To make it more palatable and 
very rich, add half a dozen hard-boiled eggs. 




Take 7 or 8 pounds of the leg or shin of beef. Cover it 
well with cold water in a soup-kettle. Let it heat slowly. 
As it does so, the fibers of the meat enlarge, the gelatinous 
substance dissolves, the albumen the part which produces 
the scum frees itself and rises to the surface, and the 
osmazome (the most savory part of the meat) is diffused 
through the soup. If it is allowed to cook rapidly, the 


\Ox-Tail. SOUP. Veal. 

albumen coagulates, the meat hardens so that the water 
cannot penetrate it, and the osmazome cannot disengage 
itself. Add about a tablespoon of salt to each half gallon. 
This causes more scum to rise. Clear it, and put in 2 large 
carrots, 2 turnips, 2 onions, I head of celery, 3 whole 
cloves, a sprig of parsley, 2 young leeks, ^ a teaspoon of 
peppercorns, and a bunch of soup herbs. Stew very gently 
and constantly for 4 or 5 hours. The beef will then be 
very tender and juicy. The meat may be dished up on a 
platter, and the vegetables may be laid around it, or not 
a matter of choice. The soup will be better if not served 
until the next day. Then the fat may be removed when 
cold. Strain the soup through a sieve, heat, and send to table 
with fried or toasted bread. It is often served with crusts 
or slices of dry bread put into the tureen and let soak in 
the soup for a short time, 


Mrs. J. W. Smith, Chicago. 

Boil a beef bone till the meat is well cooked. Half an 
hour before dinner, put in J cup of rice. Season well. 


Mrs. Elliott Durand, Chicago. 

One ox-tail, 2 pounds lean beef, 4 carrots, 3 large onions, 
bunch of thyme. Cut the ox-tail in pieces, fry brown in 
butter ; remove and fry onions and 2 carrots. Place the fried 
vegetables and ox-tail in a soup-pot with the thyme and the 
beef cut in slices ; grate in the 2 carrots, and pour over 4 
quarts of water. Boil slowly 4 hours ; strain, and thicken 
with 2 tablespoons of flour. Add a tablespoon each of salt 
and sugar. The juice of half a lemon improves the flavor. 


Put a knuckle of veal into 3 quarts cold water; salt it, and 
add i small tablespoon raw rice. Let simmer 4 hours, when 


Mock Turtle. SOUP. Mutton. 

it should be reduced half. Remove. Into the tureen put 
the yolk of I egg, mixed with a cup of cream or new 
milk. Add a small lump of butter. Strain the soup on to 
this, stirring all the time. Beat it a moment at the last. 


Put a knuckle of veal into a gallon of cold water. When 
heated through, add a tablespoon of salt, and as it boils 
skim very carefully. Put in a pod of red pepper if you have 
it. Let cook slowly for 3 hours, adding hot water if needed 
for the quantity of soup desired. Add ^ a pint of finely 
.shredded cabbage, double the quantity of sliced raw pota- 
toes, a carrot cut small, a head of celery, and 3 large onions 
sliced. You may also add, if you like, 3 sliced tomatoes, a 
turnip cut in dice, and a couple of ears of green corn cut 
from the cob. Let cook fully | of an hour. 


Boil a calf's head and feet until the meat separates from 
the bones. Remove the bones and cut the meat into inch 
pieces. Put into the soup-kettle and boil 2 hours longer. 
Add the chopped brains, 8 small onions sliced, a tablespoon 
(or more) of parsley ; season with mace, cloves, and salt. 
When nearly done, make German soup-balls of half a dozen 
soda crackers (see directions on page n), and drop in ; add 
also enough caramel to color. Make force-meat balls of veal 
and put into the tureen, and pour the soup over. 


Columbia Loving, Bowling Green, Ky. 

Put a mutton bone on to cook in 3 quarts of cold water. 
Let it cook slowly 2 hours. Skim it, salt it, add hot water, if 
necessary, and to 2 quarts of broth add ^ cup of green corn, 
same of butter beans, 2 ripe tomatoes, peeled and sliced, 2 
Irish potatoes, of medium size, peeled and cut fine. Cook i 
hour. As the fat of mutton congeals so quickly, serve this 


Stock. SOUP. Victoria. 

soup in hot soup-plates. Indeed, it is better to heat the 
plates for any kind of soup. 


When it is desired to make soup from stock, heat it to 
boiling, add water, if needed, and the prepared vegetables 
cut small, noodles, or whatever is to be used, with the proper 
seasoning. Season lightly with salt, and do not add pepper 
until it is done. 


Lieut. Col. S. G. Leitch. 

One ham bone, i beef bone, i pod red pepper, I pint 
black-eyed peas. Boil in a mess-kettle in 2 gallons salted 
water. Splendid soup for a wet day. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

One pound of lean meat cut in small pieces, either beef or 
mutton. Peel and slice I large or 2 small carrots, i large 
turnip, 6 medium-sized onions, a pint of tomatoes, a green 
stalk of celery, if in season, and a small bunch of parsley. 
Tie up the parsley, celery, a dozen cloves, same of pepper, a 
sprig of any sweet herb, except sage. Put in a saucer a 
tablespoon of salt, a teaspoon of sugar and a saltspoon of 
pepper ; mix, and put all these ingredients in layers in a jar, 
and 2 quarts of cold water. Paste the cover on, and bake 
slowly 5 hours. 



Save all the bones and trimmings from roasts and steaks 
of any kind of meat. They will keep several days in cool 
weather. Put into a kettle with a gallon of cold water and 
half a cup of dry beans and a large ripe tomato, or some 


Barley. SOUP. Mushroom. 

canned tomatoes. Cook gently for two hours, then strain 
through a colander. Put back into the soup-kettle, add a 
carrot and three large potatoes cut in dice, a sliced onion, 
salt, and a spoon of soup powder. In 15 minutes beat up 
an egg with a cup of flour and stir into the soup ; let boil 
10 minutes and serve. 




Put a cup and a half of barley into 3 quarts of water, with 3 
large onions, 4 carrots, and 2 turnips all cut small. Cook 
gently 2 hours. Add a neck of mutton with a pound of 
lean ham. Salt to taste. Cook 2 hours longer. Add pep- 
per at the last. 


Boil a quart of chestnuts and rub the meats through a 
fine sieve with a potato masher. Take a tablespoon of flour 
and a tablespoon of butter, mix smooth in a saucepan over 
the fire, add gradually a quart of milk. When scalding hot, 
season with salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and add the sifted 


Wm. H. Rochester, Bowling Green, Ky. 

Use milk fresh from the cow. Cook the mushrooms in 
water, with salt to flavor. Use a silver spoon to stir the 
mushrooms ; if the spoon turns black, discard the mush- 
rooms. Let it come to a boil, pour in the milk. You can 
use more or less according to the quantity of soup required, 
A few mushrooms will flavor a large dish. 

To 5 quarts of water, allow a slice of corned ham, I pound 


Julienne. SOUP Okrm. 

of veal, and 4 of lean lamb. Cut the meat up small, heat it 
very gradually, and cook slowly till the meat is very tender. 
Season with salt, a bunch of sweet herbs, a bit of onion, if 
liked, a spoon of Worcestershire sauce. When these have all 
boiled for 10 or 15 minutes, strain and return to the soup- 
kettle. In the meantime have J or ^ of a pound of vermi- 
celli or macaroni broken up small, and boiled in clear water 
for 20 minutes. Drain and add to the soup, boil up once 
and serve. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Use vegetables of at least 3 colors; carrots, turnips, and 
either lettuce, celery, cabbage, or string beans. Cut the veg- 
etables into strips an inch and a half long, and these strips 
into match-like pieces, very, very thin. Keep in cold water 
till wanted. The proportion of vegetables is a cup full all 
together for a gallon of soup. Put each kind separately into 
boiling salted water. When tender, drain and lay in cold 
water. This way retains the flavor and color perfectly. 
Then dish up in the hot soup stock. Foreigners add a 
tablespoon of vinegar to a quart of Julienne soup. 


Take a joint of beef with the marrow, or a knuckle of 
veal, or a fowl, whichever can be had. Put to cook in a gal 
Ion of water; salt and skim it. After cooking an hour slowly, 
add 2 quarts of okra cut small. In another hour, add I cup of 
Lima beans. In another hour, 2 young cymlings, a quart of 
tomatoes, and 2 onions, all cut small, and I or 2 sprigs 
of parsley. Cook 2 hours more, and thicken with a table- 
spoon of butter mixed with i of flour. 


Six tomatoes, 4 onions, 3 tomatoes, if desired, 4 table- 
spoons of crushed tapioca, i J pints milk; butter, pepper and 
salt. Boil the vegetables in 2 quarts ot water till soft, rub 


Tohnato. SOUP. Pea. 

through a sieve, return the paste to the water, add the tapi- 
oca, and boil 15 minutes ; season, add the milk, and as soon 
as hot serve. 


Take 6 ripe tomatoes, peeled, or use half a can. Cook 
in a pint of water till done. Stir in \ teaspoon soda, add a 
quart of milk, season well with butter, pepper, and salt, 
and serve as soon as it boils. It is quite apt to curdle if 
not soon removed from the fire. 


Peel and slice thin 3 or 4 large potatoes, and boil in 
enough water to cover them until done. Then season and 
add a quart of milk. 


Put a quarter of a pound of butter in a stewpan, with 6 
large white onions cut in slices ; let them fry a nice brown, 
then add 6 crackers rolled, pepper to taste, and a quart of 
boiling milk and water; let it simmer for 15 minutes and 


Allow a pint of shelled peas to a quart of water. Cook 
till soft, then skim out and rub through a colander back into 
the soup-kettle with the water in which they were cooked. 
Boil \ hour longer, season with salt and pepper. For 3 
quarts of soup make a thickening of 2 tablespoons of butter 
mixed with \ cup of rice flour, if you have it, (if not, use 2 
tablespoons of common flour), stir well from the bottom and 
remove as soon as cooked through. The soup should be of 
the consistency of good cream. 


Miss Juliet Corson, New York City. 

A pint of dried peas or beans will, make 6 quarts of soup. 
Use split yellow peas. If put on to cook in cold water, add 


Green Corn. SOUP. Bean. 

half a cup of cold water every 15 minutes. Let them get 
soft before salting. When tender, rub them through a fine 
colander with a potato masher. Take the empty saucepan 
and set over the fire. Rub together in it a tablespoon each 
of butter and flour. When made perfectly smooth, add the 
strained soup. The meal of the peas will be held in suspen- 
sion by the addition of the butter and flour, and the result 
will be a creamy, even soup. Meat bones may be used if 
desired,* but should not be put in till after the peas com- 
mence boiling. If an onion is used, fry it in a saucepan 
before the peas are put over. 


A soup bone either of beef or veal. Boil slowly in a gal- 
lon of water. After salting, skim carefully. Cook the meat 
an hour, then add the corn from 12 good-sized ears, 
scraping the cobs. Season with white pepper and 2 sprigs 
of parsley. Just as the corn is tender the time varying, of 
course, according to the size of the kernels stir in a table- 
spoon of flour made smooth in a cup of milk ; and, unless 
the soup bone is quite rich, add a tablespoon of butter. 
Tomatoes are sometimes added to this soup, and give a very 
nice flavor. 


A pint of beans put into 2 quarts of water. Simmer 
slowly on the back of the stove several hours. A very deli- 
cious soup. No seasoning but salt and pepper. 









r ISH are not regarded any more nutritious than 
flesh or fowl. Indeed, hardly as much so as a 
good quality of beef or mutton. Fish not en- 
tirely fresh are poor eating. They are gener- 
ally in best condition shortly before spawning, 
and are thought to be unfit for human food 
immediately after spawning. For invalids, white fish, such 
as cod and haddock, etc., are the best. Flounders and tur- 
bot are also good. Flat fish will keep the longest. Salmon, 
mackerel, trout, and herring decompose quickly. The tur- 
bot will improve by keeping a few hours before cooking. 

Notice that the body of the fish is firm and the eyes full, 
and the gills red. 

Do not allow fish to remain but a short time in water. It 
makes them soft and flabby. 

To thj^v out frozen fish, lay them in cold water till the ice 
cleaves from the body. 

Large fish are usually boiled or baked. Small ones, fried 
or broiled. 

A fish is scaled more easily by plunging for an instant in 
hot water. 

Fish should be carefully cleaned before cooking. Any 
coagulated blood should be scraped away with a knife, and 


Chowder. FISH. Potted. 

they should be freed from scales. But if washed beyond 
what is necessary, the flavor of the fish is diminished. 

The mode of cooking fresh and salt-water fish is substan- 
tially the same, and the recipes given furnish all necessary 

The various sauces called for in the following recipes will 
be found in the chapter on " SAUCES." 

For fish croquettes, see " CROQUETTES." 


Fresh cod or haddock are regarded as best for chowdei, 
although our common lake fish may be used. Cut into 2 
inch pieces. Fry some slices of salt pork crisp, in an iron 
pot. Take out and chop fine, leaving the fat. Put a layer 
of fish in this fat, then a layer of split crackers, then some 
bits of the pork, some thick slices of peeled potatoes and 
some chopped onion, and pepper. Then another layer of 
fish, with a repetition of the other articles. Cover with boil- 
ing water and cook half an hour. Skim it out in the dish in 
which it is to be served, thicken the gravy with flour, add a 
little catsup, boil up and pour over the chowder. Remove 
the bones if convenient, when dishing up. 


Cut freshly-caught salmon into slices ij inches thick. 
Wash in strong salt and water. Lay on a fish-plate, if yot 
have one, and plunge into boiling salted water. It will be 
done in 10 or 15 minutes. Serve immediately with lobster 
sauce or plain melted butter. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Remove the fins and head of the fish, clean well, cut in 
slices an inch thick, pack it in a little jar having a cover, in 
layers, and between the layers put I teaspoon each of whole 

Pickled. FISH. Turbot. 

cloves, and whole peppers, 2 blades of mace, a bay leaf, a 
tablespoon of salt. When all is used, cover with vinegar 
and water, half and half. Put over it a buttered paper, or 
else fasten the jar cover on with paste. Put in a hot oven 
and bake 4 or 5 hours. The bones will have entirely disap- 
peared. Eat cold or hot. 


Put the fish in vinegar that is spiced as for pickles. Boil 
slowly until tender, but not broken. Set away closely cov- 
ered, and in a few weeks the bones will be destroyed. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

To broil a shad or any other fish, grease the bars of the 
broiler well. Put the inside to the fire first. The backbone 
is easily removed by running a knife along under it, and the 
long bones can be loosened and taken outgone or more at a 
time, with a little knife, after the backbone is cut away from 
them. Let brown without burning, till the flakes separate. 
Turn the skin part to the fire just long enough to brown. 
Season either before or after cooking. 


This is one of the most delicate and dainty dishes to be 
found. It is best broiled. Rub over it melted butter or 
drippings, or olive oil if preferred. Grease the bars of the 
gridiron. Butter it and garnish with chopped parsley. 


Mrs. Elliott Durand, Chicago. 

Five pounds white fish, i quart milk, i bunch of thyme, 
the same of parsley, J onion. Place the fish in cold water, 
and when the water has boiled two minutes, the fish is done. 
Remove and free from bones. Boil the milk, onion, thyme, 
and parsley over water, i hour. Strain through a colander. 


Turbans. FISH. Stuffing. 

Add i cup of flour, made in a smooth paste with cold water, 
the yolks of 2 eggs well beaten, i cup of butter, cook until 
thick. Place the fish in a baking-dish with alternate layers 
of the dressing. Finish with dressing on the top and a 
thick layer of cracker crumbs. Bake i hour. Serve in the 
baking-dish and garnish with parsley and sliced lemon. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Flounders are best. Cut down the middle of the fish till 
the bone is reached, then cut the fillet or strip out from the 
side, avoiding the bone. Lay the fillet on the board, remove 
from the skin by turning the blade of the knife between the 
flesh and skin, and keeping it perfectly parallel with the 
board, and thus cutting and separating the skin and flesh. 
After cutting the entire fish into fillets, roll each one up and 
fasten with a broom straw. These little rolls are called Tur- 
bans. They are nice stuffed with highly-seasoned soaked 
bread. If they are not stuffed, spread some butter on the 
bottom of the pan, but no water. Cook in the oven only 
long enough for the flakes to separate. They are to be lifted 
out and placed on Tartar sauce. 


Mrs. E. B. Baldwin, Chicago. 

One-half cup of fat pork chopped fine. One large spoon 
butter. Parsley, thyme, sweet marjoram, salt and pepper, a 
few oysters, 2 beaten eggs. All mixed with bread crumbs. 
A much simpler dressing is good, when the above ingre- 
dients are not at hand. Bread crumbs are usually on hand, 
and with a little seasoning and mincing, serve very well. 


Clean well ; sprinkle with salt an hour before cooking. 
Tie it with a string, sprinkle flour over it, baste with butter, 


Baked FISH. Boiled. 

place on a wire gridiron across a dripping-pan. Allow i 
hours for a good-sized fish. 


When fish is put in the pan for baking, it is a very nice vari- 
ation to pour a can of tomatoes over it. Season and bake. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Take any kind of baked fish, remove the bones and skin, 
put in a baking-dish, cover with the sauce, and dust with 
cracker dust. Bake a delicate brown. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Get a thick, square piece of halibut, or other fish if pre- 
ferred. Wash it and lay it on a baking-dish. Season with 
salt and pepper. Chop a clove of white garlic about the 
size of a bean, and strew over the fish, then put on a cup of 
canned or fresh tomatoes. Bake until the flakes separate. 
Dish up without breaking. The combination of garlic and 
tomatoes gives the name Creole to a dish. 


Wrap a large fish in a cloth. Secure it with a string. 
Put it on in cold water, salt well, and it will generally cook 
in half an hour. Remove the cloth and serve with drawn 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Any fish will do. After it is dressed, tie it in the form of 
a circle by putting its ta'il into its mouth, and take a stitch 
with a trussing needle in its head and tail to hold it in place. 
To 2 quarts of water put half a cup of vinegar, a teaspoon 
of whole cloves, same of whole peppers, a bay leaf. Half a 


Stew. FISH. Codfish. 

lemon sliced is a nice addition, and a tablespoon of salt. 
Put over in cold water and boil till the fins pull off easily. 
The skin may be easily removed if desired. Serve with egg 
sauce. Pour the sauce inside the circle^of fish. Lay a sprig 
of parsley on top of one side of the fish, and a few slices of 
lemon at the side on the platter. 


A thin, long fish like a pike is best for boiling. Do not 
have it split open, but draw it at the gills. A large fish 
should be put over in cold water, but a small one in boiling 
water, for the reason that a fish cooks so quickly that almost 
as soon as it touches the boiling water it is done ; and if a 
large one were put on in boiling water the outside would be 
done and the inside raw. If you have no fish-kettle, wrap 
in a cloth. Sew the fish very securely in the shape of a let- 
ter S, by drawing a cord through it and fastening tightly, 
When cooked, and strings loosened, it will retain its shape, 
and is exceedingly pretty to look at. Pour the sauce around 
it on a platter, and put a sprig of parsley at the side. 


Cut up into inch pieces, allowing J a teacup full to a pint 
of milk. Put on the stove in a stewpan or spider, well cov- 
ered with cold water. When it comes to a boil, drain and 
pour in a pint or quart of milk, according to size of family. 
When hot, thicken with a tablespoon of flour made smooth 
with cold milk or water. An egg broken in and stirred rap- 
idly at the last is an improvement. Season with a teaspoon 
of butter. Serve with baked potatoes. 


Take a pint of finely-shredded salt codfish, a quart o f raw 
peeled potatoes cut in two. Put to cook in cold water. 
When the potatoes are tender, drain very thoroughly, mash 
fine, beat well, add 2 tablespoons butter (or less will answer), 


Fried. FISH Eels. 

2 well beaten eggs, and a bit of pepper. Beat again, with a 
wooden spoon. Drop by the spoonful into boiling fat, and 
fry brown. They are better than if made into cakes. 


They may be cooked in several different ways. The one 
most in vogue is boiling. To freshen, put in a crock of 
water, skin side up, early in the evening. Before bedtime 
change the water, and in the morning rinse in clear water. 
Boil about 5 minutes in a frying-pan. Take up carefully on 
a platter. Have ready in a basin a cup of cream or rich 
milk with a spoon of butter, heated, and pour over. 

NOTE. Tin rusts badly, and it is better to soak mackerel 
in a stone crock. 

Salt Mackerel. 

After freshening, put half a cup of vinegar in the spider 
with half as much water. Boil the mackerel in it. Serve 
with slices of lemon. 

Salt Mackerel. 

Mrs. L. S. Hodge, Chicago. 

After freshening, hang up for a day or two, or until per- 
fectly dry. Then put in a dry tin and set in the oven for 
ten minutes. It will be found cooked through. Serve with 
drawn butter. 


Eels should be killed instantly by piercing the spinal 
marrow close to the back part of the skull with a sharp- 
pointed instrument. Skin them. Take off head and tail, 
cut up into frying pieces, throw into boiling water for 5 min- 
utes, then drain, roll in flour or corn meal peppered and 
salted, and fry in very hot lard. 


Clean the fish well. Cut up into pieces about 2 by 4 
inches. Lay around in a colander skin down, and sprinkle 


Smelts. FISH. Shad Roe. 

with salt. Let stand an hour, or half a day if need be. 
Have the fat hot in a frying pan. Roll in flour or corn meal, 
fry slowly and cook a long time, till thoroughly done through. 
It is nice dipped in beaten egg and rolled cracker after the 
flour, but is not essential. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Dry on a towel. Dip in milk, then in cracker dust, then 
in beaten egg, then in cracker dust again, and the dust will 
all stay on. Fry in hot fat. 


After scaling and cleaning perfectly, dry them well. Dip 
in flour that is salted and peppered, and fry in hot lard, 
Garnish with curled parsley. To fry brook trout, dip in 
corn meal and fry in butter, and serve with melted butter. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Fish spawn, especially the shad, is a delicacy greatly prized 
by epicures. Wash and wipe, fry in hot fat in a frying-pan, 
on both sides. Season. It takes 15 or 20 minutes to cook. 
Dish up on a platter and place around it a row or double 
row of plain fried oysters. Put a bunch of parsley in the 
center, and half a lemon with the peel cut in saw teeth, and 
the effect is very pretty. 








COMES too seldom in the yearly calendar 
for the lover of the oyster. But there 
is hope ; for, with the adoption of stand- 
ard time, and the continued efforts of 
"Fonetic Riters," there may come fur- 
ther changes, and the R may yet be 
found in other months. 

A very pretty center piece for a table at an entertain- 
ment or gathering of any kind, is a large block of ice on a 
handsome platter, with a center melted out and filled with 
raw oysters. Garnish the edge with slices of lemon, and 
green sprigs may decorate the sides if desired. 

In cases where butter is given to be used with oysters, 
many prefer olive oil. Use but half the quantity that you 
would of butter. 

Peanut oil or cotton seed oil may be procured much more 
cheaply than olive oil, and answers every purpose. 

Use the very largest oysters for frying and broiling, the 


Raw. OYSTERS. Stew. 

medium for raw and soup, and the smallest for scallops, 
croquettes, and pies. 

Every oyster should be looked at that no 'bits of shell 
remain attached to it. This is a very important matter, 
and should not be neglected. 

For oyster soup, see "SOUP;" for oyster salad, see 
"SALADS;" for oyster croquettes, see "CROQUETTES;" for 
oyster fritters, see " FRITTERS." 


If to be served at the table, they should be brought on in 
a deep dish accompanied by a dish of lemons cut in quar- 
ters. Serve in small plates, half a dozen oysters to each 
person, with a piece of lemon in the center. Salt, pepper, 
and vinegar should be provided. Lemon juice is sometimes 
served in place of vinegar. 


Three pints of oysters. Put the liquor in a stewpan, let 
it boil up, skim carefully, put in 2j quarts of milk, let it 
come to a boil, add the oysters, having looked them over 
and removed every bit of shell. The moment they curl up 
remove from the fire, and salt to taste. Season well with 
butter. Serve in hot soup scallops. 


Take a quart of oysters, strain the liquor off, and put it 
over to boil. Take the yolks of 3 hard-boiled eggs and -J 
teaspoon mustard, make into smooth paste with I tablespoon 
or more of salad oil. Add I cup of the boiling liquor, stir 
well and keep warm. To the remaining liquor add the oys- 
ters and cook till the edges curl. Pour part of the liquor in 
the oysters over toast, let the remainder be with the oysters, 
and add to it the egg salad, and seasoning of salt, pepper or 


With Turkey. OYSTERS. Fricassee. 

sauces to suit the taste. Serve the toast with the oysters. 
Much nicer than crackers. 


In a large stewpan put a pint of strong and clear broth, 
made of the cuts of beef. Instead of milk U...J water, or 
milk even, as the prevailing practice is, use only the richest 
and sweetest of cream. Of this cream add I pint to the 
broth in the stewpan. Also 4 tablespoons of the best 
table butter, I teaspoon of salt, I of white pepper, the same 
of ground mace, and extract of celery. If the celery is to 
be had in stalk, chop up fine and throw in. No more 
delicate or healthy flavor can be added to any stew, 
soup or broth, than this exquisite vegetable. Now set 
to cooking, and while on the fire dredge in finely-pow- 
dered cracker dust and a little of the best corn starch flour, 
until thickened to your taste. Have ready, parboiled, not 
in water, but in their own juice, 50 oysters, in a hot tureen. 
Pour over these parboiled oysters the sauce compounded as 
above, and serve while still scalding hot. 


A pint of oysters cut up small and boiled up in their own 
liquor, add a cup of cream, tablespoon of flour made smooth 
with part of the cream ; salt, pepper, and butter. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

A tablespoon each of butter and flour mixed in a sauce- 
pan over the fire till a smooth paste is formed, then add the 
oyster liquor strained. A little water may be added if 
necessary. Season with salt and pepper, a very little nut- 
meg, boil up, add the oysters and cook till the edges curl. 
Remove from the fire and stir in the yolks of 3 raw eggs, 
3 tablespoons salad oil, I tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice, 
I tablespoon chopped parsley. Serve 


On Toast OYSTERS Omelet 


Put a quart of oysters in their liquor (free the oysters care- 
fully from pieces of shell) on to cook. "When they come to a 
boil add a pint of cream or milk, a tablespoon of butter 
mixed smoothly with 2 teaspoons of flour, pepper and salt 
to suit the taste. Let boil up and pour over 6 slices of 
nicely browned and buttered toast. This will serve half a 
dozen persons, and is a nice breakfast, lunch or supper dish. 


Drain the oysters on a cloth, and dip in a mixture of 3 
tablespoons of oil or melted butter, I of vinegar, a tea- 
spoon of pepper sauce, or a pinch of cayenne pepper. Let 
them stay in this for 5 minutes, well immersed, then dip in 
rolled cracker and beaten egg, and cracker again, and fry in 
hot lard or part lard and part butter. 


Only the large selects are fit for frying. Dry them on a 
folded towel. Allow 6 eggs to a quart of oysters. Roll 
cracker very fine and put salt and pepper in it. Beat eggs 
very light, dip an oyster in the cracker, then in the egg, 
then in the cracker again, and fry in plenty of hot butter 
and lard mixed ; or, better still, in olive oil. 


One dozen large, fresh oysters chopped into small pieces, 
half a teaspoon of salt sprinkled on them, and then let them 
stand in their own liquor half an hour. Beat 6 eggs, the 
yolks and the whites apart, the former to a firm, smooth 
paste, the latter to a stiff froth. Add to the yolks a table- 
spoon of rich, sweet cream, pepper and salt in sufficient 
quantity, and then lightly stir the whites in. Put 2 table- 
spoons of butter into a hot frying-pan. When it is thoroughly 
melted and begins to fry, pour in your egg mixture, and 


Broiled. OYSTERS. Half-Shell. 

add as quickly as possible the oysters. Do not stir, but with 
a broad-bladed omelet knife lift, as the eggs set, the omelet 
from the bottom of the pan, to prevent scorching. In 5 
minutes it will be done. Place a hot dish, bottom upward, 
over the omelet, and dexterously turn the pan over with the 
brown side uppermost upon the dish. Eat without delay. 


Select large firm oysters. Dry on a towel, pepper and 
salt them, and place on a wire broiler, over a brisk fire. Turn 
often to keep the juices in. Remove to a hot dish and put 
bits of butter on each and serve immediately. 


A layer of rolled cracker in a buttered pudding-dish, then 
a layer of oysters with seasoning of butter, pepper, and salt. 
Repeat till the dish is full, with crumbs on top. Pour on the 
liquor mixed with a little milk. A beaten egg with milk is 
nice to put over the top. Cover and bake about half an 
hour. Remove cover and brown before sending to table. 


Use deep oyster shells, place them in a tin in the oven, 
and heat so hot that they begin to scale off. Put a half tea- 
spoon of butter and a pinch of salt and pepper in each shell, 
drop an oyster in each, turn it over and serve in the shell. 
If not quite done, set in the oven for a minute. 


Pour into your saucepan a cup of hot water, another of 
milk, and one of thick cream with a little salt. Set the 
saucepan into the kettle of hot water until it just boils, when 
stir in 2 tablespoons of butter and 2 heaping tablespoons 
of rice flour, corn starch, or arrow root, wet up with a little 
cold milk. Have your oyster shells washed and buttered 


Stuffed. OYSTERS. Pie. 

(clam shells are more roomy) and a fine, large oyster laid 
in each one. Arrange them closely in a large baking-pan, 
propping them up with pebbles or bits of shell, and fill up 
each shell with the prepared cream, having stirred and 
beaten it well first. Bake 5 or 6 minutes in a hot oven until 
brown, and serve in the shell. 


Chop fine a dozen oysters, mix with them the beaten yolk 
of i egg, and thicken with bread crumbs, a tablespoon of 
thick cream, salt and pepper to taste. Fill the shells, round- 
ing them nicely on the top. Brown in a quick oven. 


For 3 pints of oysters take for the pie crust 4 cups of flour 
and a heaping cup of butter or little less of lard ; water to 
mix. Line a pudding-dish and put in a layer of oysters 
drained from the liquor. Sprinkle lightly with flour, a dash 
of pepper and salt, and bits of butter. Then another layer 
the same, until all are used, putting more butter on the top 
layer. Pour the liquor in and cover with the crust. Cut a 
hole in the center and bake until the crust is browned deli- 
cately. If there is but little liquor to the oyster, milk is a 
very palatable substitute, and is preferred by some. 


Take a quart of oysters, look over very carefully to 
remove bits of shells. Put into a pudding-dish with the 
liquor, season with salt, pepper, bits of butter, half a cup of 
hot water, slice up 4 hard-boiled eggs, put around on the 
oysters, make a crust of ij cups flour, I teaspoon baking 
powder, half a cup of butter (or a trifle less of lard, in which 
case use a saltspoon of salt,) water to mix as for pie crust. 
Roll out to cover the dish. Before covering, place an 
inverted teacup in the center of the dish, crowding the 


Panned. OYSTERS. With Macaroni. 

oysters aside for the purpose. Cover, cut a slit in the mid- 
dle and bake till the crust is done, perhaps 15 or 20 minutes. 


Toast slices of bread. Remove the crusts. Cut into even 
shapes, spread with butter, lay in a pan, and put one or 
more nice plump oysters on each piece. Put bits of butter 
and a very little pepper on each one, cover with a tin dish 
and put into a hot oven. As soon as the edges of the oys- 
ters curl they are done. Sprinkle lightly with salt. Then 
cook 6 or 8 minutes. They are best cooked in patty- 
pans as they can be served in them. In that case the patty- 
pans should be placed in a dripping-pan in the oven. 


Line the bottom and sides of patty-pans with rich paste. 
Put a cover of paste over and pinch the edges together. 
Bake in a quick oven about 15 minutes, or until done. Take 
as many oysters as you have patties. Stew them in their 
own liquor, then cut them in pieces, add a teaspoon of flour, 
a tablespoon of butter (to a dozen) and a grating from a 
lemon peel, if you have it. Season lightly with salt, a pinch 
of pounded mace, and cayenne, and 2 or 3 tablespoons of 
cream. Mix well, open the patties and put in a tablespoon 
of the oyster mixture. Serve hot. 


| pound macaroni. 
can, or a pint of oysters. 
\ cup butter, 
ij cups sweet milk. 

2 eggs, or it is very good without any 
I cup cracker dust very fine. 
Salt and pepper to taste. 

Break the macaroni into inch pieces. Put it into boiling 
water and boil 20 minutes. Skim it out, and put a thick 


Steamed. OYSTERS. Pickled. 

layer of it in the bottom of a buttered pudding-dish. Put 
the oysters and liquor on this, with bits of butter, pepper 
and salt, add the remainder of the macaroni ; beat the eggs 
well, mix with the milk, pour over, and spread the cracker 
crumbs over the top. Bake 30 minutes or less, if the oven 
is very hot. See that it is brown on top. 


Take select oysters, put in a round vegetable dish, season 
with salt, pepper, and butter, set in a steamer over boiling 
water, and steam till they begin to curl. Very fine. 


Wash well and lay in a steamer. When they are cooked 
enough, the shell will open. They may be turned into hot 
dishes or served in the shells. To be seasoned by the con- 


100 oysters with their liquor. 
I cup vinegar. 
1 8 whole cloves. 

\ nutmeg grated. 
4 blades mace. 
i teaspoon whole allspice. 
teaspoon salt. 
A pinch of cayenne. 

Put all of the ingredients into a saucepan, stir well, cover, 
and put over a slow fire. Stir from the bottom until they are 
well scalded. Remove, put into jars, cover, and serve cold. 


Drain the liquor from 50 oysters and add to it ^ teaspoon 
whole pepper, same of allspice, 2 blades of mace, and a pinch 
of salt. When the liquor boils drop in the oysters and boil 


Chowder. CLAMS. Stew. 

them one minute. Then take them out quickly and cool 
them. Add half as much vinegar as liquor, boil a few min- 
utes and pour over the oysters. 



For clam soup, see " SOUP " ; for clam fritters, see " FRIT- 


Butter a deep tin basin, put in a layer of grated bread 
crumbs or cracker crumbs. Sprinkle in pepper and bits of 
butter, then put in a double layer of clams, and season with 
pepper and butter, another layer of crumbs, then of clams, 
and finish with bread crumbs or a layer of soaked cracker. 
Add a cup of milk or water, turn a plate over the basin, and 
bake | of an hour. To 50 clams, \ pound of soda biscuit 
and \ pound of butter is the right proportion. 


C. H. Bass, New York. 

Take 50 large sand clams from their shells, and put to 
them equal parts of their own liquor and water, nearly to 
cover them ; put them in a stewpan over a gentle fire for 
an hour ; take off any scum as it rises, then add to them a 
teacup of butter in which is worked a tablespoon of wheat 
flour, and pepper to taste ; cover the stewpan and let them 
simmer for 15 minutes longer, then serve. Pour it over 
toast if desired. Substituting milk for water makes them 
more delicate and white. Any other than sand clams 
require an hour to stew ; that is, three-quarters of an hour 
before putting in the seasoning. 


To Choose. LOBSTERS. To Boil. 


Three pints of clams cut them in two if very large, boil 
up in their own liquor in a saucepan, adding a little water, if 
necessary. Take 3 large boiled potatoes and, when cold, cut 
into small pieces. Put good pie crust around the side of the 
baking-dish, and then alternate layers of clams and pota- 
toes with seasoning of salt, pepper, and butter, and a light 
sprinkling of flour. Place an inverted teacup in the middle 
of the dish, pushing the mixture aside for the purpose. 
Pour the liquor over and also a cup of water, if it seems dry. 
Cover with crust, make some incisions for the escape of 
steam, and bake \ or | of an hour. 


Use the largest sand clams, drain well from their liquor, 
dip in finely rolled cracker and fry in hot lard. Serve very 



The heaviest lobsters are the best. Sometimes a com- 
paratively small one will weigh as heavily as one consider- 
ably larger. If fresh, the claws should move with strength 
and it should be lively. Hen lobsters are prettiest for salads 
on account of their coral. The tail is broader than that of 
the male. The male is preferable for boiling. The shell is 
brighter and the flesh firmer than that of the female. 

Allow half a teaspoon of salt to a quart of water. When 


To Choose. CRABS. Stuffed. 

it boils fast put the lobster in head first. It dies instantly. 
Boil briskly half an hour, then remove and drain. Wipe it 
dry and rub over with sweet oil or butter. Break the claws 
ofT and remove the meat from the shells and lay on a small 
platter. Serve with melted butter sauce. 


Butter a pudding-dish. Put in it a layer of lobster meat, 
picked in small pieces. Do not cut it. Sprinkle it with 
pepper and salt, and a little juice of lemon. On this strew 
a layer of fine bread crumbs with lumps of butter, then a 
layer of lobster as before, having bread crumbs for the top 
layer. For a quart of the mixture, use about ^ cup of but- 
ter. Pour a pint of cream or milk over it and bake half an 
hour, and serve hot. 





The heaviest are best. The joints of the claws should be 
stiff, and the inner part should smell agreeably. 


After boiling, pick the meat into bits, keeping the shell 
whole. Rub the shell with oil or butter. To the meat put 
one-third the quantity of grated bread crumbs, a bit of 
cayenne pepper, nutmeg, a chopped hard-boiled egg for each 
crab, juice of half a lemon, and butter or cream to bind 
together. After cleaning the shells, fill with the mixture, 
dust over with crumbs and butter, and brown in the oven. 

4 8 

Buttered. SHRIMPS. Potted 


Allow a teaspoon of salt to a quart of water. When boil- 
ing hot, put in the crabs and boil from 10 to 12 minutes. 
Remove, wipe clean, rub over with butter or sweet oil. Break 
off the small claws, lay in rows around the outer edge of a 
dish, finishing toward the center. 


Soft-shell crabs should be dipped in beaten egg, and then 
rolled in cracker crumbs and fried in salt pork gravy. 


Take i pint of shrimps, picked clean from their shells. 
Simmer for 2 minutes in i cups of cream sauce. Season 
with salt and pepper. 


Put a pint 01 picked shrimps into a stewpan with cup 
butter, a pinch of cayenne, a blade of mace pounded, and 
salt to taste. Simmer 1 5 minutes, put into pots, let get cold 
and cover with melted butter. 



AME is no exception. There can be no 
absolute rule for cooking. And I have 
selected, from many sources, what I con- 
sider will be best received by the generality 
of ladies. The best variety possible is 
presented in this chapter, and I feel con- 
fident that my readers will regard as plain common 
sense the directions here given. 

My correspondence, to gain all the information possible 
on this subject, has elicited various opinions from many 
excellent cooks. 

For instance, one lady says : " I find it safe, generally, to 
parboil wild meat, with a small pinch of soda in the water." 
Another one writes : " Of one thing I am certain, and that 
is, that game should never be parboiled." 

Another lady says : " I think wild meat should be soaked 
a short time in weak saleratus water." 

And still another one says : " If wild ducks and prairie 
chickens are skinned, the necessity for parboiling is removed, 
for the skin is the tough part." 

Very many good cooks unite in this, that, whenever prac- 
* 7 

Remarks. GAME. Remarks. 

ticable, game should be cooked without washing. Wiping 
with a damp cloth is deemed sufficient. If found necessary 
to wash, they do it as quickly as possible, and wipe dry. 
Game should never remain in water a moment longer than 
is essential to perfect cleansing, according to their theory. 

A free current of air is very advantageous. A damp 
atmosphere is destructive to animal food. 

If hares and rabbits are young, the ears tear easily and 
the claws are sharp and smooth. They will keep good a 
week or two in cold weather. 

Ducks with plump breasts and pliable feet are best. 

Partridges with dark-colored bills and yellow legs are 
best, and if allowed to hang a few days are much finer in 
flavor, and more tender. 

Pigeons, to be good, will not bear being kept, as the flavor 
leaves them. So they must be eaten fresh. 

Plovers are scarcely fit for any cooking but roasting. 
They should feel hard at the vent, as that indicates their 
fatness. If very stale, the feet will be extremely dry, and 
they should be discarded. 

A peeled lemon laid inside of a wild fowl will absorb any 
strong or fishy taste if left in for a few hours. 

After poultry or birds are dressed, hang them up by the 
head, not in the sun, but in a cool place. A piece of char- 
coal put into each bird will guard against tainting for several 
days. This is especially the case in warm weather, and 
almost a necessity. Even if they become tainted, it is said 
that they can be restored to sweetness by being kept in 
sweet milk 24 hours. I have never had occasion to test this. 
The flavor of game is heightened by keeping it several days 
before cooking. 

In venison the fat should be bright, clear, and thick ; the 
cleft of the hoof close and smooth. The more fat there is, 
the better the quality of the meat. 

Remarks. GAME. Beaver. 

When venison is hung up it should be looked at and wiped 
off whenever it has gathered moisture. A thorough dusting 
with black pepper will preserve it from flies. Ginger will 
answer the same purpose. 

Bear and buffalo meats are cooked substantially the same 
as beef or venison. 

Dark meat is usually served rare ; light meat, well cooked. 

It is the common custom of cooks to give claret as one of 
the adjuncts in cooking wild meat. It is a mere matter of 
taste. It can be made very palatable without it, and I pre- 
fer not to give it. 

For game soup and green turtle soup, see " SOUP." 

To the Hon. MONROE HEATH, ex-Mayor of Chicago, I 
am deeply indebted. He knows from personal experience 
how to kill, dress, cook, and serve, in the daintiest manner, 
nearly everything treated of in this entire chapter, and has 
very kindly revised it for me. 




Mrs. A. P. Cooper. 

First catch your beaver. Then dress same as any other 
animal. Cut your roast from any part of the animal you 
wish. Make a strong brine and pour over the meat and let 
stand over night. Then take enough cold water to cover, 
and lay it in a kettle with a few whole peppers, 6 cloves, a 
piece of stick cinnamon, 6 allspice, a .teaspoon of whit/e 
mustard seed, if handy, all tied up together in a piece of 


Opossum. GAME. Hare, 

cheese cloth. Parboil half an hour. Take up and put in a 
dripping-pan with a pint of water, and start it to roasting 
in. the oven. Then mix a teaspoon of mustard, a teaspoon 
of black pepper, a pinch of cayenne, with a tablespoon of 
flour and mix with water from the dripping-pan, and use to 
baste with. Either stick 2 or 3 garlics here and there in the 
roast, or choo an onion fine and mix with the dressing. 


Clean like a pig scrape, not skin it. Chop the liver fine, 
mix with bread crumbs, chopped onion, and parsley, with 
pepper and salt ; bind with a beaten egg, and stuff the body 
with it. Sew up, roast, baste with salt and water. In order 
to make it crisp, rub it with a rag dipped in its own grease. 
Serve with the gravy made of browned flour. Serve it 
whole on a platter, and put a baked apple in its mouth. It 
is very nice stuffed with apples peeled and sliced. Opossum 
may. be made into a very palatable stew. 


After casing the hare, wipe off all loose hairs carefully, cu.t 
at the joints and fry brown. Season well with salt, pepper, 
chopped parsley, mace, nutmeg, cloves, grated lemon peel, 
and a sprig of thyme. Put a layer of this into a bean-pot 
or a small-necked jar, alternately with a layer of thin slices 
of bacon, until all are used. Pour I cup of water over, 
cover closely and set in a kettle of water. Boil 3 hours or 
longer if the hare is old and tough. Skim out when done 
and strain the liquor. Take one teaspoon each of flour and 
butter ; mix in a saucepan over the fire, and add the strained 
liquor. Let boil up and pour over the hare in a deep dish. 


Truss for boiling ; cover with hot water and cook gently 
about 45 minutes, if of medium size. In another vessel, boil 
the liver for 10 minutes, mince very fine and put it back into 


Rabbit. GAME. Rabbit. 

the water in which it was boiled, season with butter, pepper, 
and salt, and thicken with flour, and pour over the rabbit. 
Onion sauce is preferred by some, in which case serve it in 
the same manner as the liver sauce. 


After skinning, cleaning, and wiping dry, fry the same as 
chicken. Unless known to be young and tender, it is a 
surer way to parboil before frying. 


After cleaning, cut up like chicken and stew until tender. 
Then put into a deep pan with sides lined with pie-paste. 
Thicken the gravy and add butter, pepper, and salt. Pour 
over and cover with crust. Bake about 20 minutes. 


After skinning and cleaning, lay in salt water for an hour. 
Parboil the heart and liver, mince them with a slice of fat 
salt pork, and add thyme, union, pepper, and salt, and bread 
crumbs moistened with the water in which the giblets were 
boiled. Mix with a beaten egg. Stuff the rabbit with this, 
sew up, rub the body with butter or tie over it a few slices 
of fat pork. Put a cup or more of water into the dripping- 
pan. Baste often. An hour will generally suffice for cook- 
ing it. Dredge with flour before taking it from the oven, 
and pour melted butter over. When browned remove to a 
hot dish, and to the gravy add lemon juice, a bit of minced 
onion, and one tablespoon of flour made smooth with the 
same quantity of butter. Let boil up and serve in a gravy 
dish. Garnish the rabbit with slices of lemon and sprigs of 
green parsley. 


Skin, clean, and cut in small pieces a couple of rabbits. 
Let stand in cold salted water for an hour. Then put on to 


Pemmican. GAME. Venison. 

cook, in enough cold water to cover them, and boil till ten- 
der. Season with pepper and salt, and stir I tablespoon of 
butter made smooth with 2 tablespoons of flour into the 
gravy. Lemon juice is an improvement. If onions are 
liked, they may be boiled in a, dish by themselves and added 
to the gravy before dishing up. Serve rabbits and gravy 
together on a large platter. 


Pemmican is made of the lean portions of venison, buffalo, 
etc. The Indian method is to remove the fat from the lean, 
dry the lean in the sun ; then make a bag of the skin of the 
animal, and put the lean pieces in loosely. To this must be 
added the fat of the animal, rendered into tallow, and poured 
in quite hot. This will cause all the spaces to be filled. 
When cold, put away for future use. In civilized life, a jaf 
can be used in place of the bag. Pemmican may be cooked 
same as sausage, or eaten as dried beef. It is invaluable in 
long land explorations, and is of great use in sea voyages. 

RACCOONS See Woodchucks. 


Clean one pair of squirrels and cut into small pieces. 
Wipe off with a damp cloth. Put into a stewpan with 2 
slices of salt pork, and water to nearly cover. Cook until 
half done. Season it well and thicken the gravy. Pour 
into a deep dish, cover with pie crust, and bake 30 minutes. 
Squirrels may be fried, broiled, or stewed, like chickens or 


The haunch is the choicest piece for roasting. Wipe off 
with a damp cloth. Rub over with butter or lard. Then 
cover the top and sides with a thick paste of flour and water 
half an inch deep. Lay a coarse paper over all and put to 


Venison. GAME. Sausage, 

roast with one cup of water in the dripping-pan. Keep the 
oven well heated. Baste every 15 or 20 minutes with butter 
and water. Twenty minutes before serving remove the 
paste and paper, and dredge with flour, and baste with but- 
ter until of a light brown. Pour in a pint of water and 
make a thickened gravy as for roast beef or pork, adding a 
pinch of cloves, nutmeg, cayenne, and a few blades of mace. 
Strain before sending to table, and 2 tablespoons of currant 
jelly may be added if you have it. Have dishes very hot. 
The shoulder is also a good roasting piece, but need not be 
covered with the paste as in the above directions. 


Take equal quantities of old salt pork and bits of raw 
venison. Chop fine. To each pound of chopped meat add 
3 teaspoons of sage, ij of salt, and I of pepper. Make into 
flat cakes and fry with no other fat, as that in the sausage is 


These take longer to cook than beef, but should be simi- 
larly broiled or fried. When done, place in a hot dish with 
a gravy made of butter the size or an egg for each pound of 
steak, mixed with a spoon of flour, and properly seasoned 
with pepper and salt. Jelly may be added if desired. 
Before serving, cover the platter and set in a hot oven for 
5 minutes or less. Have the plates well heated, as venison 
cools quickly. At table it is nice to place a bit of jelly on 
each piece served. 


Cut the meat into small pieces. Inferior cuts will make a 
very good stew. Boil for a couple of hours. Season to suit 
the taste. Add potatoes peeled, and, if large, cut in two. 
When done, skim out, thicken the gravy and pour over. 


Woodchucks and 'Coons. GAME. Cranes and Herons. 


Mrs. E. E. Bower, Erie, Pa. 

In Pennsylvania, woodchucks are called ground-hogs and 
esteemed a great delicacy, and really a fine fat one well 
roasted is not to be despised. To cook either ground-hogs 
or 'coons, parboil for 30 minutes, to take off the wild smell; 
then rub well with salt and pepper, and roast in a quick 
oven at first, allowing the fire to cool gradually ; 30 min- 
utes to every pound is a safe rule. Young animals need no 
parboiling. Where fire-places are used, people cook them 
on a spit over a dripping-pan. 





May be broiled or stewed, like chickens. They make a 
very fine soup. Dress and joint 5 or 6 and put into a pot 
with an equal weight of beef cut small ; slice I onion (or 
more) ; add a slice of fat pork ; water to cover. When ten- 
der add, if you have them, about a pint of oysters with 
their liquor. Crabs cleaned and quartered may be substi- 
tuted. Let simmer till done. Then just before serving stii 
in i or 2 tablespoons of gumbo, if you have it prepared. 


Pluck, singe, draw, and wipe well. Do not wash ; let the 
duck retain its own flavor as far as possible. Leave the 
head on to show its species. Roast, without stuffing, 25 or 


Ducks. GAME. Partridge. 

30 minutes, in a hot oven, after seasoning with pepper and 
salt. Baste with butter and water. A bit of cayenne and a 
tablespoon of currant jelly added to the gravy are an 
improvement. Thicken with browned flour. 


Prepare for roasting the same as any fowl. Parboil for 15 
minutes with an onion in the water, and the strong fishy fla- 
vor that is sometimes so disagreeable in wild ducks will have 
disappeared. A carrot will answer the same purpose. 
Stuff with bread crumbs, a minced onion, season with pep- 
per, salt, and sage, and roast until tender. Use butter plen- 
tifully in basting. A half hour will suffice for young ducks. 


Cut the ducks into joints ; pepper, salt, and flour them ; 
fry in butter in a stewpan. Then cover with a gravy made 
of the giblets and some bits of lean veal if you have it, all 
minced and stewed in water until tender Add a minced 
onion or shallot, a bunch of sweet herbs, and salt and 
pepper, with a bit of lemon peel. Cover closely and let 
them stew until tender. About 30 minutes will suffice. 
Skim out the ducks ; skim and strain the gravy, add a cup 
of cream or milk and a beaten egg, thicken with browned 
flour, and let boil up once and pour over the ducks. The 
juice of a lemon may be added, or lemon may be sliced and 
served on the ducks. 


After dressing, divide in halves, rub with pepper, salt, and 
flour, sprinkle in parsley, thyme, and mushrooms, if you 
happen to have them. Put a slice of ham and 2 pounds of 
veal cut up small at the bottom of the baking-dish. Then 
add the partridges and pour over them a pint of good broth 
or gravy. This is for about 4 birds. If you have no gravy, 

Larks. GAME. Pigeons. 

use water with a large spoon of butter. Cover with rich 
pie-paste. Leave an opening in the center and bake about 
I hour. 


Pick and draw ; divide through the back and breast, and 
wipe with a damp cloth. Season highly with pepper, salt, 
a bit of cayenne, and broil over a clear, bright fire. It will 
broil in 15 or 20 minutes. When done rub over with butter. 
Serve with lemon laid in slices on the bird. 


Clean, wipe dry, brush them over with the yolk of egg, 
roll in bread crumbs and roast in a quick oven for 10 or 15 
minutes. Baste with butter and keep them covered with 
bread crumbs while roasting. Serve the crumbs under the 
birds and lay slices of lemon on them. 


Do not stuff pigeons, but cut them in 4 pieces ; parboil 
and place in layers with egg and pork or bacon, as directed 
for quail pie. Use plenty of butter to make the gravy rich. 
Bake same as quail pie. 


Pluck and clean. Take a cracker, an egg, a piece of but- 
ter or chopped suet the size of an egg, and a pinch of 
sage or sweet marjoram. Make into small balls and put 
One with a thin slice of salt pork into each bird. Lay the 
birds close together in a pot. Dredge well with flour. Put 
in a good tablespoon of butter to 6 birds. Cover with 
water. Cover the pot and stew slowly for about an hour 
and a half. Less time if young and very tender, and longer 
if old. Serve on a large platter with the gravy. Other 
birds may be potted the same way. 


Pilau. GAME. Plover. 


Take the grated crumbs of a small loaf of bread, chop 
fine a pound of fat bacon, a sprinkling of thyme, parsley, 
and pepper, mix with a couple of raw eggs, stuff the craws 
of the pigeons with this, lard the breasts and fry them 
brown. Then put into a stewpan with some beef gravy and 
stew | of an hour. Thicken with a tablespoon of butter 
rolled in flour. Serve on a platter and strain the gravy over 
them. A nice accompaniment is a row of force-meat balls 
around the edge of the dish. 


Boil 2 or 3 large birds or half a dozen small ones with a 
pound of bacon in water enough to cover well. Season it 
with salt. When tender take them out with a little of the 
liquor. Into the remainder put 2 pounds of clean washed 
rice. Cook until done, keeping closely covered. Stir into 
it a cup of butter, and salt to taste. Put a layer of the rice 
in a deep dish. On this lay the birds with the bacon in the 
middle. Add the liquor. Then cover them all with the 
rice that is left. Smooth it and spread over it the beaten 
yolks of 2 eggs. Cover with a plate ; bake 15 or 20 minutes 
in a moderate oven. 


Clean and truss. Lay in a pan and season with salt and 
pepper. Rub over with butter and cook in a quick oven. 
A piece of fat bacon or salt pork laid on each one gives a 
good flavor. Toast some bread and put a piece under each 
bird before it is quite done. Baste with butter and water. 
Take up on a hot platter, a bird on each slice of toast, and 
serve together. 


Remove all shot, clean quickly and thoroughly. Cut open 
and lay on them thin slices of salt pork. Place in a drip- 


GAME. Quail. 

ping-pan with a cup of water, and cook in the oven until 
done. The time will vary from 40 minutes to an hour and 
a half, according to the size and age of the bird. 


Stuff them, after cleaning, with a dressing of bread 
crumbs and seasoning of pepper and salt, and mixed with 
melted butter. Sage, onion, or summer savory may be 
added, if liked. Secure the fowl firmly with a needle and 
twine. Steam in a steamer until tender. Then remove to 
a dripping-pan, dredge with flour, pepper, and salt, and 
brown delicately in the oven. Baste with melted butter. 
Garnish with parsley and lumps of currant jelly. Prairie 
fowls may be stewed or broiled the same as other birds 
mentioned in this chapter. 


Clean and split down the back. Wipe carefully, season 
well with salt and pepper, and -place on a gridiron over a 
clear, hot fire. Turn, and when clone, lay on a hot dish ; 
butter well, and serve on buttered toast. 


Clean, truss, and stuff the quails. Parboil for 10 or 15 
minutes. Line the sides of a deep pan with rich pie-paste. 
In the bottom put a couple of slices of salt pork or bacon 
cut into small pieces. Then some slices of hard-boiled eggs, 
with butter and pepper. Then the quails (after removing 
the cords), with a sprinkling of minced parsley. The juice 
of a lemon is an improvement. Put bits of butter rolled in 
flour over the birds, then a layer of slices of egg and bits of 
pork. Pour in the water in which they were parboiled, and 
cover with pie-paste, leaving an opening in the center. 
Bake about an hour. 


Reed Birds, Rails, and Snipe. GAME. Woodcock, Modes of Cooking. 


Steam quail until nearly done, then roast in the oven to a 
nice brown, basting often with melted butter in water. 
Serve on buttered toast. Very nice. 


May be cooked precisely as plovers, or they may be 
broiled and served with toast the same as quail or partridge. 


Many excellent cooks do not draw them, asserting that 
the trail should be left in, even by those who do not like it, 
and removed after it is served. They claim that the flavor 
of the bird is much impaired if the trail is taken out before 
cooking. It looks rather plausible, as they are said to live 
by suction, have no crop, and a stomach only the size of a 
bullet. The trail, head, and neck are regarded as great deli- 
cacies by epicures. For my own eating, I could not cook 
them without drawing. 


Divide down the back, put in the oven, salt and pepper 
them and baste with melted butter. Garnish with slices of 


Split down the back, wipe with a damp cloth, and broil 
over a clear fire. Rub on butter, pepper, and salt when 
done. Serve on a hot platter and help each person to hall 
a bird. 


Clean, draw, and stuff with simple bread crumbs well sea- 
soned with pepper and salt, and moistened with sweet cream 


Frogs. GAME." Terrapin. 

or melted butter. Sew them up. Tie a small, thin slice of 
salt pork around the bird. Place in a dripping-pan and baste 
with butter and water. Put slices of buttered toast under 
them before taking up, and serve with them. 




Skin them as soon as possible. The hind legs are usually 
the only part used, although the back is good eating. Fry 
or broil the same as chickens or fricassee them. 


Plunge the turtle while yet alive into boiling water. 
When life is extinct, remove the outer skin and the toe-nails. 
Then rinse well, and boil in salted water until perfectly ten- 
der. Then take off the shells, remove the gall and sand-bag 
carefully, and clean the terrapin thoroughly. Next cut the 
meat and entrails into small pieces, saving all the juice, put 
into a saucepan without water and season to your taste with 
salt, cayenne, and black pepper. Add for each terrapin, 
butter the size of an egg made smooth with a tablespoon of 
flour. A few tablespoons of cream should be added last. 
Many persons add the yolks of 3 or 4 hard-boiled eggs just 
before serving. While cooking it should be stirred very 
often and must be dished up and eaten very hot. 








GGS are regarded by some as a great deli- 
cacy ; by others, as a prime article of 
food. But in either case, the mode of 
cooking has much to do with the satis- 
faction produced in the eating. The yolk 
j g cons id ere( j much more nutritious than 
the white. 

To ascertain the freshness of an egg, hold it in the hand 
and look through it to the light. If it looks clear, there is 
tolerable assurance that it is good. Another test is to put 
them in a clear vessel of water. The good ones will lie on 
the side. 

The eggs of the common hen are esteemed the best. 
They are much better when new-laid, than even a day or 
two afterwards. 

Turkey eggs are almost equal to those of the hen not 
quite so mild. 

Goose eggs are large, and agreeable to the taste. 
Duck eggs are richly-flavored. The white is of a bluish 
tint, and will cook in less time than that of the hen. 


To Preserve. EGGS. To Color. 

Guinea-hen's eggs are smaller and more delicate than 
those of the common hen. 

Eggs of wild fowl are usually colored, and often spotted. 
They frequently taste somewhat like the birds themselves. 

Eggs of land birds, such as the plover, are much liked, 
but those of sea-fowl have a fishy taste that is disagreeable. 

Turtle eggs are numerous, and have yolk only. The eggs 
of some varieties have no shell. They are very delicious. 
The turtle lays from 150 to 200 at a time, and lays several 
times during the year. 


Take a colander full at a time of new-laid eggs, and pour 
over them a tea-kettle full of boiling water. The heat of 
the water cooks the white of the egg sufficiently to keep 
out the air. I have known of eggs being used in midwin- 
ter, that were put up in the summer in this way. They 
should be kept in a cool place, and may be put away in 
boxes or baskets, or any convenient receptacle. 

Another method is, to dip each egg in gum-arabic water, 
or in melted grease. In either case, a coating is formed on 
the shell, rendering it air-tight. 

I have kept eggs three months in an egg case, with no prep- 
aration whatever. Close contact would have spoiled them. 


Wind strips of bright-colored calico around the eggs, and 
then boil in lye ; you will find them gayly colored. To 
color them yellow, boil with onion skins. 


Use a wire egg-boiler for boiling eggs ; 3 minutes cooks 
the white about right for soft-boiled eggs. If put into cold 
water and let remain to a boiling point, they are cooked 
more evenly than by plunging into hot water at first. And 

' 6s 

Scrambled. EGGS. Steamed. 

it is further recommended to pour boiling water on the eggs 
and set the vessel on the hearth for 5 minutes. 


Put a tablespoon of butter in a frying-pan. When hot 
put in the requisite number of eggs beaten lightly. Pepper ' 
and salt them, and add half a cup of milk to a dozen eggs. 
Stir constantly, and as soon as they begin to set, take off 
and pour out. They must not be hard. 


Butter some gem irons and break an egg in each one and 
set in the oven, after seasoning with salt and pepper. Will 
cook in a very short time. 


Freshen the ham, if it requires it, by putting it on the 
stove in cold water, and pouring off as soon as it comes to a 
scald. Fry the ham in its own fat, then fry the eggs after- 
ward in the same. Dish up on the same platter. 


Broil thin slices of ham. Put a bit of butter on each slice 
when done. Poach the eggs in water, and lay one neatly on 
each piece of ham. 


Set some muffin rings in boiling water. Break each egg 
in a ring, and it will take the form of the ring, and be much 
more pleasing to the eye than the old way. 


Butter a tin plate and break in your eggs. Set in a 
steamer, place over a kettle of boiling water and steam till 
the whites are cooked. If broken into buttered patty-pans 
they look nicer, by keeping their forms better. Or still bet- 
ter, if broken into egg-cups and steamed until done, they 


Baked. EGGS. Currieo. 

are very nice. Cooked in this way, there is nothing of their 
flavor lost. 


Take a large platter. Break on it as many eggs as you 
need for your meal, sprinkle over with salt, pepper, and 
lumps of butter. Set in the oven, and in about 5 minutes 
the whites will be set and the eggs sufficiently cooked. A 
handy way on washing or ironing days, when the top of the 
stove is all in use. 


Make a minced meat of chopped ham, fine bread crumbs, 
pepper, salt, and some melted butter. Moisten with milk 
to a soft paste, and half fill some patty-pans with the mix- 
ture. Break an egg carefully upon the top of each. Dust 
with pepper and salt, and sprinkle some finely-powdered 
cracker over all. Set in the oven and bake about 8 minutes. 

Eat hot. 


Prepare a cup of thick drawn-butter gravy, and a dozen 
hard-boiled eggs. Butter a pudding-dish and place in it a 
layer of fine bread crumbs moistened with milk or broth. 
Add 2 beaten eggs to the drawn butter. Cut the boiled 
eggs in slices, dip each slice in gravy and place in layers 
upon the bread crumbs. Sprinkle these with cold meat or 
fowl minced fine. Repeat the layers and put over all a cov- 
ering of sifted bread crnmbs. Heat well through in a mod- 
erate oven. 


Boil 6 eggs hard. Set aside to cool. Mix in a saucepan 
2 tablespoons butter and I of curry powder, over a moder- 
ate fire. Put in a couple of chopped onions and fry soft. 
Add a cup or more of broth or rich gravy and simmer till 
the onion is reduced to pulp. Add to this a cup of cream, 
mixed smoothly with a tablespoon of flour. Let boil up 
and add to it the eggs cut in slices. Heat through and serve 
very hot. 

6 7 

Chowder. EGGS. Pickled. 


Fry the pork, cook onions, potatoes, etc., just the same as 
for fish chowder. After everything is done, just before you 
take it off, break in as many eggs as there are persons to eat, 
and let it boil up sufficiently to cook them through. I think 
those who try it will like it, and no danger of choking chil- 
dren with bones. 


Boil eggs hard. Cut a piece from one end and take out 
the yolk. Chop some ham or veal very fine, season it with 
salt and pepper, mix it with part of the yolk made smooth, 
and fill the egg with it. Replace the cut white part. A 
very palatable picnic dish. Boneless sardine with the skin 
removed and minced very fine, is a good stuffing. 


Boil eggs very hard and remove the shell. Take I tea- 
spoon each of cinnamon, allspice, and mace, put in a little 
muslin bag in cold water, boil well, and if it boils away, add 
enough to make \ pint when the spices are taken out. Add 
I pint of strong vinegar, pour over the eggs. If you want 
them colored, put in some beet juice. 


4 eggs. 
\ cup milk. 
i teaspoon flour. 

Beat the flour with a little of the milk, and fill the cup 
with milk tilt half full. Then put this mixture and the four 
eggs together, just sufficiently to break the yolks, but not to 
beat them. Pour this into a hot and well-buttered frying- 
pan and cover it. When it begins to cook, roll it over and 
over like a jelly-roll, and as soon as cooked, turn it out on a 
hot platter with as little handling as possible. 


Omelet Souffle. EGGS. Orange Omelet 


Beat the yolks of 6 eggs light, add \ teaspoon of lemon 
juice, a bit of grated peel, some nutmeg, and J teaspoon of 
sugar. Beat well and add lightly 5 tablespoons of cream. 
Butter the omelet pan, heat, pour in the mixture, and stir in 
lightly with a fork the well-beaten whites. Cook 5 or 6 
minutes in a quick oven. Turn upside down or a hot plate 
and serve instantly. 

NOTE. If possible, keep one pan for omelets alone. 


To the yolks of 6 eggs add a tablespoon of powdered 
sugar, and a teaspoon or more of some agreeable essence. 
Mix and add carefully to the well-beaten whites. Pour into 
a hot, buttered frying-pan. As it cooks at the edges, lift it 
with a fork and toss to the center. Take up on a hot dish, 
and dust with powdered sugar. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

The same as saccharine, by adding 2 spoons of currant 
jelly before taking up. 


Three eggs, a teaspoon of orange juice, and a teaspoon of 
grated rind of orange. Beat the yolks and whites sepa- 
rately, then add them carefully together and proceed as for 
plain omelet. 









OULTRY is generally an acceptable food, and 
is readily digested. To an invalid, and 
persons of delicate organization, a bit of 
nicely-cooked chicken is often an agreeable 
change. The methods of preparing, cook- 
ing, and serving poultry should receive 
careful consideration. 

To judge something of the age of a fowl, examine the 
pin feathers, the texture of the skin, and the size of the 
spurs on and the legs. 

If a fowl is stall-fed, the layers of fat are a sickly white 
color, and have none of the wholesome appearance of the 
free, home-fed, farm poultry. 

The skin of a young fowl is easily torn. 
If poultry does not smell sweet inside, discard it. 
If fowls are half starved during the summer, no amount 
of extra feeding will bring them up to as high a standard 
for the table, as those well fed from the day of their leaving 
the shell. 

During the last three or four weeks before killing, give 
them boiled potatoes, beets, or carrots, thickened with corn- 
meal for their morning and noon meal, and corn alone at 


Remarks. POULTRY. Remarks. 

night, and a constant supply of milk placed where they can 
get it. 

Do not keep them in pens or in the dark. It will cer- 
tainly detract from their market value. 

Fowls should not "be fed for 24 hours before killing. Food 
in the crop is liable to sour. 

Turkeys cared for in this way should weigh on an average 
16 pounds each, when between 6 and 7 months old. 

A dealer in poultry in the city says that bleeding in the 
mouth is the best mode of killing. Leave the heads and 
feet on, dip the fowl in nearly boiling water, three times, 
holding it by the legs. Then remove the feathers quickly, 
and without tearing the skin ; then dip for an instant into 
boiling water, and then into cold water. Wipe dry inside 
and out. 

Poultry would reach our markets in much better condi- 
tion if, as soon as dressed and wiped dry, a piece of charcoal 
were placed in each one. 

To singe a fowl, pour a few drops of alcohol on a plate 
and touch it with a lighted match. Handier than burning a 

To draw a chicken for stuffing, cut a slit under one of the 
legs, so it may be hidden by sewing up. Take the crop out 
from a cut in the back of the neck. 

To truss a fowl, tie the wings and thighs securely to the 
body to keep it in shape for boiling or roasting. 

To truss a four-footed animal, tie the legs down securely. 

Rub clear lard, or lay a piece of fat pork over a fowl when 
put to roast. 

The giblets of poultry are the head, neck, wings, feet, giz- 
zard, heart, and liver. 

To catch a fowl for cooking, have a coop made of lath, 
with an opening at one end. Throw a handful of corn in- 
side and outside of it, and when the chicken is a pris- 

To Cut Up a Chicken. POULTRY. Full Directions. 

oner, close up the coop and take it out. This is infinitely 
better than the cruel practice of chasing or shooting them. 





Miss Juliet Corson. 

After singeing the fowl, wipe with a wet towel. In order 
to get as many pieces as possible, cut off the wings so that 
a little piece of the breast remains with the wing. Remove 
the crop by cutting the skin at the back of the neck. Cut off 
the neck close to the body. Next take off the wing side- 
bones. Having cut them loose from the backbone, bend 
them toward the front and they will part at the joint ; loosen 
them with the knife. Take off the legs next. Instead of 
making a division between the second joint and drum-stick, 
cut midway the second joint, and then just below the joint, 
and trim off the lower end of the drum-stick. Next cut 
through the side just where the breast-bone joins the ribs. 
Then the breast-bone can be pulled free from the back, and 
the entrails can be taken out easily without breaking, which 
is a consideration, because if, in drawing a chicken, the 
entrails are broken, it becomes necessary to wash the 
chicken so much that the flavor is impaired. Cut off the 
lower part of the breast-bone without splitting it, because, 
while that is a very nice piece, it is apt to be a very small 
one. If there are any pieces of ribs attached to the sides of 
the breast-bone trim them off. Cut the upper part into 2 
pieces right down the middle, or into 4 down the middle 
and then each piece in two according to the size of the 

To Bone a Chicken. POULTRY. Filling for Boned Chicken. 

chicken. Having cut up the breast-bone, the entrails are to 
be taken away from the back, cutting around the vent being 
necessary in order to loosen them. The oil-bag is, of course, 
to be removed ; the liver also, without breaking the gall, 
which can be avoided by leaving a little piece of the liver 
attached to it. There are 2 or 3 ways of preparing the giz- 
zard. Adopt the easiest. Instead of taking the trouble to 
split the gizzard, and trying to take out the bag of stones 
within, I believe it best to cut from the outside, just that 
portion of purplish flesh which is used. If there is on it any 
appearance of the contents wash it. Now separate the back- 
bone and neck, and notice the back side-bones, where are 
located the " oysters." If the back were split entirely 
down, the "oysters" would be cut in two ; but by cutting off 
the end of the backbone they are preserved. To some, they 
are the choicest part of the chicken. 


Use a sharp-pointed knife, and slit the skin of the whole 
fowl down the back from neck to oil-bag, and cut and scrape 
ofT close to the bones, all the meat and skin ; scrape, after 
jointing the thigh, leg, and wing bones, the last joint of the 
wing cut off, and be careful of the skin of the second joint. 
When you have removed the skeleton and entrails save all 
of the giblets. Make an ordinary filling of bread and but- 
ter minced fine with the giblets, and the dark meat of the 
fowls, and the light too, if desired ; but, it is nice to leave 
the light for chicken salad. Fill out wherever the bones 
have been taken out, and shape up nicely, sewing the skin 
all down the back. Bake until done, basting with salt and 
water and butter. Draw out the threads, when hot, handle 
carefully, and serve either hot or cold. Any kind of filling 
may be used. The bones may be boiled up for soup. 

Use | as much force-meat, as the fowl weighs. Lean 


Smothered. POULTRY. Fricassee. 

veal, and lean fresh pork chopped fine, and for each pound, 
take i whole egg, I teaspoon of cloves and allspice mixed, 

1 teaspoon salt. Instead of the veal, another fowl's flesh 
may be used. After the bones have all been removed, put 
them in cold water with a bunch of sweet herbs, an onion 
stuck with 6 or 8 cloves, a carrot and turnip sliced. Let 
boil, add salt, skim carefully. Prepare the fowl by laying it 
flat down, spread on a layer of force-meat, then strips of fat 
pork and the liver, then a layer of mushrooms. Then run 
a string around the edges of the chicken and draw it up like 
a wallet. Having sewed up the ends, then sew the cut that 
was first made down the back. Then roll it up in a tight 
bundle in a towel. Tie the ends like a sack of flour and tie 

2 or 3 tapes around the middle as tight as you possibly can. 
Boil in the above liquor, adding water sufficient to cover it, 
allowing J an hour to the pound. Take out of the towel, 
wipe off, wrap in a clean towel and lay on a platter, put 
another over and place a weight on. Use the remaining 
liquor for soup. The easiest fowl to bone is a year-old tur- 


Cut the chicken open at the back after dressing it. Sprin- 
kle with salt, and pepper, and little lumps of butter. Put in 
a baking-pan, cover with another pan, and bake i hour. 
Baste often with butter. 


Cut every joint separate, the back in 2 pieces, and the 
breast in 3 or more. Stew only in .water enough to cover, 
until the meat is very tender. There should be about a tea- 
cup of water in the pot. Mix a heaping teaspoon of flour 
with a cup of milk, add, and let boil up. Season with salt 
and pepper, and take up on a platter. You may put in 2 
slices of salt pork cut in strips half an hour before serving, 
if the flavor is liked. If a brown fricassee is wanted, pour 



Fried. POULTRY. Stew. 

the greater part of the liquor off just before the chicken is 
done, and add a lump of butter, and let the pieces fry brown 
in the pot. 


Cut 2 young chickens at the joints. Roll in flour that is 
salted and peppered, and fry slowly in hot butter and lard, 
until browned on both sides. When done take out on a hot 
platter and pour a pint of cream or milk into the frying-pan. 
Thicken with I spoon of flour made smooth with 2 of the 
milk. Let boil up and pour over the chickens. If pre- 
ferred, serve the gravy in a separate dish. 


Cut a chicken up small. Boil till tender ; make a thick- 
ening of i or 2 tablespoons of flour and milk, using a pint 
of rich milk, or cream, if it is to be had. Season well with 
butter, pepper, and salt. Have ready in a tureen, some 
fresh soda or baking powder biscuits broken in halves. 
Pour some of the gravy over them, and reserve the remain- 
der to serve with the fowl in a platter. Be sure and have 
plenty of gravy ; it will all be wanted. 


One chicken or 2 squirrels cut up small with \ pound of 
bacon, cut small, put into 6 quarts of water. Cook tender, 
then separate the meat from the bones. Return the meat 
to the pot, adding more water if necessary. Then add the 
following vegetables, measured after they are prepared: 
I pint tomatoes, peeled and cut fine. 
I pint potatoes, peeled and cut fine. 
J pint corn, grated or cut and scraped. 
\ pint butter beans. 
\ a lemon, juice, and grated peel. 

Stew until done. Season with butter, pepper, and salt, 
and stir carefully to keep from burning. Serve hot. 


Chicken Pie. POULTRY. With Oysters. 


Cut a chicken in small pieces and stew till tender. Sea- 
son well with butter, pepper, and salt. Thicken the gravy 
with a tablespoon of flour made smooth with water. Have 
ready some peeled boiled potatoes. Line the sides of a 
deep dish with rich crust ; put in a layer of chicken and a 
layer of potatoes in thick slices. Repeat, and pour the 
gravy over it. Cover with the pie crust. Cut a slit in the 
top, and bake till the crust is done. Serve hot. 


Cut a good-sized chicken in small pieces. Put a small 
plate in the bottom of the kettle. Put the chicken in and 
cover it with hot water. Season high with butter, pepper, 
and salt. A half hour before serving, drop in small lumps 
of dough made like biscuit. A quart of flour makes enough 
dumplings for one large chicken. Cover closely ; 20 or 25 
minutes will generally cook them. Take out with skimmer 
carefully, on platter, and if gravy is not thick enough, 
thicken it with a small spoon of flour and water, made 
smooth. Pour it over the chicken and dumplings. 


Stew slowly 2 chickens, cut up small, until the meat drops 
from the bones ; then take out and chop fine. Let the 
liquor boil down to a cup full. Add to it butter the size 
of an egg, a teaspoon of pepper, little allspice, and a 
beaten egg ; stir through the meat ; slice a hard-boiled egg, 
lay in your mould and press in the meat. When served, 
garnish with celery tops, or sprigs of parsley. 


Mrs. M. M. Hale, Sandwich, 111. 

Cut a couple of chickens in small pieces, boil till tender. 
Take out and fry in butter (or use part lard.) To the 
liquor they were boiled in add pepper and salt to taste, a 

76 ____ 

Giblet Stew. POULTRY. Roast Turkey. 

spoon of butter, flour to thicken, a quart of oysters, and 
some milk if liked. Boil up and pour over the chicken in a 

large platter. 


When stewing chickens, remove giblets and serve for 
lunch as follows: Add a cup of the cream gravy to the gib- 
lets, with 2 or 3 cups of cold, boiled potatoes cut into J inch 
squares. Add a cup of milk, heat slowly. Season with salt 
and pepper, pour into a dish, and put I or 2 sprigs of parsley 
on 'the edge. 

For chicken salad, see "SALADS." 




A year old is considered best. After dressing, salt and 
pepper the inside. If prepared the day before it will be all 
the better seasoned. For each pound, 20 minutes is a good 
general rule. Take a loaf and a half of stale baker's bread 
for a good-sized turkey. Rub fine with the hands ; cut a 
large white .onion and cook a few minutes in butter in a fry- 
ing-pan. Do not brown it. Then stir in your bread, I tea- 
spoon of salt, I of pepper, I of sage ; mix. the onion in, and 
use melted butter sufficient to bind all together ; stuff, tie 
the wings and thighs, to keep in place. Salt and pepper 
the outside. Put \\ cups of water in the dripping-pan with 
the turkey. Lay 2 or 3 pieces of fat pork on the top, or 
rub well with lard. Or, better still, after it begins to brown, 
take a white cloth, double it, wring it out of water, and 
cover the turkey with it. Baste frequently over the cloth. 


Oyster Dressing. POULTRY. Roast Goose. 

It is tender and luscious. Do not let the cloth scorch. 
Keep an even fire, watch carefully, and turn occasionally. If 
oysters are liked, a pint may be chopped with the dressing. 
Lay the giblets by the side of the turkey, and when done 
chop fine, and put in the gravy, thickened with a tablespoon 
of flour. Oyster sauce is very nice served with roast tur- 
key. See directions in "OYSTERS." Serve with cranberry 
sauce, celery, turnips, boiled onions, or any vegetable, fresh 
or canned. 


Mrs. Fannie H. Bower, Parker, Dak. 

Boil the liver, heart, and gizzard ^ an hour. Chop fine 
with bread crumbs sufficient for the dressing. Put 2 table- 
spoons of hard butter in a spider. When it is brown, put 
the dressing in, and pour in about 2 tablespoons hot water. 
Let steam through, stirring it meanwhile. Take out, season 
with pepper and salt, and stir in I pint of oysters carefully, 
so that they will remain unbroken. Stuff the turkey with 


Mrs. Albert Willson, Johnson Junction, Ky. 

Cut slices from the breast of a raw turkey. Roll in flour 
salted and peppered, and fry in butter, or equal parts of but- 
ter and lard. It is done when it is a light brown, for it 
cooks very quickly, and will be as tender as a partridge. 
Use the remainder of the turkey for a stew, or it may be 
stuffed and roasted. Some dressing may be spread over the 
breast, and the absence of the part taken will never be 


Parboil for 2 hours at least. Then stuff* with seasoned 
mashed potatoes. Roast, with a pint of water in the pan. 
Baste often. When done, pour off the surplus fat, as it is 
too rich for the gravy. Add water to make up the amount 


Geese Livers. POULTRY. Roast Ducks. 


Take the livers from geese and fry them with slices of salt 
pork, in the pork fat. They are very palatable. 


Take a nice fat goose, take off the loose fat, season with a 
little salt and pepper, boil till nearly tender, with just water 
enough to cook it, then put in I pint good cider vinegar, 
then boil till very- tender, like pigs' feet ; then pack in a 
stone crock, leaving the bones in with the meat. It is a 
very dainty relish. To be sliced up cold. Turkey or 
chicken may be cooked in the same manner. 


If parboiled for an hour or two, before putting to roast, 
the strong taste is lessoned. Baste same as when roasting 


Mrs. E. B. Baldwin. 

Half pound of fat pork chopped fine ; 8 rolled soda 
crackers ; I egg, I minced onion, I pint milk ; sage, pepper, 
and salt. 


Five sour apples, peeled, quartered, and cored. Stew 
until half done. Add I tea-cup bread crumbs, a sprinkle of 
cayenne pepper, salt, and I teaspoon sage. Mix together, 
stuff, and roast. 



EAT should be selected carefully, cooked by 
the best methods, and eaten at regular 
times, and in proper quantities. With 
these hints acted upon, and with thorough 
mastication, there would be fewer dys- 
peptics among us. 
If beef is good it will be fine grained, smooth, bright red 
and fat. 

If the fat is yellow, the meat is not prime. 
Veal should be dressed very soon after killing. 
Good veal flesh is dry, firm, and white, with kidneys 
covered with fat. 

Mutton is at its best from August till Christmas.' Weth- 
ers are better mutton than ewes. If to be kept long, wipe 
often and dust with pepper. 

The flesh of good mutton is dark red, with firm, white fat. 

Fresh killed lamb is pale red, with bluish veins in the 

neck. Discard it if the neck vein is green or of a yellow tint. 

Pork should be rejected if there are kernels in the fat. 

The skin should be smooth and thin. Discard clammy flesh. 

The choicest beef cuts for roasting are the fourth, fifth, 

and sixth ribs. 


Remarks. MEATS. Remarks. 

If a roast is rolled by the butcher, have him send home 
the bones for soup. 

If meat or fish have to be washed, use water very slightly 
salted. That prevents the extraction of the natural salts of 
the meat. 

If it is necessary to freshen ham or salt pork, it is recom- 
mended very strongly to put into milk and water for 
several hours. Sour milk will answer as well as sweet. 
Rinse after taking out. This also applies to salt mackerel. 

If meat is eaten when first killed, it will be tender. If a 
short time elapses, the muscles stiffen, and it will be tough. 
If more time elapses, the muscles relax, and it will be ten- 
der again. 

Young meat of all kinds should be cooked very thoroughly, 
to be healthy. It offers less resistance to masticaton, hence 
will be less liable to be digested properly. Older and 
tougher meat, offering more resistance, will, of necessity, 
be better masticated and better incorporated with the 
saliva ; hence, will be better digested. 

In cold weather, great care should be taken to heat plates 
to serve at table. More especially, when mutton is used. 
Many a good dinner has been spoiled by a showing of cold 
mutton tallow on a still colder plate. If there is no warm- 
ing oven to the stove, let them set in hot water for a few 

Fresh meat, if to be boiled, should be put to cook in boil- 
ing water, and if more water is needed in the pot, let it be 
boiling when added. 

Salt meat must be put over in cold water, that the salt 
may be extracted in cooking. Remove the scum as soon as 
it rises. 

To be tender ; meat should cook very gently ; hard boil- 
ing toughens it. The toughest meat can be made tender by 


Steaming. MEATS. Boiled Dinner. 

boiling it a long time, or baking it in a covered dish in the 


I give recipes for steaming, boiling, and roasting different 
meats. But my own favorite manner of cooking nearly all 
kinds of meat and poultry, vegetables, and dumplings, 
besides puddings and bread of different kinds, is by steam- 
ing. I use a steam cooker, having different chambers, and 
we cook a pudding, a piece of corned beef, potatoes, and 
other vegetables, in the different apartments at the same 
time. When cooking fresh beef or mutton, if we wish to 
have it browned, it is only necessary to put it in a hot oven 
for a few minutes. Too much cannot be said in favor of 
steaming. It renders food very nutritious and palatable, 
besides being economical both of time and fuel. Vegeta- 
bles are never water soaked. The same can be said of 
dumplings and puddings. 





Put the corned beef in a large kettle of cold water, soon 
after breakfast (if for noon dinner). About 10 o'clock, put 
in the salt pork, in a solid piece, I or 2 pounds, according to 
size of family. At the same time, wash beets very carefully 
and put in. If they are very large, put them in an hour 
earlier. Wash some carrots very thoroughly ; if large, 
put them in at this time ; if small, they may be put in with 
the potatoes. At I 1 o'clock, put in peeled turnips, cut in 3 


Pot Roast of Beef. BEEF. Roast Beef. 

or 4 pieces. Scrape some parsnips and put in at the same 
time. Divide a head of cabbage in 4 parts, lengthwise, and 
put in at the same time, with good-sized peeled potatoes, 
allowing a good half hour for them to boil. Beets will not 
injure the looks of the other vegetables if the skin is not 
broken. When done, put them in cold water, to remove the 
skin, cut lengthwise in 3 or 4 pieces, and dish up. Take up 
the cabbage in a vegetable dish, after draining well. A 
platter is scarcely large enough to hold such a variety of 
meat and vegetables, and it is unhandy to cut up the meat ; 
hence, it is better to dish up in separate dishes. A piece of 
red pepper cooked with a boiled dinner improves it. Grated 
horse-radish, or any bottled sauce, should be served with 
it. The best dessert with this dinner is a boiled Indian 


Get a solid piece from the round, about 5 pounds. Put in 
a medium-sized kettle, that can set in the oven. Put it over 
the fire in hot water, to cover it. Boil slowly for 3 hours or 
more ; season well ; then remove the meat, and thicken the 
gravy with flour and water. Put the meat back in ; set in 
the oven ; put a cover over and let cook slowly till needed ; 
2 hours will not hurt. This mode of cooking will make the 
toughest beef tender. Serve in a large platter with part of 
the gravy ; but dish up the greater part in a gravy dish. 


Put the beef in a dripping-pan without water into a very 
hot oven for the first half hour, that the outside may sear 
over and keep the juices inside. When half done, the oven 
heat may be lessened, and the meat salted and peppered. 
Pour in sufficient water and thicken for gravy when the 
meat is done ; 15 minutes to the pound, if wished rare in 
the center, or 20 minutes will make it well done. Cranberry 
sauce or jelly, turnips, celery, or any kind of canned vege- 
tables, may be served with roast beef. 

8 3 

Yorkshire Pudding. BEEF. Beef a la Mode. 


When roasting a piece of beef, set it up on a cricket or 
muffin rings, so that the juice will drop into the pan below ; 
| of an hour before it is done, mix up the following and 
pour into the pan under the meat : I pint of milk, 4 eggs, 
beaten very light, pinch of salt, I cup of flour. Cut in 
pieces and serve with the roast. 


Bone a large and tender steak, scatter over it bits of but- 
ter, pepper, and salt, a little sage, and finely-chopped onion. 
Then a thick layer of mashed potatoes well seasoned. Roll 
up, sew or fasten with skewers. Put into a baking-pan with 
a cup of stock or gravy, and cook slowly, basting often. 
Serve with a rim of mashed potatoes around the platter, and 
garnish with water-cresses 


Spread dressing, as for turkey, on a thick round of beef- 
steak ; season, roll up, tie, and roast ; baste often. Serve 
with gravy. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

To make a large piece off the round tender, make holes 
with a steel or sharp instrument, and insert in each one a 
little strip of salt fat pork ; run the strip with the grain. 
Let each end project ; then put the meat in a bowl, and 
with it, a teaspoon of whole cloves, same of pepper-corns, a 
bay leaf, half a tea-cup of carrots sliced, same of turnip and 
onion ; not any salt ; cover with vinegar and water. Let 
stand several hours ; all the better if it stand 2 or 3 days. 
If the fiber is tender, take it out of the pickle, fry it brown 
in a pot in drippings ; then put in 2 tablespoons of flour, 
turn it over and over. When brown, cover with hot water 

84 __ 

Beef Stew. BEEF. Beefsteak. 

and cook >lowly. Salt it when half done. A half hour to 
the pound usually suffices. 


Order 2 pounds of beef or veal cut up small for a stew. 
Cheap cuts answer every purpose. Cook 2 or 3 hours. Put 
in some potatoes peeled and cut in halves, and some onions 
if they are liked. Season well ; skim out into a platter ; 
thicken the gravy and pour over. This will give a good 
dinner to 6 or 8 persons. 


Heat and grease the bars of the gridiron ; have a bright 
fire, with live coals at the top. Trim the steak nicely, a 
porter-house or sirloin, for broiling ; cut off the little tough 
end of the porter-house. It will do better service in the 
soup-kettle. Lay the steak on the gridiron, cover, and as 
soon as seared, turn over and sear the other side. Turn 
again during the cooking ; take up on a hot platter. Season 
with butter, pepper, and salt. A bit of onion rubbed over 
the platter before taking up the steak gives a delicate flavor 
that is delicious, without any of the ofifensiveness that the 
onion taste imparts, if used more largely. Garnish broiled 
steak with a sprig of parsley, and a few slices of lemon. 


Cut up 6 onions very fine ; put them into a saucepan with 
I cup of hot water, 2 tablespoons butter, some pepper and 
salt ; dredge in a little flour. Let it stew until the onions 
are quite soft. Broil the steak according to directions ; put 
it into the saucepan with the onions and let it simmer about 
5 minutes. Serve together on a platter. 


A favorite way of cooking beefsteak in the South, is to 
take a piece off the round, fry it in a skillet in its own fat, if 

Dried Beef. BEEF. Beef Tongue. 

sufficient, in drippings if not, and, when done, remove, pour 
in water, and thicken with flour, and make gravy to pour 
over the whole in a platter. 


The rules adopted by the celebrated Beefsteak Clvb, 
started in England in 1734, for cooking steak : 

Pound well your meat till the fibers break, 
Be sure that next you have, to broil the steak, 
Good coal in plenty ; nor a moment leave, 
But turn it over this way, and then that ; 
The lean should be quite rare not so the fat. 
The platter now and then -the juice receive, 
Put on your butter, place it on your meat, 
Salt, pepper, turn it over, serve, and eat. 


Mrs. R. H. James, Otsego, Wis. 

Rub the steak with saleratus and let stand 2 hours, or 
over night. Rinse off quickly and wipe dry. Have a spider 
well heated, and greased with butter. Put the steak in, 
turn it often to sear it over and keep the juices inside. Set 
it on the back part of the stove, covered for a short time. 
Then remove to a hot platter, and season with butter, pep- 
per, and salt. It is easier than broiling and tastes as well. 


Chip half a pound of dried beef fine ; put it in a stewpan, 
well covered with cold water. When it comes to a boil, 
pour off, and put over it a pint and a half of milk. Thicken 
this with a good tablespoon of flour wet with cold milk or 
water. Put in a bit of butter and pepper, and serve with 
baked potatoes. A nice breakfast or lunch for home people. 


If it is corned it should be soaked a few hours before boil- 
ing. Cook till done, then peel. If it is to be served hot, 


Beef Heart. BEEF. Pressed Beef. 

make a sauce of a can of tomatoes, an onion, a carrot, salt 
and pepper, a spoon of flour, well cooked and strained, and 
poured over. If to be eaten cold, put a weight on it ; when 
ready to serve, cut in very thin slices. 


In the forenoon, put the heart into a weak brine. In the 
evening, change to another brine. In the morning, put to 
cook in boiling water and cook fully 3 hours. When tender, 
have ready a dressing of bread crumbs, mixed with melted 
butter, and pepper, and salt, and stuff it. Put it in an oven 
.20 minutes, to cook the dressing. Let get cold, and slice 
very thin ; season with a little salt and pepper, if necessary. 


Buy a shank of beef. Boil till it falls from the bone. 
Remove every piece of bone, boil down a little longer. 
Season well with pepper and salt, add a bit of sage, if liked. 
Pour into a form. Excellent cold. 


Mrs. A. S. Johnston, Leavenworth, Kas. 

Take a large steak, spread it with well-seasoned dressing ; 
roll up, sew it in a stout bag and boil 3 hours in salted 
water. Take it out, put a weight on and press until cold ; 
then slice. 


Put over in cold water and boil till the bones fall out. 
Let it cool in the water ; then remove, wrap it tightly in a 
towel, put in a cool place with a weight on it. Slice very 
thin. Garnish with pickles. 


One pound salt pork, 2 of raw chopped beef. Salt and 
pepper. Make into balls and fry. 


Deviled Kidneys. BEEF. Liver Rolls. 


3 pounds raw beef chopped with 
J pound suet. Add 

2 eggs. 

J pint crumbs of bread. 

4 tablespoons cream. 

1 teaspoon butter. 

2 teaspoons summer savory. 
I teaspoon salt. 

J teaspoon pepper. 

Mix and work into a loaf, using flour to bind it. Bake in 
a pan and baste with butter and water. It will cook in 2 
hours, or perhaps less time. Slice cold. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Three tablespoons of oil, I of vinegar, saltspoon of salt, 
pinch of pepper, and a teaspoon of mustard. Dip the 
sliced kidneys in the above mixture and broil them. After 
they are broiled, sprinkle a little cayenne pepper on. Serve 
when plenty of water can be afforded. Deviled means very 


Parboil a few minutes ; drain off the water and boil again 
for 5 or 10 minutes ; then cut up small, put in fresh water 
and cook until tender. Season well, and thicken the gravy. 


Have the liver sliced ; pour on boiling water, and let 
stand 5 minutes, or so. Remove the skin ; season the slices 
with salt and pepper. Put a little piece of fat salt pork on 
each slice and roll up, fastening with a string. Then brown 
them in a tablespoon of drippings or butter ; then throw in 
a tablespoon of flour among them ; stir them about, cover 
with water ; season more if necessary, and COOK: ^ an hour. 
Remove strings and serve as a regular meat dish at dinner. 


Liver. BEEF. Tripe. 


Scald, and peel off the edges. Roll in flour that is salted. 
Fry in butter in a pie-tin on top of the stove. It has a 
oetter taste than if cooked in an iron spider. 


Scald and peel off the edge ; put to fry, and when both 
sides are brown, cover with water in the frying-pan ; put 
cover over, and let stew 15 or 20 minutes. If the liver is 
rolled in flour a nice gravy will be made in the stewing. 


Scrape the tripe. Cut it into squares of 3 inches ; boil in 
salted water ; when very tender, take out ; cut up smaller ; 
season, roll in flour, and fry brown in hot lard. When done, 
pour a cup of water in the frying-pan, and thicken with flour 
mixed smooth with vinegar ; pour over the tripe, hot. 
Good for breakfast. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Boil, clean and cut up fresh tripe. Three pounds 01 
tripe ; I very large carrot, turnip, onion, all peeled, a tea- 
spoon of whole cloves, same of whole pepper, 2 bay leaves, 
a sprig of parsley. Put in a jar. Half cover with broth or 
water. If broth is used, fill up with water, having a half gill 
of vinegar in it. Paste the cover on with flour and water, 
and bake 6 hours. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Take the tripe, as it ordinarily comes from the market 
(it is generally cooked); parboil it for a few minutes, putting 
it on in cold salt and water. Pour off that and put on 
another, boil for 15 minutes ; take it out, and put in that 
water some rice to boil the proportion is half a pound to a 

.. 89 

Rhode Island Dumplings. ' VEAL Veal Stuffed. 

pound of tripe. Boil the rice until just tender. At the 
time of putting in the rice, slice and fry brown in a sauce- 
pan, 2 onions in butter or drippings ; then add the tripe and 
enough hot water to cover. Season with salt and pepper, 
and let it cook until the rice is done ; add a tablespoon of 
curry powder to the tripe. Stir it up, and dish the tripe 
with the rice around it. If the tripe is not pickled, add a 
tablespoon. of vinegar before taking up. 


One quart of corn meal, \ teaspoon of salt, wet up with 
cold water stiff. Pat with the hands into little balls. Put 
them on the bottom and around the sides of a kettle, and 
pour boiling water over them and boil briskly an hour. To 
be eaten with meat gravies. You can cook potatoes with 




Same as pork ; be sure and cook well through. Squash 
is a palatable vegetable to serve. Stewed tomatoes are also 
good ; currant jelly is always nice. 


Have the butcher make an incision for dressing. Use 
bread crumbs, a taste of onion, a raw egg beaten up, and 
any herbs that are desired. Stuff, and cook in a moderate 
oven till well done, about 25 minutes to the pound. 

Take 2 pounds veal a rib piece is good cut it in small 


Veal Loaf. VEAL. Marbled Veal. 

pieces, put it into a pot, having placed a small plate in the 
bottom to keep the meat from burning. Put in 2 quarts of 
water, either hot or cold. Keep it boiling for about an hour 
and a half. Then make a quart of flour into biscuit dough, 
and proceed as directed for chicken pot-pie. Be sure that 
there is water sufficient to cover the meat entirely, when 
the dumplings are put in, and cover closely for at least 20 
minutes. Potatoes may be cooked with it, but we prefer 
them cooked separately and mashed. 


Fry until pretty well done ; then take out and dip into 
beaten egg, and then in rolled cracker, with salt stirred in, 
and fry again, turning so as to get a nice brown on each side. 
Make a gravy of water and a spoonful of flour in the frying- 
pan and pour over. Season, if not salted enough ; tomatoes 
are nice, served with cutlets. 


Mrs. M. A. Smith, Chicago. 

3 pounds uncooked veal. 

| pound salt pork both chopped fine. 

1 cup rolled cracker. 

2 eggs, well beaten. 

1 teaspoon sugar. 

2 teaspoons salt. 

I teaspoon, pepper. 
Make into a loaf, and bake 2 hours. Slice cold. 


Take any pieces of cold cooked veal, season palatably, 
and pound fine in a mortar. Skin a cold boiled tongue, cut 
it up and pound to a paste, adding to it its own bulk of but- 
ter. Put alternate layers of the veal and tongue into a pot, 
press down hard, and pour clarified butter on top. It cuts 
prettily, like veined marble. The white meat of poultry 


Sweet Breads. VEAL. Calf's Live,. 

may be used in place of veal. Use a tray if you have no 


Soak in cold water and salt for an hour ; then put on in a 
quart of cold water and a tablespoon of salt, and let come- 
slowly to a boil ; then put in cold water to cool sufficiently 
to handle ; then lard them with little strips of dry salted fat 
pork, 1-16 of an inch thick. After they are larded, put in 
the oven for 15 minutes; brown' them a little, and in the 
meantime make a garnish of whatever you wish. French 
green peas, mushrooms, string beans, or a plain white sauce. 


Parboil them as soon as you get them. Remove the tough 
parts carefully. Let them lie in cold water a short time 
before using, then roll in cracker crumbs. Season with salt 
and pepper, and fry. 


Boil the sweet breads tender ; it will take but 5 or 10 
minutes. Season with pepper and salt, add half a cup of 
cream, tablespoon butter, yolks of 2 eggs, and thicken with 
a tablespoon of flour made smooth with a little water. Line 
the bottom and sides of a deep dish with rich pie-paste. 
Put in the bottom the same quantity of oysters that you 
have of sweet breads, then the sweet breads, and fill up 
with the gravy. Cover with crust and bake until the crust 
is done. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Use fat salt pork, as it is easier to lard with than pickled. 
For larding small birds, the strips should be i| inches 
long and 1-16 of an inch thick ; for chickens, J of an 
inch thick ; beef a la mode, J an inch thick. These 
strips, called lardoons, are to be inserted in ihe surface of 

To Prepare. MUTTON. To Roast. 

the liver with a larding needle. Wash the liver in cold 
water, and trim the loose pieces off, but not the skin proper. 
Lay it on a folded towel held in the hand, curve the point 
of the needle a little, take a stitch in the meat, work the 
needle back and forth 2 or 3 times, insert the strip of pork 
in the forked end of the needle and pull through, leaving 
half an inch or so each side of the stitch. Dot the whole 
surface with this culinary embroidery. Put the liver on a 
bed of a few scraps of pork, a little carrot, turnip, and onion 
in a baking-pan. In baking, put a buttered paper over it 
until nearly done ; then remove the paper, and let the lar- 
doons brown. The vegetables should be rubbed through a 
sieve, and the drippings found in the bottom of the pan 
used as a basis for sauce or gravy. 


Partly cook ; then cut up small and finish stewing. 
Season with pepper, salt, and butter. Thicken with a table- 
spoon of flour mixed with 2 spoons water. Serve hot ; is 
nice for breakfast. 

MUTT ox. 


Before cooking mutton, take a sharp knife and loosen the 
thin outside skin and remove entirely. The oil of the wool 
penetrates through the pores of the skin, and from this 
comes that strong woolly taste, rendering mutton so objec- 
tionable. Use plenty of its own fat in which to cook it. 

Same as pork, but is not objectionable if a little rare. 


Irish Stew. MUTTON. Leg of Lamb. 

Mint sauce is a usual accompaniment. Turnips are served 
with mutton. 


A leg of mutton boiled is a savory, juicy meat. Let the 
water cook down sufficient for gravy. Boil some rice, 
and eat as a vegetable, with boiled mutton ; or coarse boiled 
hominy is equally as good. With lamb or mutton, 
some eat currant jelly with a sprinkling of mustard, 
and consider it exceedingly palatable. 


Take 6 mutton chops, 8 potatoes, peeled and cut in two, 
6 onions, peeled and sliced. Put into the pot a layer of 
potatoes, then 2 chops with part of the onions, repeating 
until all are used. Season with pepper (white if you have 
it), salt, and a tablespoon of catsup. A slice of fat ham 
may be added, or butter, if preferred. Put in a pint of 
water and cover tightly, and let stew very gently for ii 
hours. Watch that it does not burn. 


Place in a dripping-pan ; season well, and set in a hot 
oven. This is the nicest way we have ever cooked mutton 
chops. The gravy may be thickened or not, just as you 
prefer. It is not necessary to turn them. 


Six slices of mutton, ^ pound of macaroni, sauce of any 
kind, pepper, salt, a tablespoon of vinegar, and a little 
water. Put all together in a stewpan, keep the lid on, and 
stew gently for I or ij hours. 


All lamb should be very well cooked, and not put too 
near the fire at first; from 18 to 20 minutes to the pound 
before a clear but not fierce heat. It may be served with 
spinach, peas, or asparagus. 


Lamb Stew. PORK. Roast Pork. 


Cut the scrag or breast of lamb in pieces and put into a 
stewpan with just enough water to cover it. Cover it 
closely and let it stew for 20 minutes. Take off the scum ; 
add a tablespoon of salt and a quart of shelled peas ; cover 
and let them stew for J an hour ; mix a tablespoon of flour 
and butter, and stir in and let it simmer 10 minutes ; then 
serve. If you mix the flour with cream it makes it better. 
Veal is nice cooked in this way, with half a dozen small new 
potatoes added with the peas. 


Have the lamb cut in pieces and put over in water to par- 
boil. If any scum rises, skim off. When it has boiled, take 
out and wipe with a wet towel if any scum appears. Strain 
the broth. Use It for a white sauce, beginning by putting a 
tablespoon of butter and a tablespoon of flour in a saucepan 
over the fire ; stir together until well mixed, and gradually 
add the broth in which the meat was parboiled. Season the 
same with salt, pepper, and nutmeg. Add the meat and 
cook until the lamb is tender ; stir in it the yolks of 2 eggs 
and a tablespoon of chopped parsley. 



Season well. Put a pint of water in the pan, and roast 
slowly at first, allowing fully \ hour to a pound. Baste 
often. Cook very thoroughly. Make gravy after pouring 
off the surplus from the top of the drippings. Fried cabbage 
is very good with pork. Any tart sauce may be used, or 


Chine Fie. PORK. Spare- Ribs. 

any canned vegetable. Turnips go nicely ; celery always 
admissible. Fried apples are also very nice. 


Rub the neck chine with salt. Put into a dripping-pan 
with a pint of water. Lay a dozen sweet potatoes, nicely 
cleaned, around the meat. Cover as closely as possible 
with a pan, and cook in the oven until done. Dish up all 
together on a platter. Irish potatoes may be used instead 
of sweet potatoes. 


Mrs. Mary Willson, Johnson Junction, Ky. 

Take the backbone of a young pig, or the small end of 
the backbone of a large hog. Cut in small pieces. Stew 
till tender, season with pepper and salt, thicken the gravy 
with flour and water. Line the sides of a baking-pan with 
crust, put in the mixture and cover with crust and bake. 


Make a pie-crust, not very rich, and put around the sides 
of a deep pie-dish. In the bottom, and above, put layers 
of thin sliced bacon, thin sliced potatoes, onions chopped or 
sliced very fine , lean fresh pork cut into small pieces. 
Season with pepper, salt, and sage. Fill the dish with any 
good gravy left from roasts, or with water thickened for the 
occasion, with some butter added. Cover with crust, and 
bake about i \ hours. Cover the pie with thick brown paper 
if it gets too brown. 


Spare-ribs, as they are sold in the city, are so very spare 
that it is an improvement to roast them with a dressing of 
bread crumbs. Lay some ribs in the dripping-pan ; salt 
and pepper ; spread over them a dressing of crumbs, sea- 
soned with pepper, salt, and sage ; then lay on more spare- 
ribs ; put a pint of water in the pan ; season ; roast till well 

96 . 

Tenderloins. PORK. Pigs' Feet. 

done ; pour off the top for fryings ; add more water and 
thicken for gravy. Fried apples are a nice accompaniment 
to spare-ribs. 


Heat and grease the spider, put in the tenderloins, and 
fry both sides brown, but do not cook them through ; cover 
with foiling water, and stew 20 minutes or ^ hour ; thicken 
the gravy, and season with pepper and salt. The meat will 
taste about equal to chicken. 


Flatten the tenderloins, or split them. Season with salt 
and pepper and fry in hot fat a nice brown on both sides. 
Serve hot. 


Roast as many pieces as you wish to keep, all ready for 
the table ; then put them away in lard. All that is neces- 
sary is to heat through when wanted, and the lard is just as 
good as any for frying doughnuts, mush, croquettes, etc. 


Scald and clean the pig carefully. Make a dressing of 
bread crumbs, sage, salt, and pepper ; stuff; sew up ; fasten 
the legs back so that the under part will crisp nicely. 
Dredge with flour and put into a hot oven. Baste fre- 
quently with melted butter. When done, pour off the fat 
from the top of the drippings, add water to the remainder, 
and thicken for gravy. Serve in a gravy dish, and stand 
the pig up on a platter, and garnish with green parsley or 
celery tops. 


Clean well and wrap each foot in a cotton bandage wound 
around it 2 or 3 times, and secured with cord; then "boil 
them 4 hours ; keep them in the cloths till needed to fry, 


Head Cheese. PORK. Pork Toast. 

broil, or pickle. If cooked in this way the skin will hold it 
together while cooking, and they will be found very delicate 
and tender. 


Mrs. Wm. DeBell, Mt. Carmel, Ky. 

Soak the feet in salt and water for an hour, or even all 
night. Then cover with water in a kettle and boil for 2 
hours. Take out and put in a baking-pan, pour over some 
of the broth and brown in the oven. The water left in the 
kettle is good to boil cabbage and turnips in. 


Put the pigs' feet and ears, when well cleaned, over the 
fire in cold water. Boil till tender ; pour over them in a jar 
a pickle made of cider vinegar, whole peppers, cloves, and 
mace, boiling hot. They will be ready to eat in 3 days, or 


Clean the head well, and soak in brine 24 hours ; then 
boil it till very tender. Remove all bones, and add to it a 
boiled heart, tongue, and part of a liver ; chop very fine ; 
add salt, pepper, sage, and onion, if wished. Mix well ; put 
in a colander and set over hot water at night. In the morn- 
ing, put it to press. 


One pound of salt pork sliced ; boil an hour or more ; 
scrape and cut in lengthwise quarters 5 or 6 parsnips, add to 
the pork, and after boiling ^ hour add a few potatoes, and 
let all cook until the potatoes are done. The water should 
cook down to about a pint, when ready to dish up. 


Mrs. S. C. A. White, Maywood, 111. 

Cut salt pork in thin slices, and fry. Remove to a dish to 
serve ; then put equal parts of hot water and sweet milk 


Pork and Liver. PORK. Bacon and Snaps. 

(about a cup of each) with the gravy. When it comes to a 
boil, stir in a teaspoon of flour wet up with cold milk or 
water. Then dip in slices of toasted bread. Lay the toast 
in a deep dish, and pour the gravy over. Milk may be used 
alone if preferred richer. 


Fry some nice slices of pickled pork or bacon, a nice 
brown, on each side. Pour boiling water on the slices of 
liver ; remove the thick skin at the edges ; roll in salted 
flour, and fry in the pork gravy, after taking up the pork. 
Cook slowly and thoroughly on both sides. Serve each 
person with a slice of each. It has been recommended to 
steam the liver 15 minutes, before frying, in place of scald- 
ing. It is worth a trial. 


Cut half a pound of salt pork in slices. Fry slowly in a 
deep frying-pan. When done, take up on a hot dish. 
Meanwhile wash, wipe and cut in slices 6 sour apples, 
When the f>ork is taken up, put them into the frying-pan, 
and cook in the gravy until tender. Serve hot on the plat 
ter with the pork. 


Cut a cabbage in two and lay in cold water for an hour, if 
convenient. Put it to cook in boiling water at 10 o'clock. 
At 10:30 add a pound' of bacon, and let boil together until 
noon. Dish up together. 


String 2 quarts of beans, and put into cold water until 2 
hours before dinner. Then put into a pot with | pound 
bacon that has commenced to boil. Let cook until noon. 
Take the bacon up on a platter. Skim the snaps out and 
lay around it. There should be water enough to covet 


Ham Noodles. PORK. To Stuff a Ham. 

them well, and by the time they are done it will be boiled 
down nearly dry. Many persons put the beans on to boil 
at 8 o'clock, as they require such a long time to cook. In 
such cases, the bacon is not added until 2 hours later. 


Make noodles by the recipe on page u, using that recipe 
as a guide to the quantity required for the family. Boil 
them in water salted lightly. Have some cold boiled ham ; 
chop it very fine. Butter an earthen dish well, and put in it 
alternate layers of noodles and chopped ham about a pint 
of ham and a little more noodles. Beat up 2 eggs with I pint 
sweet cream. Pour over the top ; cover with a thin layer of 
grated bread crumbs and small lumps of butter. Bake deli- 
cate brown. 


Mrs. Z. B. Glynn, East Boston, Mass. 

2 eggs. 

4 tablespoons butter. 

2 tablespoons minced ham, free from fat. 

Pinch of pepper. 

Fry the ham for 2 minutes in a little butter. Then mix 
the ingredients all together and proceed as with a plain 
omelet. Serve very hot. Lean bacon or tongue will 
answer equally as well, but should be slightly cooked previ- 
ous to mixing. 


Boil it very slowly. If it boils hard, it will be in strings. 
Let simmer all day, if necessary ; then skin and remove 
extra fat. Make stuffing r of bread crumbs moistened in 
water and seasoned with pepper, butter, parsley, celery, or 
any other, if preferred. Cut the bone out with a sharp 
knife. Take yolks of 2 or 3 hard-boiled eggs, mix with the 
ham-water enough to moisten ; spread over the ham, grate 
bread crumbs over all, and brown. Ornament with slices of 
hard-boiled egg, fanciful cuts of pickled beets, cloves, or 
green parsley. Slice cold. Delicious for a cold collation. 


Cold Ham. CURING MEATS. Corning Beef. 


In boiling ham or corned beef to eat cold, it is far better 
if let remain in the water until cold. Slice on a platter, and 
garnish with slices of hard-boiled egg or lemon. 



t _ $ _ 


Mrs. E. B. Baldwin, Chicago. 

ioo pounds of beef. 
4 pounds of coarse salt, made fine. 
4 pounds of sugar. 
4 ounces of saltpeter. 

Mix the salt, sugar, and saltpeter well together, and rub 
the meat all over with it, and pack the pieces closely in a 
barrel. Put no water in, as it will make its own pickle. In 
warm weather, if a scum rises, skim it off and add a little 
fine salt. This will preserve it, with no further trouble. 
The beef should be kept till juicy, before attempting to 
pack it at all. This is very necessary to have it tender and 
keep well. At first, turn it, and rub the mixture in quite 


Mrs. Emma Graves, Seattle, 'Washington. 

ioo pounds of beef. 
8 pounds salt. 
4 pounds sugar. 
\ pound saltpeter. 
8 gallons water. 

Boil, skim, and cool. Pack the meat a little loose in the 
barrel, and pour the brine over. The meat should be 
covered and a weight kept on to keep it under. Meat, to 
dry, should be kept in brine 2 weeks. Hams, to smoke, 2 to 


Corned Mutton. CURING MEATS. Bologna Sausage. 

3 weeks. Meat is often made too salt. Soaking to take 
salt out, takes goodness from the meat. Pork should never 
be salted with beef, or in a beef barrel. 


50 pounds of mutton. 

2 pounds each bay salt, common salt, and brown sugar. 

3 ounces each black pepper and allspice, 
ij ounces each cloves and mace. 

Pound the ingredients, and mix thoroughly together, and 
dry in a warm place. Rub it while hot into the meat. 


J pound rock salt. 

^ pound common salt. 
i pint molasses, 
i ounce black pepper, 
i ounce saltpeter. 

This is for 18 pounds of meat. Rub it into the meat 
every day in the tub and turn the meat over and over. 


3 pounds fresh pork. 

3 pounds veal. 

3 pounds ham or salt pork. 

2 teaspoons black pepper. 

i teaspoon each cayenne and cloves. 

9 teaspoons powdered sage. 

i onion minced fine. 

i grated nutmeg. 

A bunch of sweet herbs powdered. 

Chop the meat fine, mix thoroughly and stuff into beef 
intestines. Scrape and wash them very carefully, and leave 
in salt water till wanted for use. Tie the case at each end 
when filled, prick in several places, boil I hour. Then dry 
in the sun. Rub over with melted butter, and hang in a 
cool, dry place. To be cut in thin slices and served without 
further cooking. 


Sausage. CURING MEATS. Rendering Lard. 


John N. Owens, Lewisburg, Ky. 

100 pounds pork, chopped fine. 
2 pounds salt. 
\ pound black ground pepper. 
\ pound sage. 
^ ounce cayenne.* 

Mix well and put away in bulk or in cases. 


2 pounds lean fresh pork. 

1 pound fat pork. 

3 teaspoons sage. 

2 teaspoons salt. 

2 teaspoons pepper. 

J teaspoon cloves. 

A pinch of nutmeg. 

Chop very fine and mix well. To keep it any length of 
time, pack it in a jar and pour hot lard over it. 


Cut the leaf up, put into a kettle without water. Season 
slightly with salt as it melts. To clarify it, take slippery 
elm bark from near the roots, peel it, and use in the propor- 
tion that you would raw potato. It will be sweeter' and 
whiter, and keep better than with the use of potatoes. 
Strain through a coarse cloth. Many old housewives render 
the lard without clarifying at all. They salt it slightly if 
they want it to last through the summer. To melt lard, take 
the fat from the smaller intestines, and the'flabby pieces not 
fit for salting, strip the skin carefully from the inside fat, and 
cut small. Put into a crock and set in boiling water ; simmer 
until it melts. Strain it through a coarse cloth into small 
jars, and, when cold, tie over them the skin that was freed 
from the fat, or bladders that are washed and dried. 

, HASH. 

F a medium-sized family has meat twice a day, 
there can easily be gotten drippings enough 
for frying all the potatoes, French toast, mush, 
wonders, and scrapple they may serve from 
time to time. Hashes and croquettes are very 
palatable dishes, and cost but little except the 
labor of preparing them. 

In clearing a table, every scrap of meat or bone with a 
particle of fat on it should be saved in a tin can or basin. 
The meat remnants on the plates may be mixed with other 
food, but they should be rinsed and saved, nevertheless. It 
is more nice than wise to throw them into the garbage. 
Keep these accumulations for a couple of days, then put 
them in the oven, and in an hour or two all the grease will 
be tried out. It can then be strained, and is purer and 
more wholesome than the lard sold by the average butcher. 
A raw potato peeled and sliced and cooked in a quart of 
drippings will clarify them very successfully. The fat that 
rises on the water in which corned beef has been boiled 
makes very nice cookies. It can be melted and strained 
with other drippings to make it clearer. 


An inferior piece of beef will answer. Boil it tender, 
chop very fine with an onion, season with salt, pepper, a 
bit of parsley, and add I cup of bread crumbs to 4 of meat 
and raw egg enough to bind the mass together. Form into 
balls, dip in flour, and fry brown in hot lard. 


Fricassee. HASH. Omelet. 


Cut thin slices of cold cooked beef and heat quickly in 
some butter, already hot, in a frying-pan. Season with salt, 
pepper, parsley, and lemon juice. Serve hot, with Saratoga 


Mince cold cooked beef, fat and lean, very fine ; season 
with chopped onion, pepper, salt, and gravy. Half fill patty- 
pans with this and then fill them with mashed potatoes ; put 
a bit of butter on each and brown in a hot oven. 


Chop up cold roast beef or other meat. Heat it with a 
cup of water in a spider. Season with pepper, salt, and a 
bit of sage, and thicken with a spoonful of flour mixed in a 
little cold water. Pour this into a deep pan, and make a 
crust a trifle richer than biscuit dough, which spread over 
the top, make an opening in, and bake. Cold potatoes may 
be added to the meat. 


Chop fine any bits of cold meat, even different kinds. 
Put it into a deep pie-plate an inch or more in depth. Sea- 
son it well with salt, pepper, catsup, or Chili sauce, and pour 
over any gravy there may be. Cover it all with a layer of 
mashed potatoes, and put bits of butter over the top, and 
scatter grated bread crumbs or cracker crumbs lightly over 
the whole. Crease with a knife, in squares, and bake in 
the oven until well-browned. Serve in the same dish. 


Mince up any cold pieces of meat, add a few crumbs of 
bread or crackers, and enough beaten egg to bind them 
together. Season well and pour into a well-buttered frying- 
pan. If it is difficult to turn it whole, a hot shovel may be 
held over the top until it is browned. 


Ragout. HASH. Minced Veal. 


Take pieces of any cold meats, cut small, put into a stew- 
pan with water to cover. Put in a minced onion, if 
liked, and some cold boiled potatoes sliced. Heat up, and 
when at a boiling point, thicken with flour. Season with 
pepper and salt. A dash of cayenne pepper improves it. 
Mince the onion very fine, or cook it alone before putting 
into stew. Meats to be hashed up should be heated through, 
not boiled. 


Take the clear pieces of cold corned beef, removing all 
gristle and bone. Chop fine, add twice the quantity of cold 
chopped potatoes. Moisten with some of the water the 
beef was cooked in, grease the spider with the fat that rises 
when cold. Warm well through. It may be moistened 
with milk, if preferred. Or, after the meat and potatoes are 
mixed together, it may be formed into flat cakes, and both 
sides browned on a flat griddle greased with butter or drip- 


Mix a teaspoon of flour with a tablespoon of cold water 
smoothly, and stir into a cup of boiling water. Add J a 
teaspoon of salt, nearly as much pepper, and 2 tablespoons 
butter. Keep hot. Chop the cold veal very fine and add 
to it half as much stale crumbs of bread. Put into a basin 
and pour the gravy over, and let heat about 10 minutes. 


Chop cold roast veal ; season with pepper, salt, nutmeg, 
and lemon peel ; moisten with a beaten egg and gravy or 
water. Put into a buttered dish, press down, cover, and set 
in a vessel of boiling water for an hour or more. Spread a 
beaten yolk of egg on the top and strew sifted bread crumbs 
over. Brown in the oven. Pour a little melted butter over 

arid garnish with slices of lemon. 
*i 4 


Wonders. HASH. Scrapple. 


Take cold mutton, chop fine, heat it in gravy, and add a 
spoon of catsup and a bit of butter. Thicken with a little 
flour made smooth in water, and serve on a platter sur- 
rounded with mashed potatoes. 


Mrs. J. E. Merritt, Chicago. 

Take any bits of cold meat and chop fine. Take half as 
much potatoes as meat, and the same quantity of bread 
broken fine and moistened with hot water. Good table- 
spoon of flour made into smooth paste for thickening, 2 or 3 
beaten eggs, any cold gravies that may be left over. Sea- 
son well. Drop from a spoon into a hot, well-greased spi- 
der. Drippings will answer. 


Mrs. C. S. Johnston, Harford, Penn. 

Take bits of cold fowl or any kind of cold meat, or 2 or 
3 kinds together. Cut up small, put in a frying-pan with 
water to cover. Season well. When it boils, thicken with 
corn meal stirred in carefully like mush, and about as thick. 
Cook a short time, pour into a dish to mould, slice off and 
fry for breakfast. 


Chop up cold meat and season with pepper, salt, butter, 
and a cup of gravy, if you have it ; if not, add a cup of 
water to a pint of minced meat. Put in a baking-dish, and 
cover with mashed potatoes. Bake J an hour in a well- 
heated oven. 


Take cold meat prepared as described for meat pie. 
Make a biscuit dough, cut into as many pieces as you want 
dumplings, roll each about a quarter of an inch thick, and 
as large as a pint bowl. Put a small tablespoon of the meat 


Fish Cake. CROQUETTES. Fish Croquettes. 

in the center, gather up and pinch the edges together, set 
close together on a buttered plate and steam in a closely 
covered steamer 20 minutes. Serve any gravy there may 
be, in a hot gravy dish. 


Take remnants of any cold fish, pick from the bones. 
Put the bones, fins, and heads in a pint of water, with a 
sliced onion, and stew for an hour. Chop the fish fine, mix 
with an equal quantity of mashed potatoes and the same of 
bread crumbs. Add a teaspoon of minced parsley, salt, and 
pepper to taste, and make into a cake with an egg. Cover 
with beaten egg and crumbs of bread, and fry a light 
brown. Strain the gravy and pour it over, and serve. 
Garnish with parsley and thin slices of lemon. 


Croquettes are fried in hot fat the same as doughnuts. 

Miss Juliet Corson. 

Stir together in a saucepan over the fire a tablespoon each 
of flour and butter. Add either w r ater or milk, making a 
thick sauce. This quantity is for a pint of cold flakes of 
fish. Let the sauce boil up, season with salt and pepper, 
put in the cold fish, and scald up, then remove and stir into 
it the yolks of 2 or 3 eggs. Rub a deep plate with salad 
oil, and pour the mixture in and let get thoroughly cold. 
Then make up into cork-shaped rolls. Wet the hands to 
prevent sticking. Roll in sifted bread crumbs, dip in beaten 
egg, then again in bread crumbs, and fry in smoking hot fat, 
like doughnuts, until a delicate brown. Take out of the fat 


Salmon. CROQUETTES. Egg. 

with a skimmer, and lay on a brown paper an instant to 
absorb the fat. A teaspoon of onion chopped fine and fried 
in the butter before the sauce is made imparts a nice flavor 
to the croquettes. A perfect croquette is semi-liquid in the 
center. Melted butter is not so good as oil for greasing the 
dish, as it will not prevent sticking. The finer the cracker 
dust, the more easily the croquettes are prepared, and the 
nicer they will fry. They should be rolled and sifted. 


Mrs. Ann Wallis, Lewisburg, Ky. 

One can salmon, an equal quantity of mashed potatoes. 
Make into little cakes, roll in white of egg and rolled crack- 
er, and fry. 


Mix a quart of oysters with I cup of mashed potatoes. 
Cut the mass up fine with a knife. Add i pound rolled 
crackers. Season with butter, pepper, salt, and add the oys- 
ter liquor, adding milk if more moisture is needed. Make 
into* small rolls, dip in beaten egg, and then in powdered 
cracker, and fry. 


Mrs. J. R. Jackson, Centerville, Mississippi. 

One can of lobsters. Add to I pint of rolled crackers or 
light bread crumbs, a large onion chopped fine, I tablespoon 
butter, 4 hard-boiled eggs chopped i teaspoon black pep- 
per, salt to taste. Make cakes like sausage meat, dip in 
meal and fry. 


Boil 12 eggs hard. Cut the yolks and whites in dice. 
Mix with a white sauce and grated bread crumbs sufficient 
to shape with the hand, and let get cold. Season with salt 
and pepper, form into cakes, and roll in grated bread. Let 
stand an hour, and fry. 


Chicken. CROQUETTES. Green Corn. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Put a tablespoon of butter in a saucepan over the fire. 
Fry in it a teaspoon of chopped onion and a heaping table- 
spoon of flour. Add a pint of milk or water slowly, to the 
consistency of a sauce that will cling to the spoon. Season 
with salt and pepper. Put in it | pound of cooked chicken 
and pound of mushrooms cut in small pieces, but not 
chopped. Let cook a minute, then remove and stir in the 
yolks of 2 or 3 eggs. Pour into a well-buttered deep plate, 
well rubbed with oil. Pour a few drops of oil on top to 
keep the chicken from hardening. Let cool several hours 
before breading and frying. 


Put a tablespoon of butter and 2 teaspoons of flour in a 
saucepan, cook until smooth, stirring constantly. Add a 
small onion minced fine, and a cup of milk. Season to 
taste. When cold, add a pint of chopped cooked veal. 
Roll into oblong shape, dip in beaten egg and then in bread 
crumbs, and fry. If the mixture seems to require it, add 1 
or 2 eggs to bind it. 


i quart young, tender, grated green corn. 
I cup sifted flour. 

1 cup sweet milk. 

5 tablespoons butter. 

2 eggs. 

i salt spoon of salt ; same of pepper. 

Grate the corn as fine as possible, and mix with the flour, 
and pepper and salt. Warm the milk and melt the butter 
in it. Add the corn, stir hard, and let cool. Then stir the 
eggs beaten very light, the whites added last. Work into 


Potato. CROQUETTES. Bread. 

small oval balls, and fry in plenty of hot lard, or lard and 
butter mixed. Drain and serve hot. 


Season cold mashed potato with pepper, salt, and nutmeg. 
Beat to a cream, with a tablespoon of melted butter to 
every cup of potato. Bind with 2 beaten eggs, and add 
a teaspoon minced parsley. Roll into oval balls, dip in 
beaten egg, then in bread crumbs, and fry. Pile in a pyra- 
mid upon a flat dish, and serve. 


Take cold boiled rice ; allow a small spoon of butter and 
a beaten egg to each cup of boiled rice. Roll into oval 
balls, with floured hands. Dip in beaten egg, then in sifted 
bread or cracker crumbs, and fry in hot lard. Good with 
maple syrup. 


Chop stale bread very fine. Moisten with water only 
enough to soften it. Add a beaten egg, and a teaspoon of 
melted butter to each pint, a pinch of salt and pepper, and 
a bit of sage, if liked. Form into small rolls, and dip in 
very fine cracker dust, or flour, and fry. 


AUCES, as well as the condiments used in 
seasoning food, while they may not be 
so nutritious in themselves, render many 
dishes very palatable, that might other- 
wise be rejected. Vinegar and salt are 
considered beneficial, because vinegar helps 

to reduce muscular fiber to a fluid state, and salt helps 

to form bone and muscle. 

Sauces are served with fish, game, poultry, and meat. 

A small wooden stick or paddle is much better to use in 
making sauces and gravies than a spoon. It can scrape the 
bottom of a kettle without scratching or marring. 

Mustard as a condiment is held in high favor, and can be 
freely used without injury to the digestive organs. It really 
aids digestion. 


The sweet herbs in common use are thyme, basil, mint, 
sweet marjoram, summer savory, and sage. 


Turmeric powder, 3 ounces ; coriander seed powder, 4 
ounces ;- black pepper, 2 ounces ; fenugreek and ginger each 
i ounce ; cayenne pepper and cumin seed each \ ounce. 
Pound very fine, sift, and keep tightly corked in a bottle. 


Mustard. SAUCES. White Sauc. 


Mrs. J. E. Chace, Mishawaka, Indiana. 

2 tablespoons ground mustard. 

I tablespoon sugar. 

I tablespoon melted butter. 

I teaspoon salt. 

Pour boiling water on the mustard to dissolve it, then add 
the other ingredients. Stir well, and then pour on good 
vinegar till as thin as syrup. 


One tablespoon chopped capers, I tablespoon butter, I 
saltspoon salt, a pinch of pepper. Serve with boiled fish. 


Half cup butter, dessertspoon of flour rubbed well together. 
Put into a saucepan with one cup water or stock. Cover 
and set in a larger vessel of boiling water. Keep moving 
the saucepan. Season with salt and pepper. When 
thoroughly mixed, take off. Do not let boil. 


Cup melted butter, teaspoon chopped parsley, juice one 
lemon, pinch cayenne and salt ; let simmer, but not boil. 


First make a Mayonnaise ; mix with it I tablespoon each 
of chopped parsley, capers, and gherkins, and I teaspoon 
chopped onions. 


Tablespoon each butter and flour made smooth in a sauce- 
pan over the fire, and a pint of water added slowly. If it 
seems too thin, cook longer. By using milk or cream it 
becomes cream sauce. 

Hollandaise. SAUCES. Celery. 


For each pint use i tablespoon each of butter and flour. 
Mix in a saucepan over the fire, and gradually add ij cups 
boiling water. Stir into this the yolks of 3 eggs, I table- 
spoon lemon juice or vinegar, 3 tablespoons salad oil, and 
mustard if liked. Serve with fish. 

Add chopped hard-boiled eggs to a plain white sauce. 


I cup hot water in a stewpan. 

1 cup butter. 

2 tablespoons grated bread crumbs. 
Grated rind of a lemon. 

i blade mace. 

Let cook slowly about 5 minutes. Add to this I cup 
sweet cider, and 2 or 3 lumps loaf sugar. Let boil up and 


Make a drawn butter sauce. Dip a bunch of fresh parsley 
into boiling water, then mince it and stir into the drawn 


Stir half a cup of butter with a teaspoon of prepared 
mustard and a pinch of pepper, and mix well with a cup of 
hot vinegar. If the vinegar is very strong, weaken it. 
Serve with boiled lobster or fish. 


Cook in a pint of water 2 heads of celery cut small ; I 
teaspoon salt. Rub together a tablespoon of flour with 
same of butter, and put into a pint of cream or rich milk. 
Pour over the celery, let come to a boil, and serve, 
*i 5 


Asparagus. SAUCES. Lobster, 


Boil 12 tender heads of asparagus in a very little salted 
water. When done, drain and chop. Have ready a pint of 
drawn butter, with 2 raw eggs beaten into it, add the cooked 
asparagus, and season with salt and pepper, squeezing in 
the juice of half a lemon. The butter must be hot, but do 
not cook after adding the asparagus. This accompanies 
boiled fowls, stewed fillet of veal, or boiled mutton. 


About ^ pint of button mushrooms, or an equal bulk of 
mushroom flaps, wiped carefully and cut into small pieces. 
Put into a cup of boiling water with a tablespoon of butter, 
and pepper and salt to taste. Let simmer very gently for 
10 minutes. Then thicken with a tablespoon of flour mixed 
with a tablespoon of butter. Add the juice of half a lemon. 
Serve with roast meats. 


Peel and boil 4 good-sized onions tender. Drain, chop 
fine, add a cup of milk, a teaspoon of butter, a saltspoon of 
salt, pepper to taste. Heat to boiling, and serve. 


Mix 2 tablespoons chopped spear mint with ^ cup of 
vinegar and a tablespoon of sugar. Serve with roast lamb 
or mutton. 


Pick the meat of a hen lobster from the shell, cut in 
small squares and set aside. The spawn is under the tail. 
Pound it smooth with J tablespoon of butter. Then rub 
through a sieve. Melt a fujl cup of butter ; add to it a table- 

Shrimp. SAUCES. Tomato Soy. 

spoon of anchovy sauce (or a teaspoon of essence,) a pinch of 
salt, cayenne, and pounded mace, and the sifted spawn. 
Mix well, add the lobster, heat till near boiling, but do not 
let boil, as the color will be spoiled. Serve with turbot 
or salmon. 


Clean \ pint of shrimps very carefully. Mince and add 
a coffee-cup of melted butter, a pinch of cayenne, and, if 
liked, a teaspoon of anchovy sauce. Let simmer 5 min- 
utes. Serve with fish. 


After soaking 2 anchovies in cold water for 2 hours, put 
them in a pint of cold water in a stewpan, and let simmer 
until the fish are dissolved. Strain the water, add 3 table- 
spoons vinegar and a cup of melted butter. Let simmer 15 
minutes longer. Serve with boiled fish or meat. 


Stir 2 tablespoons of anchovy essence into a cup of 
melted butter. Season with a pinch of cayenne and mace. 
Let boil up for I or 2 minutes. 


Mrs. J. R. Flanders, Joliet, 111. 

Twenty-four large ripe tomatoes, 7 white onions, medium 
size, 2 small green peppers all chopped fine; 5 cups vinegar, 
2 tablespoons salt, I cup sugar heat vinegar and sugar, add 
the other ingredients, boil I hour; seal up. Spices may be 
added, if liked about a tablespoon each of allspice and cin- 
namon, less of cloves. 


Mrs. E. B. Baldwin. 

Two gallons green tomatoes sliced, 12 large onions sliced, 
2 quarts vinegar, I quart sugar, 2 tablespoons each of salt, 

Queen of Oude. SAUCES. German. 

ground mustard, and black pepper ground, I tablespoon 
each of allspice and cloves. Stew till tender, seal in glass 


Mrs. A. W. Stewart, Logan, Iowa. 

I peck green tomatoes. 
4 onions. 
8 green peppers. 

I quart small pieces of horse radish. 

Chop fine, and sprinkle with I cup salt. Let stand over 
night. Drain carefully, and add 
i cup sugar. 

i tablespoon each of cinnamon, allspice, cloves. 

Cover with vinegar, and cook 4 or 5 hours slowly. Put 

away in a stone crock. If preferred, take i cup of grated 

horse radish and add when cooking, instead of using the cut 



Mrs. Albert Willson, Johnson Junction, Ky. 

i gallon cabbage. 
i gallon tomatoes. 

1 quart onions. 
All chopped together. 

3 tablespoons ground mustard. 
2 tablespoons ground pepper. 

2 tablespoons cloves. 

3 gills mustard seed, 
i gill salt. 

i pound sugar. 
3 quarts vinegar. 
Boil together an hour or two, stirring well. 

ARNISHES in cookery are anything used 
for decorating dishes of fish, game, 
poultry, meat, or salad. They may be 
placed in the form of vines across or 
around the article on the dish, or in 
small clusters at either end. A single 
sprig of green is sometimes sufficient ornamentation. One 
slice of lemon cut crosswise will answer for a mutton 
chop, or for a couple of sardines. It should be placed on 
the top. A sprig of parsley put on a small porter-house 
steak about midway is very attractive, and almost an appe- 

The articles most frequently used as garnishes are as 
follow : 

Parsley and celery tops for cold meat, poultry, and fish, 
and for chops, cutlets, steaks, and salads. 

Parsley is used for roasts as well as for the dishes men- 
tioned above. 

Parsley or curled lettuce for scalloped oysters. 
Lettuce, especially curled, can be used as effectively as 

Lemon is almost a universal garnish. The same may be 
said of parsley. 

Slices of lemon, cut very thin, for sardines, raw oysters, 
boiled fowl, turkey, fish, roast veal, steaks, salads. 

Sheep sorrel may be used with or in place of lemon, and 
is exceedingly pretty. 

Water-Cress. GARNISHES. Smilax. 

Water-cresses may be used for mock duck. 

Garden-fennel for mackerel or salmon. 

Capers for salads. 

Currant jelly for game, cold tongue, etc. 

Gherkins, or large pickles cut crosswise, for cold corned 
beef sliced. 

Cold hard-boiled eggs sliced for cold boiled ham cut in 
thin slices. 

Link sausages for roast turkey, put around the edge of 
the platter. 

Anchovies may be used as a garnish for cold meats. 

Different-colored vegetables may be sliced or cut in dice, 
and placed around almost any dish of meat or fish. 

Boiled carrot sliced, for boiled beef. 

Beets, pickled and sliced, for cold meat, boiled beef, salt 

Potato croquettes, or Saratoga potatoes, may be used with 
a roast or sirloin of beef. 

Boiled rice is used on the platter around a boiled leg of 

Boiled rice colored with cochineal is a pretty garnish. 

Boiled rice in balls, dotted with bright jelly, has a pretty 
effect around a plate of cold meat. 

Anchovies on toast furnish a nice relish. 

Those who are fortunate enough to have a garden, may 
always find something green for a garnish or decoration. 

Smilax is a pretty table decoration. It is placed entirely 
around the edge of the table cloth, before raw oysters are 
served, after which it is removed. Wreathed over and 
about a dish of fruit, it is extremely pleasing to the eye. 

RESSING for salads may be prepared and 
bottled for future use. Salads should be 
eaten the day they are prepared. This 
applies particularly to vegetable salads. 
By standing, they not only lose their 
freshness, but their pretty and crisp ap- 
pearance, which is so much in a salad. Chicken salad 
may be kept several days. 

Celery, cabbage, or lettuce may be crisped by putting into 
ice-cold water for a couple of hours. 

Celery stalks may be fringed by cutting them into finger 
lengths and drawing half of the length through several 
coarse needles that are stuck in a cork. When the fibers 
are pretty well separated, lay the celery in a cool place. 
This is also very pretty for a garnish. 

In all salads where butter is called for, salad oil may be 
used instead, bearing in mind to use about half the quantity. 
White pepper is considered better for table use than 
black. In salads and any delicate cookery, it is to be pre- 



One tablespoon vinegar, 3 tablespoons salad oil, I table- 
spoon salt, j saltspoon pepper. Stir together. Less oil is 
preferred by many. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

For i pint, use the yolk of I egg, a saltspoon or more ol 
salt, half of pepper, a dust of cayenne pepper, a level tea- 


Lettuce Dressing. SALADS. Summer Salad. 

spoon of dry mustard, a teaspoon of lemon juice or vinegar. 
Mix to a smooth paste, then add salad oil and vinegar (or 
lemon juice), a very few drops at a time, first of one then of 
the other, stirring constantly until 3 gills of oil and 4 table- 
spoons of the lemon or vinegar have been added. Make in 
a cool place. If it curdles, stir in half a teaspoon of the 
vinegar or lemon alone. Mix well, and if that does not 
bring it right, set it in the ice-box for a while. If it still 
curdles, take another yolk and begin over again, and gradu- 
ally stir in the curdled sauce, and it will come out all right. 
If a white mayonnaise is desired, use the white of the egg. 
It will keep a long time. Set on ice a short time before 


Mrs. G. G. Bennett, Dead wood, Dakota. 

Yolks of 2 hard-boiled eggs, 2 tablespoons sweet cream, 
teaspoon pepper, sugar, and mustard, \ teaspoon salt. Rub 
together, let stand 5 minutes, add vinegar, and pour over 
lettuce cold. Garnish with the whites of eggs. 


Pick and wash the lettuce, place it in the salad dish, slice 
3 or 4 hard-boiled eggs over the top. Then take a 
cup of rich cream, either sweet or sour, I cup vinegar, 2 
tablespoons sugar, a saltspoon of salt. Mix and pour over. 


3 heads of lettuce. 

10 small radishes. 

i cucumber sliced. 

A bunch of mustard and cress. 

Unless the ingredients are very tresh, lay them in cold 
water for an hour or two. Drain them carefully in a cloth, 
cut the lettuce in small pieces, and slice the radishes and 
cucumber thinly. Arrange them in a salad bowl with the 
mustard and cress on the top. Garnish with slices of hard- 


Slaw with Celery. SALADS. Slaw with Dressing 

boiled eggs, and pour French salad dressing under, not over 
it. Do not add the dressing until just before the salad is 


Take the quantity desired of endive, mustard, cress, and 
celery. Clean thoroughly, dry in a cloth, and put in a salad 
bowl. Garnish with rings of hard-boiled eggs and boiled 
beet. Pour any salad dressing into the dish, but not over 
the salad 


Shave a hard head of cabbage very fine and add a stalk 
of celery cut fine, or, in the absence of celery, use a tea- 
spoon of celery seed. Dress with pepper, salt, and cold 


Mrs. Nellie Roe, Kansas City, Mo. 

Shred cabbage very fine, or chop fine in a chopping bowl. 
Mix together 

i teaspoon black pepper. 

1 teaspoon mustard. 

2 tablespoons white sugar. 
J cup sour cream. 

cup vinegar. 
J teaspoon salt. 
More sugar if your taste requires. Pour over cold. 


Mrs. L. S. Hodge, Chicago. 

I teacup vinegar. 
I tablespoon butter. 

1 teaspoon flour. 

2 small tablespoons sugar. 
Pepper and salt. 

Cook, pour over chopped or sliced cabbage while hot. 

Cover closely, and eat cold. 


Water-Cress. SALADS. Orange Salad. 


Mrs. M. A. Smith, Chicago. 

Half pint vinegar, butter size of egg, I egg, 2 teaspoons 
sugar, i each mustard and salt ; pepper. Boil vinegar, take 
from stove and stir all ingredients together quickly, and 
pour over the cabbage. Cover closely, and serve in 5 or 10 


Pick out the discolored leaves, wash the clusters carefully, 
and put them in a salad dish. Lay over them slices of 
hard-boiled egg. Pour a salad dressing over, before the egg 
is laid on. 


For 8 or 10 persons, peek and slice in round slices 6 
oranges. Grate the rind of one, squeeze the juice from 
i lemon, mix together the juice of lemon, the rind of 
orange, and 3 tablespoons salad oil, and a pinch of cayenne 
pepper. Pour over the sliced oranges. A very nice accom- 
paniment to roast duck or game. Its place is with game. 


Mrs. E. H. Stair, Zionsville, Incl. 

Pare and boil 6 good-sized potatoes. Mash well. Take 
up in a dish, stir well with a fork in order to have them lay 
light in the dish. A half hour before serving, slice a large 
onion very thin and place the slices here and there 
through the potato. For the dressing take : 

3 teaspoons melted butter. 

3 teaspoons cream. 

J teaspoon salt. 

^ teaspoon white pepper (ground). 

^ cup vinegar. 

When thoroughly cooked, add 2 well-beaten eggs. Let 
stand until cool and then pour over the potato, at which 
time the onions may be taken out of the potato, if desired. 
Very convenient when you have mashed potatoes left over, 


Potato. SALADS. Chicken. 


Mrs. C. E. Hendrickson, Chicago. 

Wash and boil 4 large potatoes. While hot, peel and 
slice thin with I small, raw onion. Sprinkle with salt and 
pepper. Put a tablespoon of butter in a spider, let it brown, 
pour in | of a cup of vinegar. When it boils up, pour it 
over the salad. Add 2 sliced hard-boiled eggs. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

A tablespoon salad oil made hot. Break 3 eggs into it, 
and stir a little. Season with salt and pepper. Turn out as 
soon as it hardens a trifle, sprinkle over the top a table- 
spoon chopped cucumber, same of grated lemon rind, a 
tablespoon lemon juice, and 3 tablespoons salad oil. 


Mrs. E. K. Owens, Minerva, Kentucky. 

This recipe will make nearly a gallon of salad and will 
keep for days, and even weeks, in cool weather. 

I large chicken, boiled tender and chopped. 

12 eggs, hard-boiled. 

I cup salad oil or melted butter. 

6 stuffed pickled peppers, chopped. 

3 cups chopped celery. 

1 teaspoon ground pepper. 

2 tablespoons black mustard, ground. 
I cup good vinegar. 

Rub the yolks with the oil. If the chicken is fat, the oil 
taken from the water in which it is boiled is much 
better than salad oil. Chop the whites of the eggs. Put all 
the ingredients in a tray and work with the hands, until 
thoroughly incorporated. If celery cannot be procured, use 
white tender cabbage, and get celery seed and put into vin- 
egar over night and use that vinegar for the salad. If 
pickled peppers cannot be had, use other pickles and some 
pepper sauce. 


Salmon. SALADS. Oyster. 

Chicken Sfilad. 

Mrs. M. A. Smith, Chicago. 

I chicken weighing about 2\ pounds. 

I small cup chopped celery. 

4 hard-boiled eggs. 

I tablespoon olive oil or melted butter. 

i teaspoon prepared mustard. 

I teaspoon salt. 

i teaspoon pepper. 

\ cup vinegar. 

Boil the chicken tender. Pick in small pieces, mix with 
the celery. Chop the eggs, add to the other ingredients and 
pour over. 


Miss Bettie A. Hill, Maysville, Ky. 

I can salmon, cut in small pieces. 

I very small head of hard cabbage, chopped fine. 

1 dozen small cucumber pickles, chopped. 

2 hard-boiled eggs, chopped. 

Mix the ingredients well together, and pour over i pint 
vinegar after heating it to scalding and seasoning it with 
pepper, salt, and mustard to suit the taste. 


Mrs. M. A. Smith. 

Chop lobster up fine. Chop fine twice the quantity of let- 
tuce that vou have of lobster, mix, season with pepper, salt, 
mustard, and vinegar. If lettuce is not to be had, use fine 
white cabbage. 


Mrs. M. M. Jones, Nashville, Tenn. 

To I large can of cove oysters, take \ tin cup each of vine- 
gar, butter, and powdered crackers, yolks of 4 eggs, i tea- 
spoon of mustard, salt and pepper to taste. Beat the yolks 
of the eggs, add the butter and oyster liquor and then the 
crackers. Place over the fire and stir constantly until 
almost done, then add the vinegar and mustard. When it 


Salmagundi. SALADS. Camp Relish. 

thickens, pour it over the oysters. Garnish with hard- 
boiled eggs and parsley. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Dress this salad on a standing salad dish or a fruit dish. 
Use chopped veal or chicken, hard-boiled eggs, white and 
yolk chopped separately, sardines or anchovies, tongue, 
pickled beets or red cabbage, chopped pickles or capers, and 
parsley or water-cresses. Prepare all of these separately, 
and arrange them in little rows, placing the colors so they 
will harmonize. Dress with plain French salad dressing, 
using 3 times as much oil as vinegar or lemon juice. If sar- 
dines are used, get the boneless sardines at a trifling excess 
of cost. Grated orange or lemon rinds are nice additions. 
Salmagundi is specially adapted for night suppers. 


Take at least three colors of vegetables, beet, carrot, and 
turnip. Cut the carrot and turnip in slices over an inch 
thick, then take an apple-corer or a smaller cylinder, and 
cut through the slices as many pieces as can be gotten. 
When enough are cut, boil each kind separately in a little 
vessel, putting over in boiling salted water. When just ten- 
der, drain and lay in cold water. Beets are not to be 
soaked in cold water, but boiled whole and cut up when 
ready to serve in the salad. Lay the colors around on a 
small salad platter, rather than a h ;h salad dish, in little 
groups, and pour over a plain French salad dressing. 


Take a can of mackerel or a cooked salt mackerel, chop 
with raw onion and pickles, and pour vinegar over. 


Grate it during the season, put into bottles, and fill up 
with strong vinegar. Cork tight and keep in a cool place. 


Grape. CATSUPS. Pepp.r. 



Four pounds of grapes. Stew until soft. Put through a 
colander. Add 

3 pounds sugar. 2 tablespoons cloves. 

2 tablespoons cinnamon, i cup vinegar. 
Let simmer 15 minutes. Seal up. 


5 pounds currants, crushed. 
3 pounds light brown sugar. 

1 pint good vinegar. 

2 tablespoons ground cinnamon 

I tablespoon each ground cloves and allspice. 
\ teaspoon salt. 
i teaspoon black pepper. 
Boil fast i hour, cool, and bottle tight. 


Pass through a colander 4 quarts stewed berries. To the 
pulp add \\ pints vinegar, I tablespoon each of cloves, cin- 
namon, and allspice, and 3 pounds sugar. Stir 10 or 15 min- 
utes. Common red plums are nice this way. 


Take large green cucumbers, peel them, put in cold water 
for an hour or two, then grate on a coarse grater into a 
sieve. When the pulp has drained well, put it into bottles 
or jars f full, fill up with vinegar, and seal. If the pulp is 
not drained, it will weaken the vinegar so it will not keep. 


Fifty large, red, bell peppers, seed and all. Add I pint 
vinegar. Boil till you can put it through a sieve. Add 
another pint of vinegar, 2 spoons of sugar, I teaspoon each 
of cloves, mace, spice, and salt ; onion, if liked. The spics 
may be omitted. Boil all together until thick. 


Tomato. CATSUPS, Mushroom 


Mrs. Monroe Heath, Chicago. 

Select good ripe tomatoes. Scald and strain through a 
coarse sieve, to remove seeds and skins ; then add to each 
gallon, when cold, 3 tablespoons of salt, 2 of ground mus- 
tard, I of black pepper, J of cayenne pepper, I of ground all- 
spice, J of cloves, i pint of cider or white wine vinegar. 
Simmer slowly 4 hours. Bottle and cork tight. 

Tomato Catsup. 

Mrs. L. S. Hodge. 

One bushel ripe tomatoes, boil until soft, and strain 
through a sieve. Add 2 quarts vinegar, I cup salt, I ounce 
cayenne pepper, 5 heads garlic, skinned and parted, 2 ounces 
whole cloves, 4 ounces whole allspice, and 3 teaspoons whole 
black pepper. Mix and boil 3 hours. Bottle without strain- 
ing. The tomatoes will keep their own color if the spices 
are put in whole. 


i peck green tomatoes. 

6 red peppers, or 

I teaspoon cayenne. 

4 tablespoons salt. 

4 tablespoons black pepper. 

I tablespoon mustard. 

I tablespoon ground cloves. 

1 tablespoon allspice. 

2 quarts good vinegar. 

Cook the tomatoes and peppers in vinegar till soft. Strain, 
add spices, and boil slowly 5 hours. Let cool, put in bot- 
tles, and seal. 


Allow a pint of salt to a peck of fresh mushrooms. 
Sprinkle the salt over them in layers and let stand for 12 
hours. Mash fine and put through a sieve'. To each quart 
add a tablespoon of whole peppercorns. Boil closely cov- 
ered for about 3 hours. The better way is to put into a 


Spiced Currants. CATSUPS. Spiced Peaches. 

covered jar and set it into a vessel of boiling water. Then 
turn into a stewpan and let simmer half an hour. Pour into 
a jug and let stand in a cool place until the following day. 
Then pour into another jug. Do not pour out the sediment. 
Cork and seal. If allspice and mace are liked, the propor- 
tion is J ounce of spice and 2 blades of mace. 


One hundred young, tender walnuts. Prick and put into 
a jar with water to cover, and a cup of salt. Stir twice a 
day for 2 weeks. Drain the liquor into, a kettle. Cover the 
walnuts with boiling vinegar, mash to a pulp, and put 
through a colander into the kettle. For every quart of this 
take 2 ounces each of white pepper and ginger, I each of 
cloves and grated nutmeg, a pinch of cayenne, a small 
onion minced fine, and a teaspoon of celery seed tied in 
muslin. Boil altogether for i hour. Bottle when cold. 


Mrs. W. F. Van Bergen, Oak Park, 111. 

5 pounds currants. 

3 pounds B sugar. 
i pint vinegar. 

I tablespoon each salt, cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. 
Boil the sugar, spices, and vinegar together 10 minutes. 
Add the currants, crushed, and boil hard 20 minutes. 


i peck peaches. 2 quarts vinegar. 

4 pounds sugar. 3 nutmegs. 

i tablespoon each cloves and cinnamon. 
Pare the peaches and place in layers in a jr with the 
spices. Boil sugar and vinegar together and pour over, 3 
days in succession, and on the fourth day boil all together 
20 minutes. 

,EGETABLES entirely fresh will cook quick- 
er than those that have stood for some 
time. Most vegetables are better steamed 
than boiled. It is conceded that vegeta- 
bles cook more easily in soft water than 
in hard. When put over to cook, unless 
otherwise directed, put into boiling water, and keep it 
boiling, else, by stopping, the lowered temperature will 
soften them and detract from their color. 

After washing vegetables, lay them in cold water till time 
to put over to cook. 

It is particularly necessary to put cabbage or cauliflower 
into cold water half an hour before cooking. This will 
draw out all insects that may be imbedded in the leaves, 
and make them crisp and nicer every way. 

Put all vegetables into boiling water unless otherwise 

A pinch of salt, pepper, or spice, means about J a salt- 

When potatoes are first washed, they may be cooked 
without any water, by putting them into a closely-covered 
stewpan. The cover must fit perfectly, and the vessel must 
set flat on the stove. I have cooked them that way many 
times. Set the stewpan on top of the stove, shake occasion- 
ally, but do not lift the cover under half an hour. Try it. 


Peel, cut in two, and cook tender ; drain ; mash fine with 
*i 7 


Quirled Potatoes VEGETABLES. Potatoes a !a Creme. 

a large fork, or, what is still better, the Victor vegetable 
masher. The latter renders them extremely mealy. Sea- 
son with butter and salt. Pour in a cup of cream or milk 
for a family of half a dozen persons. Beat in thoroughly 
with a wooden spoon ; keep beating till your potatoes are a 
foamy white. Take up in a tureen. Dash a little pepper 
on in spots, if liked. Serve hot, with any kind of meats 
used at dinner. 


Peel, boil, season, and mash potatoes, then put through a 
colander into the dish in which you wish to serve. Brown 
in the oven. 


Peel 6 good-sized potatoes, place in a chopping bowl, scat- 
ter over them flour enough to fill a tea-cup, add sail, pepper, 
and butter to taste, chop fine and mix well. Grease a deep 
pie-tin, spread the mixture in it, and cover with cream ; 
bake slowly | of an hour or less. 


Peel and slice thin into cold water. Drain well, and dry 
in a towel. Fry a few at a time in boiling lard. Salt as 
you take them out, and lay them on coarse brown paper for 
a short time. They are very nice cold for lunch, or to take 
to picnics. 


If the potatoes are wiped dry, they will bake much sooner 
than if put into the oven wet from washing them. 


Put into a saucepan 3 tablespoons of butter, a small hand- 
ful of minced parsley, salt and pepper to taste. Stir up 
well until hot, add a small tea-cup of cream or rich milk, 
thicken with 2 teaspoons of flour, and stir until it boils. 
Chop some cold boiled potatoes, put into the mixture, and 
boil up once before serving. 

Boiled Potatoes. VEGETABLES. Scalloped Potatoes. 


If they are to be served whole, wash well (it is easier to 
wash with a cloth), cut an end off, or a narrow strip entirely 
around. This makes them meaiy. When done, pour off 
the water and set on the back of the stove with a towel laid 
over them. 


Two cups mashed potatoes, with 2 spoons melted butter, 
beaten until creamy. Then add 2 well-beaten eggs and a 
cup of cream or milk, a little salt ; beat. well. Pour into a 
baking-dish, spread butter over the top and bake quickly a 
delicate brown. 


Take the remains of mashed potatoes ; make into flat 
balls, dip in beaten egg, and fry a nice brown in drippings. 


Boil, peel, and slice 6 potatoes. Put a sliced onion into a 
hot buttered frying-pan. When a little brown, put in the 
potatoes. Season, and when a golden brown, sprinkle over 
them a tablespoon chopped parsley. A combination of onion 
and parsley always means Lyonnaise. 


Pare and cut raw potatoes in balls like walnuts. Boil 
them in salted water till tender. Drain and lay them on a 
towel to dry for a moment, and then brown in hot lard, the 
same as doughnuts. It will take but a very short time. 
Take out, sprinkle with a little salt, and serve on a platter 
with broiled beefsteak. 


Pare the potatoes, cover the bottom of a baking dish with 
bread crumbs ; then add a layer of sliced potatoes, bits of 
butter, salt, arid pepper ; fill the dish with alternate layers ; 
wet the whole with milk and bake for i| hours. 


Potato Mangle. VEGETABLES, Potato Dumplings. 


Mrs. O. S. Matteson, Chicago, 

Pare and boil 6 large potatoes. Boil 6 eggs hard. Let 
cool and remove the shells. Chop eggs and potatoes 
together coarsely. Season with pepper and salt, and either 
melted butter or cream. Serve for lunch or tea. 


Mrs. O. S. Matteson. 

Take a pint of mashed potatoes, season with pepper, salt, 
and a pinch of nutmeg. Yolk of I egg. Make into flat 
cakes, put in a baking-pan, brush the top with white of egg, 
and brown in a quick oven. 


Miss Emma Harvey, Bowling Green, Ky. 

Peel 6 medium-sized potatoes, wash and grate on a coarse 
grater. Add 2 eggs, I teaspoon quick yeast (or baking 
powder), ^ teaspoon of salt. I cup milk, 2 cups flour. Mix 
well, and drop by spoonsful into smoking hot lard. Fry 
brown and crisp like doughnuts. 


Fred Dresel, Maysville, Ky. 

10 cold boiled potatoes. 

20 raw potatoes, medium size. 

3 eggs. 

2 cups flour. 

1 teaspoon baking powder. 

2 teaspoons salt. 

3 slices of bread, fried in dice. 

Grate the raw potatoes, drain off all the water, and squeeze 
in a cloth. Add the cold potatoes, also grated, and put with 
the other ingredients. Form into balls the size of a goose- 
egg, and put into boiling water. Boil half an hour or until 
they rise to the top. Serve with meat gravy, butter, or 
sour sauce made as follows : Cut a large onion in small 
pieces and fry brown in butter, add 2\ cups water, J cup 


Potato Cakes. VEGETABLES. Yams. 

vinegar, and thicken with 2 scant tablespoons of flour wet 
with cold water, and season with pepper and salt. 


Mrs. E. L. Hill, Maysville, Ky. 

i quart grated raw potatoes, measured after grating. 
4 eggs, we'll beaten. 
i tablespoon flour ; pinch of salt. 
I teaspoon baking powder. 

Fry in a skillet in hot lard, in flat cakes, turning like 
batter-cakes. Serve hot. Leave the water in the potatoes 
after grating. 


Miss Ida Jones, Nashville, Tenn. 

Boil the potatoes, then peel and cut in half inch slices. 
Put a layer in a pie-tin, dredge with J teaspoon of flour, 2 
teaspoons sugar, small lumps of butter, add ^ cup water, and 
brown in a hot oven. Serve hot. 


Parboil and cut in half inch slices. Sprinkle with pepper, 
salt, and, if liked, add a little sugar. Fry with a slice of salt 
pork. Serve hot. 


Parboil or steam until nearly done. Then put into a 
dripping-pan with a roast of either beef or pork, and finish 


Steam until tender, peel, and slice, and put into a but- 
tered pudding-dish in layers, sprinkling each layer with bits 
of butter and a tablespoon of sugar. Pour a cup of cream 
or milk over the whole, and bake brown in the oven. 


Select large ripe ones. Make a hole in the center and 
stuff with bread-crumbs, seasoned with butter, salt, and pep- 
per. Place in a deep pan with a cup of water, and bake. 


Fried Ripe Tomatoes. VEGETABLES. Stewed Green Tomatoes. 


Mrs? May F. Johnston, Ne\v York City. 

Slice the tomatoes thin and clip lightly in cracker dust. 
Fry in butter until a rich brown, then remove to a platter. 
Make a gravy by adding milk to the butter in which the 
tomatoes were fried, thickened with a very little flour, and 
seasoned with pepper and salt, and pour over the tomatoes. 


Slice onions and green tomatoes thin, and fry in drippings 
the same as you would fry onions alone. Season with, salt 
and pepper. 


Peel and slice nice, smooth, ripe tomatoes. Place in a 
baking-dish a layer with salt and pepper ; then a layer of 
bread or cracker crumbs, with small lumps of butter. 
Repeat till the dish is full ; bake about an hour ; onion may 
be added, if liked. Green tomatoes similarly scalloped are 
said to be even better than ripe ones. 


Scald and skin the desired number, and place in a stew- 
pan without water ; let them simmer for half an hour. Add 
pepper, salt, and a good-sized piece of butter. Grate a few 
bits of stale bread over all ; boil up once, and serve very 
hot. A nice variation in stewed tomatoes is to put into the 
stewpan 2 tablespoons raw rice to a quart of tomatoes when 
first put over to cook. Stew tender and season palatably, 


Mrs. Charles Knight, Stockport, N. Y. 

Cut the ends off, slice thin, and stew for half an hour. 
Season palatably with salt and pepper. Mix an egg with 
some grated bread crumbs, allowing about half a cup to a 
quart of tomatoes, stir in at the last. Add a tablespoon of 
butter, and serve hot. 


<Corn Pudding. VEGETABLES. Stewed Corn. 


Mrs. Cliff Sage. 
I quart grated corn. 

1 pint milk. 

2 eggs. 

1 tablespoon butter. 
Salt and pepper. 

Bake in a pudding-dish. 


Twelve ears of green corn cut off cob ; ij pints of milk, 
4 beaten eggs, I cup sugar. Bake 3 hours. 


Miss Emma Harvey, Bowling Green, Ky. 

4 large ears of corn grated. 

2 eggs. 

I cup milk. 

ij cups flour ; pinch of salt. 
I teaspoon baking powder. 

Mix well together, and fry in a skillet by spoonsful in 
boiling hot lard. 


Take young tender corn and cut from the cob. To a 
quart of milk allow 2\ cups corn. Put the milk and corn 
into a double boiler (or a tin bucket set in a kettle of boil- 
ing water), and cook until perfectly tender. Then add bits 
of butter dredged with flour, and cook about 5 minutes 
longer. Stir in the beaten yolks of 2 eggs, let boil up, and 
serve hot. Add more butter, if desired, and sugar and nut- 
meg if liked. 


Cut six ears of sweet corn from the cob. Fry a slice or 
two of bacon until the grease is all fried out. Remove, put 
the corn in the frying-pan, cover with boiling water, and 
cook 30 minutes. Stir it often and watch that it does not 
burn. Before serving, add half a cup of cream or milk, and 


To Can Green Corn. VEGETABLES. To Cook String Beans. 

salt and pepper to suit the taste. Many persons prefer it 
without the bacon, in which case cook in clear water, and 
finish with the cream or milk. 


Cut the corn from the cob and put into sufficient water to 
cook. While cooking add I ounce of tartaric acid that has 
been dissolved in boiling water to every 6 quarts of corn. 
Seal up in air-tight cans. When wanted for eating, pour off 
the water, put in fresh water and a pinch of soda. Let 
stand 10 minutes before cooking. When nearly done, add 
cream or milk, butter, pepper, arid salt. A lady tells me 
that in 35 cans put up in this way not one proved a failure. 


Boil the shelled beans 2 hours. In the meantime, cut the 
corn from the cobs and put the cobs in with the beans for a 
half hour, to extract the sweetness. Use double the quan- 
tity of corn that you do beans. At the end of the 2 hours, 
put the corn in with the beans and cook a good J hour. 
Season with salt, pepper, and butter, and a cup of cream or 
milk thickened with a little flour. 


Boil, and when tender, drain. Season with butter and 
pepper, and cream, if you have it. 


Soak over night. Two hours before dinner the next day 
cover with water in a covered vessel. Cook slowly and add 
butter, pepper, and salt to taste. 


String the beans, cut them in half inch pieces, wash them, 
and put over to cook in boiling water, adding a level tear 
spoon of soda to 2 quarts of beans, let boil 1 5 minutes, drain, 
put them over in fresh boiling water, and as soon as they 


Baked Beans. VEGETABLES. Greens. 

begin to be tender, salt them, then boil until they are very 
tender it takes a long time to cook them properly after 
which add butter and pepper to taste, and stir in some sweet 
cream. Or rich milk may be substituted, dredging in wheat 
flour to give it the thickness of cream. Some prefer them 
without either, using more butter instead. 


Put on I quart of dry beans to boil in cold water. In J 
hour after they begin to boil, add \ teaspoon of saleratus. 
Let boil up, and pour off the water. Put on fresh water, 
hot or cold, let boil till the beans are tender, but not 
mashed. Take a pound of salt pork, clean it well, score the 
rind, and put it in the center of the beans, in a large drip- 
ping-pan. Bake in a slow oven till all are nicely browned 
on top. 


Put i quart of beans to soak over night. In the morning 
put i pound of salt pork in the bottom of the bean-pot, put 
the beans in, with plenty of water to cover, 2 tablespoons of 
molasses, a teaspoon of salt, and place in the oven. Bake 
slowly all day, being careful to keep the beans covered with 
hot water from the tea-kettle. If the oven is wanted, the 
bean -pot can be set on the back of the stove for any length 
of time, without harm. This quantity will make over 2 
quarts when done. 


Look them over carefully, wash, and put into a kettle of 
boiling salted water. Let them boil without cover until 
tender, then put into a colander, press out all the water you 
can, and put them into the dish in which they are to be 
served a tureen or some deep dish is preferable : cut them 
down each way, season with pepper and plenty of butter, 
adding salt, if necessary. Greens are very nice boiled with 


Spinach. VEGETABLES. Sauerkraut. 

ham. Young beets and beet-tops, turnip-tops, mustard, 
dandelions, spinach, pepper-grass, plantain leaves, the tops 
of red-root, cowslips, narrow dock, cabbage sprouts, pig- 
weed, purslain commonly called pusley are all used for 


Mrs. J. R. Jackson, Centerville, Miss. 

Wash and put into a tin dish without water. Put this 
into another vessel with water, which let boil 15 minutes. 
Drain, but do not press, chop fine, add hard-boiled eggs, 3 
to a quart after it is cooked. Season with butter, pepper, 
and salt. Return, and cook 10 minutes. 


Miss A. C. McKee, Chicago. 

Look over very carefully, and wash well. Boil in clear 
hot water until tender. Drain in a colander. Cut fine with 
a knife. Return to a vessel on the stove and season with 
prepared mustard, butter, pepper, and salt. 

NOTE. Spinach is sometimes covered with nicely poached 


Pick over the lettuce carefully, and place in a vegetable 
dish. Cut across it 3 or 4 times. Fry a small piece of fat 
ham until well browned. Cut it into little pieces. Pour in 
a cup of vinegar and let boil up, and pour immediately over 
the lettuce. Cover closely and serve hot 


Mrs. J. J. Bower, St. Joe, Mo. 

Take solid heads of cabbage, after one or two good frosts 
in the fall. Slice fine as possible, and pack either in clean 
barrels, firkins, butter-tubs, or earthen jars, according to 
the quantity you need, sprinkle in salt as carefully as though 
it was gold dust. One pint to a barrel is plenty, and less 
amounts in proportion. Add vinegar I gallon to a barrel, 
but don't be afraid of a little more. Pack and pound down 


Fried Cabbage. VEGETABLES. Cream Cabbage. 

hard as you can. Set in a warm place for about 4 weeks, or 
until it has the peculiar kraut smell. Then put in a cool 
place, the colder the better, and if it freezes up for all win- 
ter, so much the better. The longer it is cooked the nicer 
it is. It is good eaten raw. Filderkraut or Stonemason 
Marblehead are best for kraut, though any firm, sweet cab- 
bage will do. 


Squeeze a quart of sauerkraut from the brine ; wash it in 
cold water, drain, place in a oorcelain-lined or earthen ves- 
sel, cover with cold water, boil 2 hours, pour into a colander, 
press out the water, replace in vessel, prepare a dressing of 
a tablespoon uf lard and I of flour, stir thoroughly in a fry- 
ing-pan over the fire until of a light brown color ; mix this 
well with kraut, and serve. Some like the addition of a few 
caraway seeds. 


Slice thin or chop fine. Put into a frying-pan, with some 
salt pork gravy, and a very little water. Season with salt 
and pepper. Cover closely. Cook slowly on top of stove 
When done, add half a cup of vinegar, if liked. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Half a cup of vinegar, tablespoon of sugar, teaspoon each 
of whole cloves and whole pepper, some salt, put in the 
cut cabbage, cover, and cook slowly until tender. It is very 
nice served with a flank of beef cooked as follows : Take 
some stale bread, soak in cold water, season highly ; spread 
on the flank and roll up, put some drippings in the pot ; 
brown the flank in it ; then add water, cover and cook until 


Slice nicely, cook in a saucepan with just water enough to 
keep from burning. Season with salt. When tender, drain, 
if any water is left. Pour over it a cup of cream or milk, a 


Cauliflower. VEGETABLES. Asparagus. 

tablespoon of butter, and a tablespoon of flour made smooth 
with milk. Let boil up and serve. 

Slice or chop fine a small head, and season with salt and 
pepper ; cook in a kettle in just enough water to keep from 
burning. Take J cup sour cream, J cup vinegar, 2 eggs, 
butter size of an egg, beat together, and pour it over the 
cooked cabbage in the kettle. Let it boil up once and 
serve. This can be eaten by a dyspeptic without harm, 


Select a white, firm head of cabbage. Boil it till 
thoroughly done. Some prefer it boiled with bacon, others 
in clear salted water. Drain it, chop fine, add a tablespoon 
of butter, a cup of milk, 3 beaten eggs, pepper and salt to 
taste, and a pinch of mustard, if liked. Put in a pudding- 
dish with rolled cracker on top. Bake till the eggs and 
milk are cooked. 

Take a small, solid head of cabbage. Boil it whole, very 
gently ; season it with salt and pepper and a cup of milk 
or cream. Serve hot. It is much nicer cooked whole, than 


Tie coarse netting around it to keep from breaking., 
When done, take from the netting, remove to a vegetable- 
dish, and serve hot with drawn butter poured over it. 


Boil in salted water, just enough to cook it ; then put in 
a cup of milk or cream, and a very little thickening, and 
season with butter, pepper, and salt. 

Get the stalks of equal length if you can. Tie up. Boil 

Peas. VEGETABLES. Beets. 

in salted water not quite half an hour. Lay on buttered 
toast, and pour drawn butter over it. Asparagus is very 
nice cut up into half-inch pieces and cooked same as green 



If the pods are boiled well and the water strained, it will 
be found to contain a great deal of sweetness and nutri- 
ment. The peas may be cooked in this water. Season 
with butter, pepper, and salt, and cream, if you have it. If 
the peas arc old, a little sugar improves them. 


Put green peas in a basin or earthen dish without water 
and set in a steamer. Allow half as long again as for boil- 
ing. Season when tender, and add hot milk to make them 
creamy. They are more delicious than when cooked in any 

other way. 


Put to soak the night before. In the morning, parboil. 
Drain, and put into fresh water with a piece of ham or mid- 
dling, and boil until done. They may be cooked alone, and 
are very palatable seasoned with cream, or milk and butter. 


Clean well and put to cook in plenty of boiling salted 
water. It will take i^ or 2 hours. Drain, and serve in 

melted butter 


Wash without breaking the skin. Put to cook in boiling 
water. Boil till done. Slice and season with butter, salt, 
and pepper, in the vegetable-dish. Do not put on vinegar, 
as many prefer them without. Eat hot. Keep out enough 
whole ones to cut up for pickles. 


Boil and slice, and put in a saucepan on the stove. Take 
a small cup of vinegar, tablespoon each of butter and 


Vegetable Oyster. VEGETABLES, Turnips. 

sugar, little salt and pepper, lieaping teaspoon corn-starch 
dissolved in a spoon of water ; stir all together till it boils, 
then pour over the beets, stirring carefully. Serve very hot 
in a covered dish. 


Cut into inch pieces and throw into cold water for a short 
time. Boil the same as green peas. Drain the water off 
and pour over milk or cream, thickened a little with flour. 
Season with butter, pepper, and salt, let boil up and serve. 


Pare and cut in slices half an inch thick. Sprinkle a little 
salt on each slice and press down for an hour ; then rinse in 
clear water, and dry well in a towel. Dip in egg and rolled 
cracker and fry a nice brown. Season nlore, if required. 


Take a full-grown egg plant ; cut in two lengthwise ; take 
out the inside, leaving a half-inch of the peeling. Chop 
fine, and mix with an equal quantity of bread crumbs. Salt 
and pepper to taste. A very little sugar. Cook this mix- 
ture in butter in a hot frying-pan, stirring it to keep from 
burning. Let cook about 10 minutes ; fill the shells with 
this, and bake in the oven half an hour. Serve in the shells. 


Mrs. M. W. Callahan, Tangipahoa, La. 

Boil and mash, season with salt and pepper, arid fresh 
pork gravy, or put a piece of boiled jowl on the top and set 
in the oven a few minutes. 


Mrs. A. S. Johnston. 

Peel, cut in slices, and steam. When done, mash ; add 
salt, teaspoon of sugar, 2 or 3 tablespoons of milk or cream, 
and a little butter. This will make old turnips taste like 
new. Turnips are also very nice cut in slices and cooked in 


Carrots. VEGETABLES. Squash. 

boiling 1 salted water, and served in slices seasoned with but- 
ter and pepper. 


Leave stalks on. Scrape, and boil in salted water till 
tender. Dress them with a plain white sauce, adding a tea- 
spoon of chopped parsley and half as much lemon juice. 
This is known as maitre d' hotel carrots. 


Scrape them clean, cut in slices lengthwise, and boil in a 
stewpan or skillet till tender. Drain, and dip into a batter 
made of half a cup of milk, i egg ; | teaspoon baking pow- 
der in flour enough to thicken like griddle-cakes. Fry in 
hot drippings or butter. 


Cut in large pieces, scrape clean, and bake. When done, 
they may be served in the shell, or mashed, just as pre- 
ferred. They cleave from the peel very easily. Season 
with butter and salt. If mashed, smooth nicely on top with 
a knife, and put small lumps of butter and dashes of pepper 
here and there. Squash may be steamed if preferred. 

Pare, and cut in long slices, about ij or 2 inches' thick. 
Cook in a dripping-pan with a roast. Baste when the meat 
is basted. It is nice baked in a pan by itself with meat 


Grandma Owens. 

Take them when the skin is tender and can be easily 
punctured with the finger-nail. Cut up small and cook in as 
little water as possible. Cook without covering, so there 
will be more rapid evaporation. Stir often. When they 
are sufficiently cooked, they Will generally be mashed 
enough for the table, season well with salt, pepper, and but- 
ter. Some like a little cream or milk added last. 


Onions. VEGETABLES. Peaches. 


Mrs. Cliff Sage. 

Slice in round slices. Dip in beaten egg, roll in Hour sea- 
soned with pepper and salt, and fry in hot butter. 


When peeling onions keep them under water, ?nd all 
weeping of the eyes will be avoided. Put to cook in boiling 
water. Boil a few minutes, then drain off th-* water ; put 
on more water and boil again ; and still a third, in which 
they may remain till tender. This renders them mild in 
flavor. When the last water is poured off, add a cup of 
milk and seasoning of butter, pepper, and salt. Boil up and 
serve. The milk helps to relieve them of their offensive- 
ness. Onions are very healthful, and it would be better for 
the generality of people to eat them oftener. 

NOTE. It is said that if a cup of vinegar be put on the 
stove while cooking onions, their smell will not be noticed. 

[To peel an onion so it will not break, trim off the root 
carefully, but not closely. Take off the outer dry layer and 
leave the others intact. Do not cut the stalk. In this way 
it will not boil to pieces. Juliet CorsonJ] 


Peel and slice ; fry in hot butler or pork gravy. Season 
with pepper and salt, stir to prevent burning. When tender 
pour into a vegetable-dish, and send to table hot. 


Wipe off peaches not fully ripe, cut in thick slices, and 
fry in pork gravy. Serve with the slices of pork. 


Peel, cut in lengthwise slices rather thick, and lay in cold 
water half an hour. Dry on a towel, sprinkle with salt and 
pepper, dip in beaten egg, then in rolled cracker, and fry a 
delicate brown on both sides 


Okra VEGETABLES. Macaroni. 


Take young, tender okra and boil in salt water. Drain 
carefully, add a tablespoon of butter and i cup of cream, 
and after it boils up once, take up, add more salt, if neces- 
sary, sprinkle pepper over, and serve hot. 

RICE. ' 

Miss Addie Butterfield, Chicago. 

To I cup rice put 2\ cups cold water and a teaspoon salt. 
As soon as it boils, set back and let cook slowly i^ hours. 
Then add I cup milk, stir well, and let cook I hour longer 
without stirring. 


Miss 'Juliet Corson. 

Put I cup rice into 4 cups boiling water with I tablespoon 
salt Boil hard 12 minutes. Drain off the water, and set 
back covered, for 10 minutes. 


One cup rice. Cook tender in 2\ cups water. Let cool. 
Fill a baking-dish with alternate layers of rice and grated 
cheese, seasoned with pepper, salt, and butter. Pour on 
milk to cover Bake 20 or 30 minutes. 


A delicious breakfast dish. Take a pint of Italian maca- 
roni broken into inch pieces. Put into a gallon of boiling 
water, and let boil 20 minutes ; drain in a colander ; put in 
a basin or pudding-dish, with 3 pints of milk, season with 
butter, pepper, and salt, and bake 30 minutes. 


Break \ pound macaroni into inch pieces and put into a 
saucepan of boiling water and boil 20 minutes ; add a little 
salt while boiling ; drain, and put into a well-buttered dieh 
*i 9 


Macaroni Mushrooms. VEGETABLES. Baked Mushrooms. 

in layers, with plenty of grated cheese sprinkled over each 
layer, with pepper to suit taste, and bits of butter. When 
the dish is full, pour over half a cup of good milk or cream. 
Bake half an hour, and serve in the baking-dish. 


Mrs. S. C. Raggio, Chicago. 

One-half cup dried mushrooms. Fill up the cup with 
water. Let soak 2 or 3 hours. Then take i pound maca- 
roni, break up and put to cook in a gallon of boiling salted 
water. Boil from 20 to 30 minutes. Drain well when done. 
While the macaroni is cooking, take 3 slices oi bacon and 
fry. Remove, and put a chopped onion in the gravy, and 
fry. Take out, and put in 2 spoons tomato catsup or canned 
tomatoes, then pour in the mushrooms and let simmer 15 
minutes on back of stove. Take a large platter and on it 
grate a layer of cheese. On this put a layer of macaroni, 
then a layer of mushrooms, alternate until all are used. 
Serve hot. 


Take meadow mushroom buttons and remove the stems. 
Clean them with flannel and salt. Rinse in cold water and 
dry on a towel. For a quart of these put 3 tablespoon- 
butter in a thick iron spider or stewpan. When melted and 
beginning to brown, put in the mushrooms and let simmer 
3 or 4 minutes. Shake the vessel to keep them from stick 
ing or burning. Salt them and add a pinch of cayenne pep- 
per and pounded mace. Let stew 10 or 15 minutes until 
tender, and pour into a warm dish. Serve at once. Either 
a breakfast, dinner, or lunch dish. 


Take the mushroom flaps, cut off a portio.,1 of the stalk, 
peel the top, and clean with flannel and salt. Put into a tin 
baking-dish with a small lump of butter on each one. Dash 
a little pepper over them and bake about 20 minutes if of 


Broiled Mushrooms. VEGETABLES. Roasting Ears. 

medium size. Pile the mushrooms, high in the center, on a 
very hot dish, pour the gravy around and serve immediately 
on hot plates. 


Use the mushroom flaps. Cut a portion of the stalk off, 
and peel the top. Wipe the flaps with flannel and salt. 
Place in a wire broiler over a clear fire ; turn once, and take 
up on a hot dish. Put lumps of butter, pepper, and salt, 
and a bit of lemon juice on them. Put into a hot oven for 
an instant, and serve on hot plates immediately. 


Proceed exactly as for stewing, and when tender add a 
teaspoon of flour ; shake the pan till the flour is browned. 
Add a cup of broth, and stir a moment. Then add ^ 
teaspoon of lemon juice. If you have no broth or gravy, 
use fresh milk or cream instead, with a grating of lemon 
peel and a bit of nutmeg. Mushroom catsup is also nice to 
add. Whether milk or gravy is used, the mixture should be 
poured on to a thick slice of toast, buttered. 

Cook in bunches, like asparagus, and serve similarly. 


Cut off green tops, trim off outer leaves ; tie in bunches 
and boil. Season with pepper and salt ; serve on toast with 
melted butter ; or stew in just enough water to cover ; drain, 
and serve in a plain white sauce. It will cook in less than ^ 


Pare, cut up small, and cook in very little water ; butter 
and salt; keep stirring; mash fine with a wooden spoon. 


Take off the husks of green corn and lay the ears over 
bright coals. Watch and turn often until done.. Many of 
the people South leave the husks on, and bury the ears in 
hot ashes. These are " roasting ears " in perfection. 


Dried Corn. VEGETABLES. Hominy. 


Put to soak the night before in cold water ; in the morn- 
ing set it on back of stove in the same water. Half an hour 
before noon bring it forward, let simmer, season with butter, 
pepper, and salt, and cream or milk, if liked. A pint will 

serve 8 persons. 


Cut and scrape young tender green corn from the cobs. 
Put into a pan with a little water ; cook until somewhat ten- 
der. Stir to keep from burning. Then put it all in pie-tins, 
and dry cither in the oven or out-doors. Put away in sacks. 
Corn dried in this way is almost equal to fresh corn. A very 
good way is to boil the corn on the cob for 10 or T; minutes, 
then cut off and dry. 


Put a pint to a gallon water ; set on back of stove an 
entire day. Do not salt ; it swells very slowly. After a few 
hours, it may be allowed to boil, but very gently ; does not 
need stirring. When wanted for the table, heat it in a well- 
buttered spider ; season with salt and pepper. Add milk, if 
liked, and let boil up once or twice. 


Mrs. M. W. Callahan, Tangipahoa, Louisiana. 

Make a lye strong enough to eat a feather when boiling 
hot. Take dry corn well washed and looked over, and put 
into the boiling lye. When the hull is eaten off and the 
eyes begin to come out, take it out and put into cold water. 
Wash in several waters to get the hulls off. Return to a 
clean pot, allowing room for increase in bulk. Boil till done. 
Salt it. Eat in milk or fry in pork gravy. 




is the staff of life, if good, and cannot 
be made of poor flour. The new process 
or patent flour is the most uniformly satis- 
factory for bread. Ordinary spring wheat 
makes good sweet bread, but is sticky and 
disagreeable to work up. It takes more of 
this flour than of winter wheat. Flour should never be 
stored in a room with sour liquids, nor with fish, onions, 
or kerosene. It readily absorbs odors that are perceptible 
to the sense. A damp cellar should be avoided, as it 
is peculiarly sensitive to atmospheric influences. Keep in a 
dry, airy room, and in neither a freezing nor roasting 

As soon as the sponge becomes light it should be made 
ready for the oven, otherwise fermentation will set in and 
sour bread will be the result. Small loaves are better than 
large, and make less waste. Never set a bread-bowl of 
.sponge where it is so hot you cannot rest your hand for a 

Self- Raising Flour. BREAD. Heat Your Flour. 

moment. Let loaves rise to twice the original size before 

When bread is taken from the oven turn out on a bread- 
cloth. Take the pan off, lay an end of the cloth over the 
bottom of the loaf. Replace the pan for 10 minutes. This 
helps to make the crust tender. If baked quite hard, brush 
over with butter. Cut warm bread or cake with a hot knife, 
to prevent clamminess. 

If at any time it is desired to have bread rise more 
quickly than usual, use double the quantity of yeast, 

A half cup sugar in a batch of bread will keep it moist, 
and make it much nicer. 

Cut bread for the table in even not too thick slices, 
.and just before the meal is served. Put the cut loaf away, 
that it may not dry. 


In my own experience with a large family, I find it 
cheaper to buy self-raising flour by the hundred than to 
use baking powder. This flour we use for biscuits, short- 
cakes, fritters, dumplings ; in short, for anything in which 
baking powder or cream of tartar and soda are called for. 
It never fails and is very convenient. Of course it must not 
be used with sour milk or with yeast. 


This flour is coming to the front and claiming the atten- 
tion of housekeepers. The bread is very sweet and nutri- 
tious. The manufacturers advertise that it contains all the 
gluten of wheat and all the phosphates. The bread is dark. 
The dough must be mixed as soft as possible ; otherwise 
the mode is the same as with common white flour. I have 
used it and like it well enough to make mention of it. 


In cold weather, after sifting flour into the bread-pan for 
bread, set the pan over a kettle of hot water and heat the 

Oven Heat. BREAD. Weights and Measures. 

flour through thoroughly. The sponge will come up so 
much quicker that it will surprise you. 

Put a spoon of flour on an old dish and set in the oven. 
If it browns in 60 seconds the heat is right for bread. If it 
browns in less time, the heat must be lessened. But if it is 
r,ot browned, the oven is not hoi' enough. The oft-repeated 
rule to hold the hand in the oven long enough to count so- 
and-so is no accurate test, on account of the varying ability 
of different persons to bear heat. If stoves had a thermom- 
eter attachment for the oven door, by which the degree of 
heat could be seen at all times, the invention would Ve o( 
incalculable benefit. 



cups wheat flour make - 





i cups corn-meal make 






large coffee-cup granulated 






large coffee-cup dry brown 





i \ cups firm butter pressed down make i 



cup raisins make - 






eggs make - 






white of egg makes 






yolk of egg makes 






ounces make 






teaspoons make 






tablespoons make - 






tablespoons make - 






gills make 






pints make 






quarts make - 






quarts make - 





The cup in the above measure is the common white stone- 
china tea-cup, and holds pint. It is the measure adopted 
in this entire book. 


In the following recipes, a " cup of flour " means a cup of 
flour dipped from the barrel, and unsifted. It cannot 


Lime Water. BREAD. Baking Powder. 

be an infallible rule, owing to the difference in different 
brands of flour some necessitating the use of more, and 
others less. Experience will soon determine. Flour must 
always be sifted. 


Mrs. J. E. Chace, Mishawaka, Tnd. 

Put a cup of air-slaked lime into a quart fruit-jar and fill 
up with cold water. To each loaf of bread take a table- 
spoon of lime water. It adds both to quality and healthful- 
ness, and will prevent bread from souring. 


6 ounces of starch. 

6 ounces of bi-carbonate of soda. 

4 ounces of tartaric acid. 

Powder and sift several times, and you will have a cheaper 
article than you can buy, and will have it pure. Keep it 
from the air. The main thing in preparing one's own bak- 
ing powder is to sift it times enough. The above is a relia- 
ble formula, and may be safely used. 

Since the alarming adulterations of almost everything 
used in cooking, a chemist advises the use of tartaric acid 
in place of cream of tartar. It costs about twice as much, 
but half the quantity suffices, and there is no difficulty in 
procuring this pure. 


In recipes calling for J teaspoon soda and I of cream of 
tartar, baking powder may be used instead, using about -2 
teaspoons. If baking powder is called for, soda and cream 
of tartar may be used instead, using about ^ less of both 
together, than the amount of baking powder in the recipe. 
For instance, if 3 teaspoons of baking powder is called for, 
you can use f teaspoon soda and twice as much cream of 
tartar, which together will make 2 teaspoons, which is \ less 
than 3 teaspoons baking powder. If sour milk is substi- 


Hop Yeast BREAD. Potato Yeast. 

tuted for sweet, soda must be substituted for baking powder, 
and in those cases the cream of tartar must not be used at all, 
the sour milk furnishing the acid. One teaspoon soda to a 
pint of sour milk is about right. If sweet milk or water is 
substituted for sour milk, and the recipe calls for I teaspoon 
soda, baking powder may be used, and it would be safe to 
put in 2 heaping teaspoons or even 3. Sweet milk and 
water may be used interchangeably. Many good cooks 
prefer water to milk for their nicest cake. So never discard 
a recipe that calls for milk because you have none, as water 
will answer very well. Recipes calling for whites of eggs 
only, require very little, if any, baking powder, and recipes 
giving a large number of eggs, generally use none, as the 
whites are beaten very light and added last, and lighten the 
batter sufficiently. 


Put I cup hops in 3 quarts cold water. Boil 15 minutes, 
strain, set back on stove and add 5 large potatoes, peeled 
and grated, ^ cup salt, same of sugar. Stir well, let boil up, 
take off, cool and add a cup of yeast. Beat thoroughly. 
Set by the stove until it is light. If preferred, the potatoes 
may be boiled in the hop water, and then mashed, adding 
salt, sugar, and yeast, as above. 


Mrs. Carrie S. Carr, New Lisbon, Wis. 

Take 3 large potatoes, peel and grate as rapidly as possi- 
ble, so .they will not turn dark. Pour on I quart boiling 
water and cook ^ hour. Add \ cup sugar, same of salt, 
shortly before it is done. When sufficiently cool, put in any 
good yeast to raise it ; stir well together. The next day it 
will be as light as a foam. A tea- cup of this yeast will be- 
enough to raise 4 or 5 loaves of bread. Keep in a cool 
place, and in summer renew every fortnight. 

Stir into a pint of good lively yeast a tablespoon salt and 



Loaves. BREAD. White. 

wheat flour to make a thick batter. When risen light, stir 
in corn-meal to a stiff dough. When again risen, roll very 
thin, cut into 3 inch squares, and dry in the shade in clear, 
windy weather. When perfectly dry, tie in a bag and hang 
in a cool, dry place. One cake will make a sponge for 4 
quarts of flour. When wanted for use, put to soak in a pint 
of lukewarm water and when dissolved proceed as with 
other yeast. 




One quart boiling water, I quart cold water, flour enough 
to make a batter. When sufficiently cool, put in \ cup 
yeast, teaspoon salt, and flour to knead. Knead smooth 
and place in a well-greased pan. In winter cover with a 
dish, in summer with a cloth ; do this at night. In the 
morning make into loaves without using any more flour 
than barely necessary to handle, place in the baking-tins, 
greasing the top and sides of each loaf with butter or 
sweet lard. Let it rise until little holes may be seen when 
it is pressed gently back from the tin, and put into a hot 
oven. Keep the heat uniform for 30 to 45 minutes. This 
bread is just as good as if kneaded for J hour. 


Take 3 tablespoons flour, 2 of salt, 2 of sugar, and scald 
with I pint boiling water. When cool, add 2 yeast cakes or 
a cup of soft yeast. Boil and mash 12 good-sized potatoes, 
add 3 quarts hot water, let cool and add the above yeast. 
Let stand over night. Now, for 3 loaves of bread, take 3 


Salt-Rising BREAD. Milk-Yeast. 

pints of the mixture, stir it into sifted flour till of the right 
consistency to knead. Knead it into loaves and put into 
greased tins, let rise, and bake. The mixture will keep 2 
weeks. If raised biscuit are wanted for tea, mix shortening 
with the flour, stir in the yeast. Mix into biscuit, let rise, 
and bake. 


Mrs. Keith Berry, Maysville, Kentucky. 

Stir I heaping tablespoon corn-meal into J cup scalding 
fresh milk, at night. Put it in a tin-cup and set it in a 
warm place. In the morning take I pint warm water not 
scalding a pinch of soda, and make up a batter with flour 
so it will drop off a knife. Stir in the mixture that has 
stood over night, beat it well, set it in a kettle of warm 
water, and keep at an even temparature. It will be light in 
about 2 hours. Then add i| pints warm water, a teaspoon 
salt, and flour to work into loaves. Knead it until smooth, 
put into bread-pans. Set over warm water, or in some 
other warm place to rise, then bake. 


Take a pint of wheat middlings, stir into it I tablespoon 
^ach of white sugar and ginger ; I teaspoon each of salt 
and soda. Put this in something that will exclude the air. 
The day before you are to make bread, take 2 tablespoons 
of this dry mixture, put into a cup, pour boiling water on it 
to scald, make it about the consistency of yeast, and set 
where it will keep warm. Do this at noon, and by night it 
will be light, though not risen high. The next morning 
take a cup of new milk and I of boiling water, a pinch 
salt ; stir in flour till as thick as fritters, add the yeast set 
the day before. If it looks dark it will not discolor your 
bread. Set it in a kettle of water as hot as you can bear 
your hand in, and in 2 or 3 hours it will be up and foaming, 
then mix your bread, put in the pans to rise, which will 
take about an hour, and then bake about 40 minutes. 


Graham. BREAD. Com- Meal. 


Make a rather thick sponge of white flour, i cake or ^ 
cup yeast, 2\ pints water, and I teaspoon salt. When light, 
stir in Graham flour till it is as thick as can be stirred with 
a spoon, and I cup sugar or molasses. Put immediately 
into the pans to rise for baking. It requires a slow oven 
and takes over an hour to bake. Sometimes, if the sponge 
is not quite as thick as intended, it is necessary to use more 
white flour, when stirring to put into the pans. Graham 
bread should never be kneaded. 


Mrs. S. Lawton, Salamanca, N. Y. 

I quart sour milk. I heaping teaspoon soda. 

1 cup molasses. I teaspoon salt. 

Stir in Graham flour till as thick as can be stirred with a 
spoon. Bake in a quick oven. This makes 3 loaves. 


Mrs. A. E. Owens, Louisville, Ky. 

2 cups buttermilk. I cup molasses. 

3 cups wheat flour. \ cup butter. 
3 cups corn-meal. 2 eggs. 

1 cup stewed pumpkin. \ tablespoon soda. 
Steam 2\ hours and brown in the oven. 


2 cups corn-meal. 4 cups tepid water. 
2 cups rye flour. i cup molasses. 

2 cups Graham flour. i teaspoon soda. 

\ cup yeast or i yeast cake. I teaspoon salt. 
Let rise and bake 3 hours. 


Mrs. O. Jones, South Royalston, Mass. 

Scald i quart Indian meal. When cool, add same quan- 
tity of rye, J tea-cup molasses, teaspoon salt, a tea-cup good 
lively yeast, and small teaspoon soda. Mix well, add more 
water if needed. When risen bake 2 hours or steam 3 
hours. Graham will answer in place of rye. 


Corn. BREAD. Brown. 


I quart sifted white meal. I egg. 

3 cups buttermilk. i tablespoon melted butter. 
I teaspoon soda. I tablespoon flour. 

J cup molasses. Pinch of salt. 

Stir well, and bake in a 2-quart basin in a moderate oven 
i hour. 


Mrs. H. H. Harvey, Bowling Green, Ky. 

I quart corn-meal, scalded. 2 eggs. 

I cup sweet milk or water. I teaspoon quick yeast, 

i large spoon lard. i teaspoon salt. 
Bake in a shallow pan. 


Mrs. J. B. Wheeler, Peoria, 111. 

I pint sour milk. I cup white flour. 

i cup corn-meal. i teaspoon salt. 

i cup Graham flour. I teaspoon soda. 

| cup molasses. 

Steam 2 hours and bake i hour, in a 2-quart basin. 

[This recipe was given me by the wife of our United 
States Prison Missionary, Rev. W. D. A. Matthews, Onarga, 
111., who is doing so much for the welfare of prisoners.] 


I pint Graham. i cup sweet milk. 

i cup corn-meal. I teaspoon soda, 

i cup molasses. i teaspoon salt. 

1 cup sour milk. Steam 3 hours. 


t Mrs. Dr. Cory, Chicago. 

4 cups corn-meal. 2\ teaspoons soda. 

2\ cups of flour. i teaspoon shortening. 

2 cups sour milk. i teaspoon salt. 
\\ cups sweet milk. Steam 3 hours. 

158 ^ 

Potato Pone. BREAD. johnny Cake. 



i pint grated raw sweet A cup butter or drippings. 

potato. i teaspoon soda dissolved in 

3 eggs. J cup water. 

1 cup syrup. Flour for batter like cake. 
Bake in a deep pan and let remain in the oven till cool. 


Mrs. H. H. Harvey, Bowling Green, Kentucky. 

One quart corn-meal. Scald the meal with boiling water. 
Then mix with cold water and 2 teaspoons salt into a thick 
batter. Mold with the hands into flat pones, the size of 
the hand. Lay in a baking-pan and bake in the oven until 


Scald the meal as above and add a cup of cracklings to 
the above quantity, and bake. 


Make a very stiff batter of water and corn-meal. Salt it, 
grease a griddle, and put on a large cake, pat it down, and 
cook slowly ; turn it. When done send it to table on a 
large plate, and let each one break off as much as he wishes. 


Mrs. J. E. Chace, Mishawaka, Ind. 

2 cups corn meal. \ cup brown sugar. 

1 cup flour. i egg. Pinch of salt. * 

2 cups sour milk. i teaspoon soda. 

Sweet milk and 2 heaping teaspoons baking powder may 
be used instead of sour milk and soda. 

When baking Johnny cake, after it begins to brown, baste 
it with a rag tied to a stick, in melted butter. A great 


Rice- Flour Cake. BREAD. Rusk and Roiis. 


Mrs. J. J. Bower, St. Joe, Mo. 

i pint sour rnilk. I cup flour. 

I cup sugar. I teaspoon soda. 

^ cup shortening. J teaspoon salt. 

f egg". Nutmeg. 

Stir in corn-meal till as thick as loaf cake. Bake in a 
square tin in a quick oven. Eat hot, with lots of butter. 
Less sweetening may be preferred. 


1 cup rice flour. I cup sweet milk. 

2 cups common flour. I teaspoon baking powder. 
2 eggs. Pinch of salt. 

Bake in a shallow dish in a quick oven. 



I pint milk, warm. 

4 e gg s > well beaten. 

i cup soft yeast or I yeast cake. 

Stir in flour as stiff as possible with a spoon. When risen 
very light, work in J cup butter or part lard and ^ cup 
sugar. Add flour to mold. Let rise again, make into 
small balls. They will be light enough to bake in a very 
few minutes. Brush over with a little milk and sugar when 
they are done, and dry in the oven. If the rusk are 
wanted for supper, make them up early in the morning. If 
for lunch, they must be stirred up over night. Some per- 
sons prefer them sweeter than my rule. 


Put 2 quarts sifted flour in a bread-pan. In the center of 
it pour a pint of milk that has been boiled with J cup butter 


Rolls. BREAD. 

melted in it, and let cool; add a tablespoon sugar, and J cup 
yeast. Let stand 2 or 3 hours without mixing, then knead, 
and let rise again. When light make into small rolls, let 
rise in the pans and bake about 15 minutes. 


Mrs. Kate Peckham, Dallas, Texas. 

Take raised biscuit dough, roll out thin, spread with 
melted butter, sprinkle with sugar and ground cinnamon, 
roll up like jelly cake, cut small pieces from the end, put in 
a tin to rise. When light, bake slowly. 


Mrs. M. R. Johnston. 

If you wish the rolls for breakfast, make a quart of mush 
at noon, the day before. Salt it well ; add while warm, I 
tea-cup of lard or butter, J cup sugar. Mix thoroughly ; 
when cool enough, add a small cup of lively yeast, and set 
to rise in a warm place. When risen well, stir in flour and 
knead it a few minutes ; then set to rise again. Before bed- 
time, knead again. In the morning, roll and cut out like 
biscuit. Butter and lap one side over the other ; let rise, 
and bake. In hot weather, add a small teaspoon of soda, 
well dissolved. 


Boil I pint of cream and pour it over a heaping table- 
spoon of lard and butter mixed. Add I cup sugar. Let 
stand until cool enough and add J cup yeast, a pinch of 
nutmeg, and flour to make a stiff dough. Let rise, knead, 
roll out, cut into cakes, let rise again, and bake in a quick 


On baking day save out enough of the bread dough for a 
large pan of biscuit. Mix in 2 tablespoons shortening, 
same of sugar. Use flour enough to knead all well together. 
Let it rise in a bowl and chop down with a chopping-knife 
or carver. It will soon come up again. Keep chopping it 

Anow-Root Biscuit. BREAD. Sour-Milk Biscuit. 

down. It rises sooner after each chopping. Make into 
small round balls for supper. Put a little butter between 
them, let rise, and bake. Then take them from the oven, 
brush them over with milk and sugar. 


2 cups flour. 2 tablespoons butter. 

2 cups sifted arrow-root. J cake, or 2 tablespoons liquid 

2 cups sweet milk. yeast. 

Knead well together, roll out, cut into biscuits, put on a 
greased tin, let rise, and bake. They will rise in about an 
hour and a half. 


Mrs. Z. E. Pillsbury, Bowling Green, Ky. 

One quart of flour, sifted with 2 teaspoons cream of tar- 
ter. Work in I tablespoon butter ; I teaspoon saleratus 
dissolved in ij cups new milk. Mix, roll out, cut with bis- 
cuit cutter, and bake. 


Two quarts flour, with $ or 6 teaspoons baking powder 
sifted through it ; rub in 2 tablespoons lard and I teaspoon 
salt ; stir in with a spoon i-J pints cold water ; if too soft to 
roll out, flour the board well ; roll soft, cut out, and bake in 
a quick oven. 


i cup sour milk. I teaspoon soda. 

i egg. \ teaspoon salt. 

\ cup sugar. Graham flour. 

i tablespoon lard. 

Stir to a thick batter. Do not roll out, but drop with the 
spoon into a greased dripping-pan. 


A half teaspoon soda powdered fine and rubbed into a 
quart of flour ; mix in a large spoon of shortening, and a 


1 62 

Griddle Cakes. BREAD. Pancakes. 

saltspoon of salt ; then stir in a cup of sour milk, roll soft, 
and bake in well-heated oven. 


Mrs. H. H. Harvey, Bowling Green, Ky. 

3 pints flour. 

I large spoon lard. 

i teaspoon salt. 

Work the lard well into the flour ; add I J cups water. Stir 
all together with the hand, until it is a stiff dough. Then 
knead it on the molding-board until it is smooth. Then 
beat it with the rolling-pin until it puffs up and seems light. 
Divide in small pieces, work with the hands, and roll each 
one a half inch thick. Prick with a fork and bake in a quick- 
oven. Cutting with a knife deadens it, as also rolling with 
the rolling-pin. 


Sift together I quart flour, I teaspoon soda, mashed fine, 
and I teaspoon salt. Mix with I pint sour cream. Roll 
out, using more flour if necessary, and bake in a quick oven. 
An egg beaten into the cream is considered an improve- 
ment, by some persons. 



Of buckwheat, wheat, entire wheat, or Graham, may be 
made with sour milk and eggs, and are very palatable. 
To 2 or 3 quarts use 3 eggs and a teaspoon of soda. 


Take the crusts, crumbs, and pieces of bread left on the 
table and in the bread-box. Soak in water till soft, press 
through a colander. Cover with sour milk. Add 2 beaten 
e gg s > an d 5 teaspoon soda and salt to a quart. Stir in flour 


Buckwheat Cakes. BREAD. Hominy Cakes. 

till rather thicker than buckwheat batter, and bake slowly 
on a hot griddle. 


Put tepid water in a jar with salt and yeast ; J cup of 
home yeast, or ^ cake compressed, will be sufficient for 2 or 
3 quarts of water. Make a smooth batter with buckwheat 
flour, of medium thickness. In the morning, beat well, but 
do not add any soda for the first or second bakings. Save 
a pint of batter for the next rising. It is better to take out 
the batter that you wish to keep before the soda is added, 
that it may not become too strongly impregnated with the 
soda. Bake quick on a hot griddle. 


Mrs. E. B. Baldwin. 

1 cup white corn-meal. i cake yeast. 

2 cups flour. i tablespoon brown sugar. 
2 cups milk. \ teaspoon soda. 

i quart boiling water. I teaspoon salt. 

Scald the meal at night, with the boiling water. Beat 
well ; while yet warm, stir in flour, sugar, milk, and yeast. 
Let rise all night ; then add soda and salt. Leave a cup 
full for the next rising. 


Columbia Loving, Bowling Green, Kentucky. 

i pint meal. J teaspoon soda, 

i cup buttermilk. J cup water. 

^ teaspoon salt. I egg. 

Mix and bake on a hot griddle, 


One pint of fine hominy soaked all night. Boil it soft. 
Drain, and add I pint white corn-meal, sifted, and 3 table- 
spoons fresh butter ; a saltspoon of salt. Then add gradu- 
ally i quart milk. Let cool, and add at the. last 3 eggs, 
beaten very light. Bake on a griddle. 


Flannel Cakes. BREAD. Corn Muffins. 


i pint sour milk or sour cream. 
I tablespoon melted butter if rnilk is used. 
3 e gg s * teaspoon soda. 
Flour for batter to bake on griddle. 

Leave the whites of eggs till just before baking, then 
beat very light and stir in lightly. 



I quart flour. 2 eggs. 

3 cups sweet milk. 2 tablespoons butter. 

\ cup yeast. 

Beat well over night. In the morning bake in muffin- 
rings greased and heated. 


3 cups flour before sifting. I heaping tablespoon butter. 

i cup water 2 tablespoons sugar. 

I \ cups sweet milk. 4 teaspoons bakingpowder. 

Mix the sugar and shortening to a cream, add the wet- 
ting, then sift the flour and baking powder into it. Beat 
well, heat gem-irons hot, grease, fill nearly full, and bake in 
hot oven 20 minutes. An egg is used sometimes, in which 
case use but 3 teaspoons baking powder. 


Mrs. E. B. Baldwin. 

1 cup corn-meal. \ cup sugar. 

2 cups flour. \ cup butter, pinch of salt. 

2 cups sweet milk. 2 teaspoons baking powder. 

Bake in muffin-rings or gem-pans. 

Hominy Muffins. BREAD. Squash Muffins. 

Corn Muffins. 

Columbia Loving, Bowling Green, Ky. 

2 cups meal. I egg, beat white and yolk 

1 cup buttermilk. separately. 

\ teaspoon each soda and salt. 

Add the white of egg last thing and stir in lightly. Bake 
in hot gem-irons. 


Wash a pint of fine hominy through several waters. 
Pour boiling water on it, cover and let it soak half a day. 
Then boil it in a saucepan in half a pint of water, till soft 
enough to mash. Drain it, and mix it with a pint of corn- 
meal or wheat flour, a little salt, 3 cups milk, and 2 table- 
spoons melted butter. When the batter is cool enough, add 
4 tablespoons yeast ; cover, and keep warm until very light, 
with the surface covered with bubbles. Grease some muffin- 
rings, set them on a hot griddle, fill them | full, and bake 
brown on both sides. Send to the table hot, to be buttered 


Make corn-meal mush as you ordinarily do, and when 
cold take 

2 cups mush. 2 teaspoons baking powder. 
2 cups flour. I of salt. 

2 cups milk. i tablespoon melted butter. 

3 e gg s - Bake in gem pans. 


i cup sifted squash. 
3 cups sifted flour. 
I tablespoon sugar. 

1 teaspoon soda, and 

2 teaspoons cream of tartar both mashed fine and 
put in dry. 

i teaspoon butter. 
i pint sweet milk. 
Bake in a quick oven, in gem-pans, 20 minutes. 

1 66 

Crumpets. BREAD. Laplanders. 


One quart warm milk, i cake yeast, little salt, flour to 
make a stiff batter. Let rise, add ^ cup melted butter and 
bake in muffin-rings. 


Dr. Alice B. Stockham, Chicago. 

3 cups water scant. 3 cups Akron Graham flour. 

i tablespoon molasses. 

Stir well together, fill the deep acorn gem-irons full, put 
on the grate in the oven for 10 minutes, then on the oven 
bottom 20 minutes. Salt will make heavy. Do not use it 
in anything that has no yeast powder. 

NOTE. The secret of Graham gems is to have the irons 
deep and very hot and the oven equally hot. If hot enough 
the gems will crust over quickly arid retain the gases which 
cause their lightness. But if there is not sufficient heat the 
gases escape and the gems fail to rise. 


2 cups Graham flour. 2 teaspoons sugar. 

4 tablespoons white flour. 2 teaspoons baking powder. 

i J cups water. 

Stir well. Heat gem-irons hot, grease, fill f full and 
bake in hot oven 25 minutes. 


2 cups corn-meal. \ cup shortening. 

2 cups flour. ^ cup sugar. 

2 cups sweet milk. 2 eggs. 

3 teaspoons baking powder. Bake in gem-pans. 


i egg. 
i cup milk. 

i cup flour. Pinch of salt ; beat well. 

Pour into hot gem-irons well buttered, and bake quickly. 
No baking powder required. Fill irons nearly full. 


Sally Lunn. BREAD. Wafflas. 


Miss Sallie Owens, Lewisburg, Ky. 

1 pint sweet cream. 2 pints flour. 

2 eggs. i cup sugar. 

2 heaping teaspoons baking powder. 

Bake in a shallow pan, cut in square pieces and serve hot. 

Mrs. O. Blackman, Chicago. 

2 eggs beaten very light. 
i cup sweet milk. 
i cup flour ; pinch of salt. 

Bake in cups or gem-pans in quick oven. Is nice with 
cream and sugar for dessert. 



To bake waffles, put the iron on the stove. When one 
side is hot, turn it ; when that side is hot, grease it, turn, 
grease the other, fill about | full. When it browns deli- 
cately, turn it, brown the other side. Take up on a warm 
plate, and butter each one as fast as baked, putting one 
upon another. Serve with powdered sugar or maple syrup. 
Waffles require considerably longer to bake than griddle- 
cakes, and must be watched constantly. 


Mrs. E. B. Baldwin. 

i quart milk. 5 large spoons yeast. 

1 heaping quart flour. i large spoon melted butter. 

2 eggs. i teaspoon salt. 

Mix the milk, flour, yeast, and salt over night. In the 
morning, add the eggs and butter, and bake in waffle-irons. 

1 68 

Waffles. BREAD. Crackers. 

4 eggs. 
i tablespoon melted butter. 

1 pint milk ; pinch of salt. 

2 teaspoons baking powder, in flour enough to make 
thick batter. 

Heat irons well, before filling. 


i cup boiled rice. Butter the size of a walnut. 

1 pint milk. J teaspoon soda. 

2 e gg s> l teaspoon cream tartar. 
Flour for thin batter, to bake in waffle-irons. 

i cup butter. 
4 cups flour. 
I teaspoon salt. 

Mix thoroughly together, and add more flour if necessary 
to make them hard and brittle. Pinch off little pieces and 
roll each one by itself, thin. Cut it in the shape desired. 
Prick with a fork and bake in a moderate oven. 


i quart Graham flour. 

ij- cups very cold water. 

Knead very hard for fully 20 minutes, using more flour if 
the dough is not stiff enough. Roll out like pie-crust, cut 
in shapes, prick with a fork, and bake 1 5 minutes in a mod- 
erate oven. Let get cold before putting away. 


| cup sweet cream. 

i cup currants, cleansed, and well dried. 
teaspoon soda. 
^ teaspoon cream tartar. 

Put into a pan i full cup sifted Graham flour and the 
same of white flour ; sift the cream of tartar through it 2 or 

3 times. Dissolve the soda in a teaspoon of hot water and 


Short Bread. BREAD Toast. 

stir into the cream. Add this to the flour, forming a stiff 
dough, knead as little as possible. Roll into a very thin 
sheet, spread with the dried currants. Cover this with an- 
other very thin sheet of dough. Roll the rolling-pin over it, 
pressing the layers well together. Cut into small squares, 
prick deeply with a fork, and bake in a moderate oven. 


4 cups fine flour. 2 cups butter. 

i cup white sifted sugar. 

Knead well together without any wetting. After it is 
thoroughly worked and kneaded, roll out to half an inch 
thickness and put it on a paper in a dripping-pan, and bake 
slowly until done and crisp. It is customary to put a few 
caraway seeds and bits of orange peel on top. 


Mrs. M. J. Hurford, Brownsville, Pa. 

4 cups flour. i tablespoon butter. 

| cup sugar. 2 teaspoons baking powder. 

Mix with sweet milk as stiff as biscuit dough and bake in 
one loaf. 


Cut bread of medium thickness. Toast each side over a 
clear fire, until a golden brown. Dip the edge all around 
quickly in hot water, but keep the center of the piece dry. 
Spread generously with butter. Put the slice on a plate, 
cover closely and set in the oven to steam. Add each slice 
until all are done. Serve immediately. 


Put a quart of milk over boiling water to heat. When 
nearly boiling hot, stir in a small tablespoon of flour mixed 
smooth in cup cold milk. Let cook for a minute or two. 
Season with salt and pepper, and a large spoon of butter.' 
Dip each slice of toast in the milk separately. Place in a 
tureen, and pour the gravy over the whole. 


Toast. BREAD. Sandwiches. 


Mrs. A. S. J. 

Make a batter of 2 eggs, ^ cup milk, pinch salt, and 
teaspoon corn starch. Dip thin slices of bread in, and fry 
brown in a well-buttered frying-pan. If the bread is very 
dry, dip in water first. 


Mrs. John Wilber, Chicago. 

One-third cup butter and I cup sugar creamed together, and 
well mixed with I quart strawberries cut up with a knife. 
Pour the whole over slices of French toast in a platter. 

Serve hot. 


Mrs. J. R. Jackson, Centerville, Miss. 

Split cold biscuit and brown in the stove. Then dip each 
piece in boiling milk, seasoned with melted butter. Then 
poach some eggs and put one on each piece of biscuit. 


Dip in cold water tor an instant, then put into a hot oven 
for 10 minutes. 


Very dry bread or biscuit are very nice for breakfast if 
steamed a few minutes. 


Cut bread in even slices of medium thickness. Spread 
thinly with butter. Divide the slice in two. Lay on one 
half a thin slice of any cold meat, boiled or roasted, or 
pressed meat of any kind, or grated ham and mustard. 
Lay the other half of the slice on. Biscuit may be used 
instead of bread. 

Take slices of brown bread and butter and put slices of 


Omelet. BREAD. Cracked Wheat 

rich cheese between. Place on a plate in a hot oven and 
let the bread toast. Serve very hot. Allow one sandwich 
for each person. 


Cut freshly-made bread lengthwise of the loaf with a 
sharp knife, in thin, even slices. Spread with butter before 
cutting. They are nicer to discard the crust entirely 
Then put on a thin layer of grated ham. Roll up like a 
jelly-roll. Wrap tightly in a cloth to keep them in shape 
until wanted. Serve the same day the bread is made if 


Chop ham fine and mix with mustard, pepper, and 
chopped pickles, and put between slices of buttered bread. 

Dip thin slices of bread in tomato sauce and fry in butter, 
until brown. 


Mrs. Z. B. Glynn, East Boston, Mass. 

Put bread crumbs into a saucepan with cream or milk ; 
salt and pepper. W 7 hen the bread has absorbed the cream, 
break in as many eggs as will suffice for the meal, and fry 

as omelet. 


i cup oatmeal mixed with 
4 cups boiling water, 
i teaspoon salt. 

Cook in a double boiler. If you have none, use a tin pail 
set in a kettle of water. Will cook in ij hours, but is better 
if cooked longer. 


i cup cracked wheat. 
4^ cups of salted water. 

Cook in a steam cooker or covered pail in a kettle of boil- 
ing water, 3 hours. 

Hominy. BREAD. Mush. 


One cup to 7 of salted water. Cook in steam cooker 4 

When the water is boiling, salt it and scatter the meal in 
by the handful, stirring constantly. Make it a thick, smooth 
batter, and at the last stir in a good handful of flour ; it 
helps bind it, and makes it better for frying. 


When hasty pudding is made, it should be put into a 
baking-tin to mold ior frying. Cut in slices and fry slowly 
in drippings, or lard, a crisp brown on both sides. Eat with 
syrup. Many prefer frying the .*xmsh when it is first made 
fresh, by dropping it in pats in hoi: drippings. 


Mrs. H. M. Ball, Normal, 111. 

One cup Graham to 4 of water. Put the Graham into 2 
cups of cold water, make it very smooth and free from 
lumps, then stir this into 2 cups of boiling water. Stir rap- 
idly, and let it cook for 5 minutes, then set it on the back of 
the stove where it will cook slowly for half an hour or 
longer. A delicious breakfast dish may be prepared by 
adding 3 tart apples sliced as for pies, to the mush, when it 
is set back on the stove. Cover it, and do not disturb until 
the apples are done. It will take perhaps half an hour. 
Serve with cream and sugar. 

'HE essentials to good pie-crust are good 
sifted flour, good butter, and sweet lard. 
Use very cold water for wetting, and roll 
the crust from you. A quick oven is nec- 
essary for almost all kinds of pies. Nearly 
all pies should be eaten fresh. Mince is 
about the only exception. 

If a little beaten egg is rubbed over the bottom crust of a 
pie, it will prevent juice from soaking through it. 

The yolks of eggs bind the crust much better than the 
whites. Apply it to the edges with a brush. 

In all juicy pies, or when there is a tendency for the juice 
to run out, take some stiff white writing paper, make a roll 
about as large round as a penny and stand upright in a hole 
cut in the upper crust. Let it rest on the lower crust. Push 
the fruit aside to make room for it. Bake with this funnel 
in and the refactory juice will collect in it instead of on the 
oven bottom. It is not necessary to paste the paper to- 
gether. It will keep its place without any trouble, and may 
be removed when the pie is done. Another way to prevent 
, the juice from running out of fruit pies is to put the sugar 
on the bottom crust under the fruit instead of over it. 

In making a large batch of pies, it is just as well to divide 
the paste and make the bottom crust less rich than the top 

Mince meat can be made in the fall, and packed away in 
jars, for the entire winter. Then it is but little trouble to 
make crust for a pie, or the pies themselves may be made 


Pie Hints. PIES. Pie-Crust. 

in large numbers and kept in a cool 'place and heated when 

Apples may be used for mince pies without peeling. 
Chopped fine, the omission will be unnoticed. A lady of 
well-known culinary ability says chopped potatoes may be 
used instead of apples. Soak over night in vinegar ; no one 
will know the difference. 

Wild grapes may be put up for winter use in sorghum or 
molasses. Fill a jar with grapes and pour the molasses 
over until covered with it. Tie a cloth over, and in winter 
it will be found of a very rich color and flavor, and is deli- 
cious for pies. 

Canned pie-plant is one of the most useful adjuncts to a 
winter supply of fruits. Nothing tastes better than a pie 
made of it in midwinter. It may be used very largely for 
pies as the principal filling, by using enough of other fruit 
to flavor. The pie-plant readily takes to itself any flavor. 
Thus with a scarcity of currants, gooseberries, apples, etc., 
the bulk of the pie may be made of the rhubarb with but 
little of the other fruit. 

Many of the best cooks of the present day make their 
pies without sugar. When baked remove the upper crust 
and sweeten. It is a well-known fact that it takes less sugar 
than if it is cooked in the pie. 

It is unnecessary to detail each fruit in pie-making. Hav- 
ing made one or two that are similar, there is judgment 
enough acquired to make others. 


i^ cups flour before sifting. 

^ cup butter, or a trifle less of lard. 

3 tablespoons water ; pinch of salt. 

This is for upper and under crusts of a large, round tin or 
yellow pie-plate. Put the salt in the flour and sift it. Take 
a knife and use in mixing the shortening with the flour. 

Plain Crust. PIES. Rich Crust. 

Butter will cut up nicer than lard, and will make the crust 
more flaky. When it is well cut together, put in the water 
very gradually, chopping the mixture, and trying to avoid 
wet streaks. Do not knead it with the hands. Sprinkle 
some flour on the molding-board ; flour the rolling-pin, take 
a little more than half of the crust and gather it into a little 
round pile, and roll it out from you. If it is not the proper 
shape, turn it at right angles and roll from you again. 
When it is of the required size, cover the sides and bottom 
of the pie-dish ; finish the upper crust the same way, and 
make 3 or 4 gashes in it for the escape of steam. After the 
pie material is put in, and the upper crust put on, pinch the 
edges of the two crusts neatly together. 


Mrs. David H. Wilkie, Chicago. 

Five cups sifted flour, I cup lard, a little salt, J cup of 
very cold water ; handle as little as possible. Do not grease 
your pie-plates, they are more likely to stick if you do ; you 
will find this just right. 


Mix 3 cups flour and J cup water together, roll the paste 
out and lay bits of butter upon it, beat up the white of an 
egg and brush it all over the paste, fold it, roll it out again, 
and repeat the process with more butter till the whole of 
the white of egg is used ; it will make the paste rise and 
become very flaky. 

Take I pound of dried flour and I pound of butter- 
Break the butter with your fingers and mix with the flour 
as fine as possible, and then with a little cold water mix into 
a tolerably stiff paste. Gently roll it, passing the roller in 
one direction only from you. After this lightly fold it 
over, and set it aside for 15 minutes in a cool place ; then 
repeat the rolling in the same manner, and let it stand 

1 76 

* : ; 

Tart Shells. PIES. Mince. 

another 15 minutes. This is to be repeated once more. Be 
sure to handle it as little as possible, and to keep it cool. 
Bake in a quick oven. 


Graham flour mixed with cream, and salt added, makes a 
healthful pie-paste that is, if pie-crust can be healthy. 
The cream answers for both shortening and wetting. 


Line patty-pans with a rich pie-crust, rolled thin. Or, 
roll paste thin and cut with a large-sized biscuit-cutter. 
Then cut another one the same size, and cut from the center 
of this with a cup or cutter smaller than the biscuit-cutter. 
Take the ring thus made and lay it on the first one and 
bake. These shells are used for tarts, oyster patties, etc.. 
and are a very nice addition to the tea table. For tarts, any 
kind of jelly or jam may be used, filling just before serving. 


Mrs. M. L. Currey, Detroit, Mich. 

4 pounds lean meat, chopped fine after being cooked tender. 
3 pounds chopped suet. I lemon chopped no seeds. 
8 pounds chopped apples. J ounce mace. 

2 pounds currants. I tablespoon cinnamon. 

2 pounds raisins. I tablespoon allspice. 

1 pound citron. I tablespoon cloves. 
6 pounds brown sugar. 2 tablespoons salt. 

Wet with boiled cider and cook together. 

Mince Pics. 

2 pounds lean fresh beef, after 2 pounds currants. 

it is chopped. 2\ pounds brown sugar. 

I pound beef suet. 2 tablespoons cinnamon. 

5 pounds apples chopped fine. I tablespoon cloves. 

I pound raisins chopped. i tablespoon allspice. 

I pound whole raisins. i tablespoon fine salt, 

i pound Sultana raisins. i nutmeg. 

\ pound citron or candied i quart cider, or more. 

lemon peel sliced thin. I pint molasses. 

Mix and cook till the apple is done. 


Summer Mince. PIES. Sweet Potato. 


Mrs. E. B. Baldwin. 

4 Boston crackers soaked soft in cold water. 

1 cup molasses. 
\ cup vinegar. 

2 teaspoons cinnamon. 
I teaspoon cloves. 

i teaspoon allspice. 
Raisins, currants, butter or suet. 
Sweeten to taste. This makes 3 pies. 


Remove the seeds of the pumpkin, cut into small pieces, 
steam till tender, then remove peel and mash fine with Vic- 
tor vegetable masher. Or, cut up, peel, and boil in a very 
little water till well done and dry. After mashing, to each 
quart add I quart milk, 2 cups sugar, I teaspoon each of 
cinnamon, ginger, and salt, 4 tablespoons corn starch or 2 
eggs. Bake in a custard-pan with an under crust. 


Mrs. Harvey Roe, Mantorville, Minnesota. 

One cup grated raw pumpkin, I egg, pinch of salt, \ cup 
sugar, spice to suit the taste. Put these ingredients mixed 
together in I round pie-tin lined with paste. Add milk to 
fill the tin. 


Boil and sift a good dry squash, thin it with boiling milk 
until about the consistency of thick milk porridge. To 
every quart of this, add 3 eggs, 2 great spoons melted but- 
ter, nutmeg, or ginger, if you prefer, and sweeten quite 
sweet with sugar. Bake in a deep plate with an under crust. 


Aunt Sally DeBell, Mt. Carmel, Ky. 

Boil or stew the potatoes till tender. Put a layer of slices 
on the bottom cr\ist, Sprinkle with 2 tablespoons sugar, i 

Pine-Apple. PIES. Banana. 

of jelly, i of butter, a little nutmeg, and I teaspoon flour 
made smooth with 2 tablespoons water. Cover with upper 

Boil potatoes tender. Line a pie-dish with gooct pie- 
paste, slice potatoes to cover the bottom, sprinkle with 
sugar, a light sprinkling of flour, and a pinch of salt ; then 
another similar layer with bits of butter dotted over. Fill 
the dish with milk, flavor with nutmeg, and bake with one 



1 small pine-apple, grated. I cup sweet cream. 

2 tablespoons butter. ^ CU P sugar. 

3 yolks of eggs. 

Mix well and bake in under crust only. Beat the whites 
to a stiff froth with i cup fine sugar for a meringue. 


Make nearly like first recipe for sweet potato pie. Slice 
the bananas raw, sprinkle with sugar, butter, J teaspoon all- 
spice and boiled cider or jelly. Cover with crust and bake. 


Juice and grated rind of I lemon. 
I cup sugar. 
I cup water. 

1 tablespoon corn starch or 2 of flour. 

2 yolks of eggs well beaten. 

Mix all together and cook in a basin over water. Line a 
pie-plate with paste, put in the mixture and bake till the 
crust is done. Then whip the whites of eggs to a stiff froth 
with 2 tablespoons of sugar, spread over and brown in the 


Lemon Pie. 

2 lemons. 2 tablespoons melted butter. 

4 e gg s - 2 cups sugar. 

2 cups water. 3 soda crackers rolled. 

Squeeze the juice of both lemons, and grate the rind of 


Lemon. PIES. Orange. 

one. Mix the yolks of the eggs with the other ingredients. 
Cover the pan with crust, pour the mixture in and bake till 
the crust is done. Beat the whites to a stiff froth, stir in 
four spoons sugar, put it on the pie and set it in the oven 
for a delicate browning. This is for 2 pies. 

For 3 pies take 3 lemons, grated rind and juice, 3 table- 
spoons sugar, same of flour, 3 eggs, i pint of syrup, mix well. 


I raw potato, grated. I cup sugar, 

i lemon, grated, with juice. i cup water. 
Bake with 2 crusts. 


Mrs. M. M. Jones, Nashville, Tenn. 

1 pint best syrup. 

2 tablespoons melted butter. 

Put into a bowl, and dredge in a teaspoon of flour. Then 
grate the yellow rind of 2 small lemons and squeeze out the 
juice. Stir together. Line a pie-tin with paste. Put a 
layer of the mixture in, then a layer of crust as thin as a 
wafer ; then another layer, until there are 3 layers of crust ; 
then the mixture and a top crust. This makes 2 deep, 
round pies. 


Mrs. T. S. Bidwell, Chicago. 

2 tablespoons tapioca soaked in 

i cup water over night. 

i lemon, juice and grated rind. 

i cup sugar. 

i egg. Bake in 2 crusts. 


i orange, juice, grated rind. i cup water ; yolk of I egg 

i cup sugar. 2 tablespoons corn starch. 

Bake with one crust, and frost with white of egg and 
tablespoon sugar. 

i So 

Service- Berry. PIES. Cranberry. 

Orange Pie. 
Mrs. M. A. Smith. 

One large or two small oranges, grated rind and juice, 
yolks of 3 eggs beaten with I cup sugar. Mix this with 
orange and add I cup milk or cream. Bake till the pie-paste 
is done. Beat the whites with 3 tablespoons sugar and put 
on top and brown. 


Mrs. E. B. Baldwin. 

One cup raisins seeded. Stew until soft. Thicken with 
flour, like gravy. Sweeten to the taste and bake with two 

Raisin Pie. 

Mrs. M. M. Jones, Nashville, Tenn. 

I cup layer raisins, stoned left whole. 

I whole egg and yolk of another. 

| cup brown sugar, beaten with the eggs. 
Lay the raisins on the crust, dredge with flour, and pour 
the mixture over. Bake in one crust. Then take the re- 
maining white with 2 tablespoons pulverized sugar for icing. 
Brown lightly. More eggs will improve it. 


Mr. Wm. H. Rochester, Bowling Green, Ky. 

To \ gallon service-berries put a pint of gooseberries to 
give a tart taste. Stew them together in water, but they do 
not require any sugar. Bake with 2 crusts. 


Stew cranberries allowing a pint of sugar and a pint of 
water to a quart of berries. Line a pie-plate with paste. 
Fill with the stewed berries. Put narrow strips of pie-crust 
across the top. A quart should make 2 good pies. Make 
with full upper crust, if preferred. 


This fruit makes the best pie when green. The main 
thing is to put in sugar enough. Dredge with a small hand- 

Currant PIES. Tomato. 

fit! of flour and put in about 2 tablespoons water. Bake 
with 2 crusts, 15 or 20 minutes. 


Take large English currants, cleanse carefully, and stew 
in plenty of water. Sweeten, and thicken with flour till of 
the consistency of rich cream. Bake with 2 crusts. A very 
good pie in the spring when pie material is scarce. 


This pie is improved by mixing currants with the berries. 
It is made in the same manner as the above. If no currants 
are at hand, put in a little vinegar. 


Of course it is nicer when eating to have the cherries pit- 
ted, but either way is admissible. Put in the pie-plate 
plenty of fruit, sweeten well, and sprinkle with flour. No 
water is needed. The cherries will cook by the time the 
crust is done. 


Cook pitted cherries and chopped apples, equal quantities, 
together. Sweeten to suit the taste. Add a sprinkling of 
flour, a bit of ginger, and allow J teaspoon cinnamon to 
each pie. Cook without upper crust. 


Cut the pared peaches and spread the same as apples. 
Sprinkle with sugar and a little flour. If the peaches are 
very juicy, no water will be required. Bake with two 


Fill a pie-plate lined with crust with sliced ripe tomatoes. 
Sprinkle I tablespoon flour over it, 2 teaspoons lemon ex- 
tract, and 2 cups white sugar. Cover with top crust. 
Half-ripe tomatoes, pared and sliced, and seasoned with 

1 82 

Pie- Plant. PIES. Dried App-e. 

ginger, nutmeg, and cinnamon, are used for pies during 
scarcity of pie material. 

i cup stewed pie-plant. 2 tablespoons flour. 

Yolk of i egg. i cup sugar. 

Bake in one crust. Frost with white of egg and \ table- 
spoon sugar. 


Grandma Graves, Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Peel the stalks. Cut into ^ inch pieces. Pour boiling 
water over and let remain until cold. This takes the bitter 
sour from the rhubarb, thus saving much sugar. When cool, 
strew lavishly with sugar, a little butter and a sprinkling of 
flour. Half an orange improves the flavor. Bake with 2 


Mrs. A. S. J. 

For 2 pies take 2 lemons, squeeze out juice ; remove seeds. 
Chop rind and pulp very fine with I cup seeded raisins. 
Add juice and J cup sugar and i cup water. Spread a layer 
of this mixture on the bottom crust, then roll out a very thin 
crust and lay on. Then another layer of the mixture, then 
the top crust. 

[We think a little thickening improves it. ED.] 


Make a good biscuit dough, roll thin about the size of a 
pie-plate, put in a spoon of nice dried apple or other sauce, 
turn the crust over, cut out with the edge of a saucer to 
shape it nicely, and fry in hot lard like doughnuts. 


Soak the apples until quite soft. Then stew till soft 
enough to go through a colander. Season with lemon, add 
sugar to taste, and i beaten egg for every 2 pies, and a tea- 
spoon of butter to each pie. A tablespoon of cream may 
be added. Mix and bake with 2 crusts. 

Apple. PIES. Buttermilk. 

Four or 5 tart apples peeled and quartered. Slice small 
and lay evenly around on the pie-paste. Take I cup sugar, 
small pieces of butter, I teaspoon cinnamon, and a sprink- 
ling of flour over the whole, and 2 tablespoons water. 
Cover with rich paste and bake slowly. Green apples 
should be stewed before making into pies. 

i^ large sweet apples, grated. 

1 egg- 

I cup sweet cream. 

Milk to fill the pie-plate. Bake in one crust. 


One cup milk, yolks of 2 eggs, 3 or 4 grated apples, small 
spoon of melted butter, \ cup sugar, nutmeg to flavor, small 
pinch of salt. Bake in one crust. Make a frosting with the 
whites of eggs and 2 spoons sugar. Brown delicately. 


Three eggs, not quite a pint of milk, pinch of salt, 3 
tablespoons sugar, flavor with nutmeg. Bake in a large pie- 
plate with one crust. The whites may be left out for frost- 
ing, if preferred. 


Three eggs, 3 tablespoons sugar, ^ cup Graham flour, salt 
and flavor. The flour settles to the bottom and forms a 
good crust. Fill the pie-pan with milk, mixing a part of it 
with the other ingredients first. 


Mrs. F. W. Westgate, Uniondale, Pa. 

I cup sugar. I egg. 

r J cups buttermilk. I teaspoon butter. 

I tablespoon flour. 
Stir well together. Flavor with nutmeg, bake in one crust. 

1 84 

One Egg. PlES. Cream. 


| cup sugar. I egg. 

1 1 cups sweet milk. Pinch of salt. 

I tablespoon melted butter. I teaspoon lemon extract. 
Bake with one crust. 


Mrs. A. G. Leffet, Dallas, Texas. 

Line a pie-plate with pie-paste. Then put 
A layer of butter. 
A layer of sugar. 
A layer of flour. 
A layer of sugar. 

Pour milk over and bake. 


Mrs. George Trevett, Chicago. 

1 pint milk, pinch of salt. 

2 scant tablespoons corn starch. 

3 yolks of eggs. 
J cup sugar. 

\ teaspoon lemon extract. 

Cook over water. Bake the crust alone in a pie-plate, 
then pour the mixture in, and frost with whites of 3 eggs 
and 3 tablespoons sugar and J teaspoon lemon extract. 
Brown lightly in the oven. 5 eggs will make 2 pies. 


Line a k dish with paste and fill with fresh strawberries 
made very sweet with powdered sugar. Cover with paste 
rather thick, but do not pinch down at the edges. When 
done, lift the top crust and pour over the berries the follow- 
ing, after it is perfectly cold: , 

I small cup milk (or part cream) heated to boiling. 
Whites of 2 eggs, beaten and stirred lightly into the 

boiling milk. 

I tablespoon white sugar. 
^ teaspoon corn starch, wet with cold milk. 
Stir all together and cook 3 minutes. Replace the top 
crust, and sprinkle sugar over the top before serving. 


Cracker. PIES. Amber. 

2 soda crackers broken in pieces. 
\ cup water. 

I scant teaspoon tartaric acid. 
I cup sugar. Bake in 2 crusts. 

I cup sugar. I egg. 

i^ cups sweet milk. I cocoanut, grated. 

\ cup sweet cream (or I tablespoon melted butter). 
Baked with one crust. Desiccated cocoanut can be used. 

Cocoanut Pie. 

Mrs. C. M, Coombs, Bowling Green, Kentucky. 

For 2 pies, take 

i cocoanut, grated. 2 eggs, well beaten. 

I cup sugar. I tablespoon butter. 

\ cup sweet milk. 

Bake in i crust. If preferred, make a meringue of the 
whites of 2 eggs and 4 tablespoons sugar for each pie. 


1 cup meats, chopped fine. 3 cups milk. 

2 e gg s - 2 tablespoons sugar. 

Bake with one crust. Butternuts may be used, but are so 
rich that their use is not recommended. 


Make a rich pie-paste. On the bottom crust of a round 
plate sprinkle i tablespoon flour and I cup light brown 
sugar. On this another spoon of flour. Pour over gradu- 
ally \ cup vinegar, a pinch of salt, and \ teaspoon cinnamon. 
Cover with upper crust. 


Mrs. H. H. Harvey, Bowling Green, Kentucky. 

i cup butter, 
i cup eggs (about 6). 
i cup jelly. 
Beat together to a cream and bake in one crust. For the 

*2 4 

1 86 

Jelly. PIES. Wine- Plant. 

meringue, take white of i egg and i cup pulverized sugar. 
Beat to a froth and spread over the top and brown lightly. 


Mrs. Judge Pillsbury, Bowling Green, Ky. 

3 e g s > beat whites and yolks i tablespoon butter. 

separately. 3 tablespoons cream. 

5 tablespoons jelly. i nutmeg. 

Sweeten to taste. It will depend upon the acidity of the 
jelly. Bake in one crust. 


Mrs. Fred Dresel, Maysville, Kentucky. 

1 cup sugar. i cup butter, cream together. 

Add 2 beaten eggs. 

Bake in one crust and put a pie-tin over the pie while 
baking. It is nice to take extra whites of 2 eggs with 4 
tablespoons sugar for a meringue. 


Cut the wine-plant in small pieces. Use an equal bulk of 
raisins. Sweeten generously ; sprinkle a small tablespoon of 
flour over each pie, and a tablespoon of water. Bake in 

2 crusts. 


Mrs. Fannie H. Bower. 

2 tablespoons corn starch. 2 tablespoons sugar. 

i pint milk pinch of salt. i egg i teaspoon vanilla. 

Heat the milk over water, stir in the flour made smooth 
with part of the milk, add the sugar, the beaten yolk and 
the salt and flavoring. Bake the crust alone, then fill \vith 
the mixture. Beat the white of egg with 2 tablespp-sms 
sugar and spread over the top. Brown lightly. 

NDER this head, I give APPLE DESSERTS, 
lings may be baked, boiled, or steamed, 
and be made with either dried or green fruits. Steaming 
has superseded boiling to a great extent. It is easier, 
which is a great argument in its favor. 


Fill an earthen pudding-dish | full of tart, juicy apples, 
peeled, quartered, and cored, and the quarters cut in two. 
Put in a cup of water, and sprinkle with sugar. Cover with 
a paste of rich cream biscuit dough, twice as thick as pie- 
paste. Gash it and bake nearly I hour. Serve either warm 
or cold, and from the dish in which it is baked. Peach cob- 
blers are made similarly. 


1 pint of milk, or part milk and part water. 

2 beaten eggs. 

2 teaspoons baking powder; salt. 

Make a batter rather thicker than griddle cakes. If water 
is used, put in a spoon of melted butter. Pare, core, and 
chop apples fine. Half fill buttered cups with the chopped 
apple, pour in the batter till f full. Set in steamer, and 
steam about I hour. Serve hot with cream and sugar fla- 
vored, or liquid sauce. 

Fill a basin \ full of tart apples, pared, quartered, and 


Baked Apple DUMPLINGS. Brother Jonathan. 

cored. Pour on boiling water and place on stove to cook. 
When they begin to boil, put over them a crust made as for 
biscuit, cover closely and cook about 20 minutes. Eat with 
sugar and cream or hard pudding-sauce. 


Pare, quarter, and core the apples. Make a rich, stiff, 
biscuit dough. Roll and cut in strips, and take 4 pieces of 
apple for each dumpling and wrap 2 or 3 strips of dough 
around them, pinching the ends together. Put a quart of 
water in a pudding or baking 7 dish, and I cup of sugar, 
and a small piece of butter. Let it get to boiling on top of 
the stove. Then place the dumplings in and bake till crust 
and apples are done. 


Take I quart flour, I tablespoon lard, the same of butter, 
I teaspoon soda dissolved in a little hot water, 2 teaspoons 
cream tartar sifted through the flour; a little salt, enough 
milk to make the flour into a soft dough ; Roll out the 
paste less than half an inch thick, cut it in squares and place 
in the center of each an apple, pared and cored ; bring the 
corners together ; place each dumpling in a small, square, 
floured cloth ; tie the top, leaving room enough to swell ; 
boil 50 minutes. 


Anna Peterson. 

Pare and slice good cooking apples till a 2-quart basin is 
| full. Sprinkle with J cup sugar, and pour over ^ cup of 
water. Make a batter of I \ cups milk, 2 eggs, I tablespoon 
butter, 1 1 tablespoons sugar, 2 teaspoons baking powder, 
and flour to thicken like muffins. Pour over and bake 
slowly in a steady oven. Serve with sugar and cream. 


Mrs. A. S. J. 

To I pint buttermilk add I teaspoon soda, little salt, and 
flour to make a thin batter. Have ready some tart apples 

Rolls. DUMPLINGS. Roly Poly. 

sliced thin. Mix in the batter. Grease pudding-dish and 
pour the mixture in. Bake slowly or steam. Sweet milk 
may be used with cream of tartar and soda. Eat warm, 
with sweetened cream or any rich sauce. 


Stew until done. Rub through a colander or coarse sieve. 
Sweeten. Roll out pie-crust very thinjn squares the size of 
a pie-plate. Spread them with the apple and fold over twice. 
Bake brown. Cut slices off of the end, lay on a dessert- 
plate, and serve with amber pudding-sauce. 


Mrs. Bettie Miller, Cincinnati, O. 

The juice and grated rind of an orange, add the juice and 
grated peel of J lemon, 4 tablespoons sugar, 2 tablespoons 
butter, 2 eggs, except I white. Bake in tart shells. 


Mrs. E. J. Wilber, Chicago. 

One quart canned peaches. Pour into a 2-quart basin. 
Make a batter of I cup milk, I egg, butter size of an egg, 
melted, 2 teaspoons baking powder, flour to make thick 
enough to roll out. Cover over the peaches. Put paper 
over. Bake till the crust is done. Eat with vanilla sauce. 


Mrs. E. B. B. 

I cup butter. I large cup raisins. 

I J. cups sugar. 3 eggs, 

i cup milk. 2 teaspoons baking powder. 

Flour to make stiff batter. Steam 3 or 4 hours. 


Mrs. Martha Dimmitt, Maysville, Ky. 

1 pint mashed potatoes made very fine and smooth. 

2 pints flour. I cup butter. 

i pint buttermilk. I teaspoon soda. 

Use more buttermilk if 


Royal Dessert. DUMPLINGS. Popovers. 

necessary to make a dough. Spread with dried currants, 
cherries, or any preserved fruit. Tie in a cloth and immerse 
in boiling water and boil 2 hours. Serve with vanilla sauce, 
or any other preferred. 


Mrs. M. M. Curtis, Seattle, Washington Ty. 

Put | pound butter crackers in a deep dish and pour over 
them the vanilla pudding-sauce. Let stand about five min- 
utes before serving. It is recommended by some to steam 
the crackers first. 


Mrs. Dr. B. M. Baker, Chicago. 

One cup sugar well beaten with 3 eggs, I teaspoon of 
cream of tartar added to I cup of milk and mixed with sugar 
and eggs. Then stir in flour to a thin batter, and add ^ tea- 
spoon soda, little salt, and stir briskly, and put in a buttered 
pan and bake in a quick oven. Serve with vinegar sauce. 


Mrs. O. Blackman, Chicago. 
I cup sugar. 
i^ cups flour. 

3 eggs beaten, whites and yolks separately. 
I heaping teaspoon baking powder. 

Bake in two cakes and put together with the following 
cream : 

cup milk ; let come to a boil, then add 
tablespoon corn starch wet with 2 tablespoons of the 

beaten egg. 
tablespoon sugar, 
teaspoon lemon or vanilla. 
Serve with sauce. 


One pint sweet milk, 3 eggs, 9 tablespoons sifted flour, 
teaspoon salt. Pour the milk upon the flour scalding hot, 
and stir until free from lumps. When cool, add the eggs, 

Orange. SHORTCAKES. Cranberry. 

beaten to a foam. Bake J hour in buttered cups, and take 
from the oven immediately. Serve with cream and sugar, 
or sauce. 


Sprinkle sugar over 6 peeled and sliced oranges for 2 or 3 
hours before using. One quart flour, 2 tablespoons butter, 
2 teaspoons baking powder. Cold water. Bake, split open 
and put orange between. Eat with sweetened cream. Any 
fruit, either fresh, stewed, or canned, may be used for short- 


In the absence of fruit of all kinds, make a rich shortcake 
and pour over it sweetened cream. In many new farming 
districts there is no fruit whatever, and it requires a great 
deal of ingenuity to get up desserts. 


Mrs. F. W. Westgate, Uniondale, Penn. 

i lemon. 
I cup sugar. 
i cup cream. 

Grate the outside rind of the lemon, add the juice, stir 
together with the sugar, and let it stand 6 hours. Prepare 
the shortcake the same as for berries. When ready, add the 
cream to the sugar and lemon, and spread between the 


1 quart flour. 2 tablespoons butter. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 2 cups sweet milk. 

Mix, divide in halves, roll out, bake in 2 round tins. 
When done divide the cakes, butter generously, cover with 
peaches sliced and sugared. Butter the upper crust, put 
over, and serve hot. Serve with sugar and cream, if you 
have it. 


Mrs. Kate Peckham, Dallas, Texas. 

Make the cake the same as strawberry shortcake. Cool 


Strawberry. SHORTCAKES. Brown Betty. 

the berries. Make very sweet and juicy. Spread thick on 
the cake layers, after they are baked. Leave the juice until 
ready to serve. With a rich crust you will have a delicious 


Make a very rich biscuit dough ; roll out ^ inch thick, and 
put on a round pie-tin. Spread over it butter or lard and a 
light sprinkling of flour. Lay another crust over this ; 
bake. When done, remove the upper crust and spread on a 
thick layer of strawberries and sugar after buttering the 
crust well. Lay on the upper. Butter that and spread over 
more berries. If any juice is left, pour it on. This will be 
found easier than splitting a thick shortcake. And it is bet- 
ter to make two or more small cakes than one large one, for 
the reason that they can be prepared fresh for late comers, 
and for a large table full may be dished out by more than 
one person. If strawberries are sandy they must be put in 
a colander and rinsed. Then put in a bowl, sprinkled 
with sugar, for an hour or two before using. Mash them if 



Peel, cut up, and stew some nice, tart, juicy apples. 
Sweeten well, and put into a buttered pudding-dish in alter- 
nate layers with cracker crumbs. Add a sprinkling of cin- 
namon and small lumps of butter. Make the top layer, 
crumbs. Bake, and serve hot, with cream and sugar. 

rRlTTERS are a nice addition to the breakfast, 
lunch or tea table. Plain fritters and fruit 
fritters are often used as a dessert at dinner. 
They may be served with powdered sugar 
dusted over them, or with maple syrup, or 
any liquid pudding sauce. If the tempera- 
ture of the fat is right the fritter will rise quickly to the 
surface and begin to brown immediately. 

Fritter batter may be as thin as griddle cakes. Of course, 
they will cook if the batter is thicker, but will take longer 
to cook in the center, so a rather thin batter is preferable. 
If a very juicy fruit is used, a little more flour should be 
added. Baking powder is scarcely needed if the eggs are 
well beaten and the whites added the last thing. They are 
dropped by spoonsful into smoking hot fat, and fried like 


2 eggs. 1 3 cups flour with 

i cup milk pinch of salt. i teaspoon baking powder. 

Serve with powdered sugar, maple syrup, or vinegar sauce. 


2 eggs. 

1 cup milk. 

2 cups scant flour sifted with 

1 teaspoon baking powder pinch of salt. 

2 oranges, juice, and pulp. 

Shred the oranges in small pieces, and grate the rind of 
half of one. Dust with pulverized sugar. The above wiU 
serve 8 persons. 

*2 5 


Apple. FRITTERS. Pine-Apple. 


i cup milk. i heaping cup flour. 

I full cup peeled chopped ap- 2 eggs pinch of salt. 
pies. i teaspoon baking powder. 

i cup milk. 
i beaten egg. 
ij cups flour. 

Add juice and pulp of i lemon. Fry in hot lard by 
spoonsful, like doughnuts. Serve with silver sauce, to which 
add the grated peel of half the lemon. 


One heaping cup flour, yolks of 2 eggs, 2 tablespoons 
salad oil, or melted butter, pinch of spice, and salt, i cup 
water. When mixed smoothly, add the beaten whites. 
Dip little clusters of grapes in the batter and fry. Take up 
and lay on brown paper for a minute, to free them from fat. 
Dust with powdered sugar, and serve either hot or cold, as 
a dessert. 


One heaping cup flour, yolks of 2 eggs, pinch of salt, 2 
tablespoons melted lard or butter, i cup water. Add the 
whites beaten to a stiff froth, and stir in lightly 2 or 3 
bananas cut in thin strips, and fry. Dust with powdered 
sugar. The above will make a dessert for 8 persons. 


Either fresh or canned pine-apple may be used. Sprinkle 
the slices (they should be thin) with about 2 tablespoons 
sugar, and let stand 3 or 4 hours. Make a batter as fol- 
lows : Stir a teaspoon of melted butter into 2 tablespoons 
flour, add a pinch of salt, and warm milk to make a batter 
that will drop from the spoon. Add the beaten yolks of 2 
eggs. Beat well ; then add the well-beaten whites. Stir in 
lightly, and mix the fruit into the batter. Fry the fritters 


Cream. FRITTERS. Potato. 

piece by piece in hot lard. They will cook in 7 or 8 min- 
utes. Lay on blotting paper when done. Sift sugar over 

and serve hot. 


Melt I tablespoon butter in i pint boiling water. Wet up 
a pint of sifted flour with cold water as for starch, and stir 
into the hot water, beating well to make it very smooth. 
Take from stove and stir in 6 well-beaten eggs, a little at a 
time, and beat till very light and very smooth. Have smok- 
ing hot lard in a kettle or deep skillet ; drop the mixture in 
by spoonsful and fry a light brown. Eat with molasses sauce. 


I quart grated green corn. 
3 eggs. 

J cup flour ; salt and pepper. 

Add the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs the last thing. Drop 
by small spoonsful into the fat. 


One or more cups of cold boiled rice, ^ pint milk, 2 or 3 
eggs, flour to make a stiff batter, with good spoonful baking 
powder. Fry in hot drippings. Hominy may be similarly 
prepared. Eat with butter, syrup, or jam. 


To a saucer full of cold mashed potatoes add 2 beaten 
eggs, a pinch of pepper and salt, and 4 tablespoons flour. 
Mix, and add sweet milk till of the consistency of thick pan- 
cake batter. Bake in small cakes on a hot griddle in fresh 
hot lard. Nice with meat of any kind, and to be eaten with 


ij dozen large potatoes, peeled and grated. 
3 eggs, salt to taste. 
3 tablespoons flour. 
Mix well and drop into hot lard and fry until done. 


Tomato. FRITTERS. Clam. 

i quart stewed tomatoes. i egg. 

i teaspoon soda. 

Flour to thicken like griddle cakes. Fry in a skillet in 
hot lard. 


After boiling and reducing to a fine pulp, mix with beaten 
egg, season with salt, pepper, and butter ; form into cakes 
and fry a light brown in butter or drippings. 


Strain the liquor of the oysters. For a can of oysters, use 
a cup of milk, the oyster liquor, 2 well-beaten eggs, 2 cups 
of flour, a teaspoon of baking powder, and \ teaspoon of 
salt. Mix the batter well. Stir the oysters in and drop the 
mixture by spoonsful into hot fat; and fry. 


Mrs. Emma Graves, Seattle, Washington Ty. 

i dozen clams chopped ; add their liquor. 
i tea-cup flour. 
i teaspoon baking powder. 
\ teaspoon pepper. 
^ teaspoon salt. 
Drop from a spoon in hot meat drippings. 


Take 25 clams and stew them in their own liquor, salt 
and pepper them slightly, cook for 15 minutes slowly, drain 
the clams, chopping them as fine as possible, removing all 
the hard portions first. Make a batter of 4 eggs, with I cup 
of sifted flour, and 2 cups milk ; get it as smooth as possible, 
mix the clams with it, use butter for frying. A small addi- 
tion of parsley is excellent. 

ELL-BUTTERED must be the pudding-molds 
or basins. Boiled puddings should be put 
into boiling water and the water kept 
boiling all the time. Have the water 
come up as high as the pudding in the 
mold. Fill up with boiling water as fast 
as it evaporates. If a bag is used, wring it out of hot water, 
and flour it well ; and when done, dip into cold water, and 
the pudding will come out easily. The same may be done 
with a mold. It takes nearly as long again to boil or 
steam as it does to bake. 

If necessary to wash raisins for puddings, it should be 
done the day before, so as to dry them thoroughly. They 
are sure to make the pudding heavy if put in wet. It is 
better to cleanse currants as soon as bought that they may 
be in readiness for use. They need several washings in a 
colander, and then should be drained and dried. The taste 
of the person, and the character of the pudding, must deter- 
mine whether to use hard sauce or liquid sauce. 


Mrs. E. B. Baldwin. 

Make a hard pudding-sauce, and when beaten very light, 
set aside three or four tablespoons in a plate. To the re- 
mainder, add cherry, currant, or cranberry juice, or jelly, or 
chocolate. Beat the coloring matter in well, and "shape in 
a conical form. Roll half sheet of stiff note-paper into a 
long narrow funnel. Tie a string around it to keep it in 
shape and fill with the uncolored sauce. Squeeze it out 
gently, commencing at the base of the cone and winding 
about to the top, leaving alternate light and dark stripes. 


Hard Gold. PUDDING-SAUCES. Vanilla. 


2 tablespoons butter. 
4 tablespoons nice brown sugar. 

Cream together and add the beaten yolk of an egg and 
teaspoon vanilla. 

\ cup butter creamed with 
i cup white sugar. Add 
- teaspoon lemon extract. 

cup butter. 

i cup sugar creamed together. Add 
i cup rich, sweet cream. 

Stir well together and flavor with J teaspoon each vanilla 
and lemon. Put on ice before using. 


If cream and sugar are .served as a sauce, it is better to 
pass each separately, as the tastes of people differ in regard 
to sweets, some liking more than others. 


Nicely sweetened and flavored, is served with some pud- 


i cup sugar. 2 eggs. 

| cup milk. J teaspoon vanilla. 

Beat the yolks and sugar together, and add to the milk 
heated to boiling. Simmer about 5 minutes ; add the 
vanilla, and just before serving add the beaten whites. 


J cup butter. 2 cups water. 

i cup sugar. I large tablespoon flour. 

i J teaspoons vanilla. 

Make the flour smooth with part of the water, and cook 
all together over hot water, adding the flavoring last. 


Lemon. PUDDING-SAUCES. Butter. 


| cup butter. 

i^ cups sugar. 

2 tablespoons flour. 

Beat together and pour over it I pint boiling water. Stir 
to a smooth liquid and add I lemon cut in very thin slices, 
without peeling. Remove seeds. 


Juice of two oranges. 
^ cup sugar or more if liked. 
2 cups cream or milk. 

Good for blanc-mange, corn starch, or any pudding re- 
quiring cold sauce. 


1 tablespoon flour mixed with 

4 tablespoons nice brown sugar. Stir with 

2 cups milk. Cook and add 

4 yolks of eggs, well beaten, and 

1 teaspoon vanilla. 


2 tablespoons butter and 

I cup white sugar. Cream together. 

Add the beaten white of I egg and 

^ teaspoon lemon. Just before serving add 

1 cup boiling water. 


2 cups sugar. 

2 eggs. Beat well together, add 
6 tablespoons scalding hot milk. 
Flavor with I teaspoon vanilla. Serve immediately. 


1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

Beat to a cream, add 2 beaten eggs and thin with boiling 


Transparent. PUDDING-SAUCES. Moiasses. 


2 cups sugar., 
i cup water. 

Boil till it thickens, then add 2 tablespoons butter, and I 
teaspoon lemon extract. 


folks 5 eggs. 
I cup sugar. 
A cup butter. 

Beat all together very light and add slowly 2 cups boil- 
ing water. Flavor with I teaspoon cinnamon extract. 


Miss Juliet Cordon. 

2 tablespoons sugar. i teaspoon corn starch. 

I tablespoon jelly. i pint water. 

Cook just enough to incorporate together and leave no 

raw taste of the starch. Serve with cabinet pudding. 


^ cup butter. 
i^ cups sugar. 

i pint mashed strawberries. 
Cream the butter and sugar ; then stir in the berries. 


i cup maple syrup. 

i teaspoon flour, creamed with 

^ cup butter. 

1 scant teaspoon nutmeg. 

Simmer the syrup and skim it ; add the flour and butter 
with nutmeg. Boil up and serve. 


2 cups molasses, and 

i tablespoon butter, boiled together. 

Flavor with ^ teaspoon each ginger and cinnamon. 
Serve hot. 


Cider Sauce. PUDDINGS. Plum Pudding. 


One tablespoon flour and 2 tablespoons butter, creamea ; 
i cup brown sugar, ^ cup boiling water, 4 tablespoons boiled 
cider. Simmer together, stirring constantly, and serve hot. 


i cup brown sugar. J teaspoon salt, 

i cup water. 6 drops extract of lemon, 

i tablespoon butter. i tablespoon vinegar, 

i tablespoon flour. Boil together enough to cook the flour. 

i pound suet chopped fine. 
| pound bread crumbs, 
pound sugar, 
pound flour scant/ 
pound rasins, stoned, 
pound currants. 

pound candied lemon, orange, citron mixed, 
quart milk. 
6 eggs. 

Use dry bread, and rub the inside through a colander. 
Weigh after it is rubbed through. Mix suet, bread, and 
sugar ; add flour, fruit, and peel, shredded fine. Beat the 
eggs, mix with the milk, and add last. I fill several small 
basins, tie cloths over the tops, and boil in a wash-boiler 10 
hours. In England, I am told, they often cook them longer 
still. Any puddings left over should be hung up in a cloth 
and may be boiled again, and will be as good as new the 
next Fourth of July. 

5 large chopped apples. 
i cup raisins. 
i cup sugar. 
i cup sweet milk. 

1 cup flour with i teaspoon baking powder. 
J cup butter. 

2 eggs, pinch of salt. 

Bake i hour. Serve with hard silver sauce. 



Apple. PUDDINGS. Washday. 


One pint milk. When scalding hot, stir in J pint Indian 
meal and a teaspoon of salt. Take 6 medium sized sweet 
apples, pare and cut in pieces, and stir in this mixture. 
Bake 3 hours. Serve with sugar and cream and nutmeg. 


Mrs. Clinton Butterfield, Denver, Col. 

One cup tapioca soaked 2 hours in 6 cups water. Add 6 
chopped apples and I cup sugar. Bake four hours slowly. 
Eat warm or cold, with cream. 


For a 2-quart pudding-dish, take I cup sago and put into 
a quart of cold water in a basin. Let heat and cook gradu- 
ally, adding a pinch of salt, and hot water if it seems too dry. 
In the meantime, pare and core apples to cover the bottom 
of the pudding-dish, fill the holes with sugar, and season 
with nutmeg and cinnamon. Put a cup of water in the dish 
and bake till partly done ; then take the dish out, pour the 
sago over, re*urn and bake till well done. Serve with sugar 
and cream, 


Mrs. L. M. New, Madison, Wis. 

I cup chopped apples, dried or green. 
I cup chopped suet. 

1 cup flour. 

2 cups meal. 

i cup sweet milk. 
I cup molasses. 

i teaspoon soda. Pinch of salt. 
Stear 3i Or 4 hours. Serve with any liquid sauce. 


Take 6 nice apples, peel and slice into a pudding-dish. 
Make a batter of 3 cups milk, 3 cups flour, 2 beaten eggs ; 
pf' ch of salt. Pour over the apples, and boil 2 hours. 

Put a layer of bread in a pudding-dish, with little lumps 


Bird's Nest. PUDDINGS. Lemon. 

of butter over them. Then a layer of chopped apple with 
sugar and cinnamon. Another layer of crumbs and another 
of apple. So on, until the dish is full. Pour over a cup of 
water, and bake till the apple is done. Eat with cream and 


Mrs. E. B. Baldwin. 

Three pints boiling milk, 6 crackers rolled, i cup raisins ; 
when cool, add 4 well-beaten eggs and I cup sugar. Pour 
the mixture over 4 apples pared and cored with corer. Bake 
45 minutes. Serve with liquid sauce. 


Six oranges, peeled, sliced thin, and sprinkled with sugar. 
Make a boiled custard of i pint milk, yolks of 3 eggs, pinch 
of salt, i tablespoon corn starch, and 3 tablespoons sugar. 
When cool, pour over the oranges. Whip the whites of 
eggs to a stiff froth ; add \ cup sugar, and put on the top. 
Set the dish in a pan of water and put in a hot oven a few 
seconds till the frosting is browned. To be eaten cold. 


Two oranges, juice of both and grated peel of one ; juice 
of i lemon ; \ pound lady fingers, stale and crumbed, 2 
cups milk, 4 eggs, \ cup sugar, I tablespoon corn starch 
wet with water, i tablespoon butter, melted. Soak the 
crumbs in the milk (raw), whip up light and add the eggs 
and sugar, already beaten to a cream with the batter. 
Next the corn starch, and when the mold is buttered and 
water boiling hard, stir in the juice and peel of the fruit. 
Do this quickly, and plunge the mold directly into the hot 
water. Boil i hour ; turn out and eat with rich sauce. 


One scant cup butter, 2 cups sugar, cream together, add 
juice and grated rind of 2 lemons, 6 yolks of eggs, and 6 
small Boston crackers in I pint milk. Bake. Make a 


Blackberry. PUDDINGS. Whortleberry. 

meringue of 6 whites beaten with 6 tablespoons powdered 
sugar. Brown. Serve without sauce. 

2 lemons. 
| cup butter. 

2 coffee cups sugar. 

6 eggs, leave out whites of two. 

Cream the butter and sugar. Add the beaten eggs and 
grated lemon peel. Stir in the juice of the lemons, and 
lastly the 2 whites of eggs beaten stiff. Bake in a rich 


| cup butter, beaten very light. 

I cup sugar. 

ij cups flour. 

i cup blackberry jam. 

3 eggs, beaten separately. 

3 tablespoons sour cream. 
i teaspoon soda. 

i nutmeg. 
Bake, and eat with sauce. 


Mrs. Dolly Lee, Rectorville, Ky. 

i cup juice from a can of blackberries, 
ij cups flour. 
i cup sugar. 
| cup butter. 

4 eggs. 

3 tablespoons sweet cream, 
i teaspoon soda. 
Bake in pan and eat with sauce. 


i pint molasses. 

i teaspoon saleratus in a tablespoon boiling 
water. Let cool. 

i tablespoon cinnamon or ginger, as preferred, 
i nutmeg grated. 
2\ cups flour. 
At the last, add 3 pints whortleberries, washed and 

Citron. PUDDINGS. Pine-Applo. 

drained well. Steam it 4 hours or even longer. Use more 
flour if the batter is not stiff enough. Serve with sauce. 

i cup brown sugar. 
^ cup butter, 
i cup sweet milk. 

1 egg. 

2 cups flour. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 
J pound sliced citron. 

Sift baking powder into the flour ; beat sugar and butter 
together ; add the milk, flour, citron, I teaspoon lemon, put 
into a 2-quart basin, and steam 3 hours. Serve with trans- 
parent sauce. 

i cup sugar. 

1 cup molasses. 
| cup butter. 

^ cup sour cream. 
J teaspoon soda. 

2 tablespoons ginger. 
Flour as for cake batter. 

Bake. Eat with any sauce desired. 


Miss Lida Berry, Maysville, Ky. 

4 eggs. 

2 cups sugar. 

i cup butter. 

i cup cream. 

I cup jelly. 

Beat yolks with i cup sugar, and butter with the other 
cup sugar, stir together, and add cream and whites well- 
beaten ; 2 teaspoons vanilla. Bake in a rich pastry. 


Author's Recipe. 

Put i fresh pine-apple, or a two-pound can, cut into small 
pieces, in a pudding-dish, strew plentifully with sugar and 
let it stand several hours. Take i quart milk, put the 


Cocoanut. PUDDINGS. Com Starch. 

greater part in a pail and set into boiling water. Use the 
remainder of the quart to wet up 6 tablespoons loose sifted 
flour. Mix with the beaten yolks of 6 eggs, \ cup sugar, 
and \ saltspoon salt. Stir into the scalding milk. When 
cooked, remove, and when cool, or nearly so, pour over the 
fruit. Make a frosting of beaten whites of eggs, with 3 
tablespoons sugar. Put over the the top and brown in a 
quick oven. 


1 quart milk. 

2 teaspoons even corn starch. 

3 eggs. 

I cup sugar. 

i cup cocoanut grated or desiccated. 

i teaspoon butter. 

i teaspoon lemon extract. 

Scald the milk. Stir in the corn starch with 2 tablespoons 
of the milk. Add the other ingredients and bake \ hour, in 
a pudding-dish. 


Mrs. M. J. Hale. 

i cocoanut. 

I quart milk. 

Whites of 8 eggs. 

\\ cups sugar. 

Grate the cocoanut. Mix with the sugar, milk, and 
beaten whites. Let stand \ hour before baking. Then 
bake, and watch that it does not whey. Use the milk of 
the nut also. Frost with the whites of 2 eggs with 2 table- 
spoons sugar extra. Serve cold. 


3 pints milk. 

7 tablespoons corn starch ; a pinch of salt. 

\ cup sugar. 

Yolks 10 eggs. 

Scald i quart of the milk. Stir into it the corn starch 
wet up with a pint of cold milk. Cook 3 or 4 minutes ; let 
cool. Add the well-beaten yolks and the sugar. Bake 30 


Indian-Rice. PUDDINGS. Rice. 

or 40 minutes in a pudding-dish. Serve hot. Make this 
pudding after the cocoanut pudding has been made. The 
yolks will keep for a day or two in a cool place. 


cup corn starch wet with 
cup water. 

beaten egg ; pinch of salt. Stir this into 
quart of boiling milk. Add 
teaspoon extract desired for flavoring. 
Let cook 3 or 4 minutes. Eat with liquid sauce, hot, or 
is good cold with milk and sugar. 

J cup rice, washed. 
3^ tablespoons corn-meal. 
I quart milk. 
^ cup brown sugar. 
I teaspoon butter. 

J teaspoon each ginger, allspice, and cinnamon 
Put the quart of milk on the stove, and when it comes tt> 
a boil, pour in the corn-meal wet with I cup cold milk. 
Let boil up well, add the other ingredients, put into a pud- 
ding-dish, and bake 2 hours, stirring from the bottom, every 
J hour. Be very careful not to scorch the milk if it is put 
directly over the fire. A double boiler is safer. 

Mrs. E. B. B 

One quart of sweet milk ; 3 tablespoons of corn starch ; 
i cup of sugar ; 5 yolks of eggs ; salt ; flavor. Boil the 
milk, and stir in the starch wet with cold milk ; add the 
sugar and eggs, and let it boil a few minutes. Make a frost- 
ing of the whites, with a little more sugar, and brown in 
the oven. 

J cup rice. 
3 pints milk. 
^ cup sugar. 

I teaspoon butter ; pinch of salt. 
Stir frequently while baking. It should be of the consis- 


Tapioca. PUDDINGS. Lemon-Tapioca. 

tence of cream when done. Bake 2 or 3 hours. Raisins 
may be used, if liked. Eat without sauce. 


Mrs. A. S. J. 

Put I cup tapioca in I quart milk for 2 hours. Then add 
\ cup sugar, I cup raisins, yolks of 3 eggs, well beaten, and 
a little salt. Bake slowly I hour. Take whites, beat to a 
stiff froth ; add 2 tablespoons sugar ; lemon flavor. Spread 
over and brown. No sauce required. 


Mrs. Samuel Packard, Oak Park, 111. 

Soak 3 tablespoons tapioca in water over night. Put it in 
a quart of boiling milk. Cook | hour. Beat yolks of 4 eggs, 
with i cup sugar, add 3 tablespoons cocoanut ; stir in and 
boil 10 minutes longer. Pour into pudding-dish. Beat the 
whites of eggs to a stiff froth, with 3 tablespoons sugar. 
Pour over the top. Then sprinkle cocoanut over all. Set 
in oven and brown. Serve without sauce. 

\ cup tapioca soaked over night in 
2 cups water. In the morning scald 
2 cups milk and stir in it 
3^ tablespoons corn-meal wet with 
\ cup milk. Add to this 
\ cup molasses, the tapioca, 
I teaspoon butter and a pinch of salt. 
\ teaspoon each of ginger, cinnamon, allspice. 
Mix well together. Stir into the mixture I cup cold milk 
and bake 2 hours in a moderate oven. Use other flavor- 
ing if preferred. 


One cup tapioca soaked in 4 cups cold water 3 hours ; I 
lemon. Take half of the lemon, grate the rind and squeeze 
the juice into the tapioca. Cut the other half after peel- 
ing and removing seeds into small bits, and scatter through. 
Bake | hour. Serve- hot, with cream and sugar. 


Graham. PUDDINGS. Blue-Grass. 


One cup tapioca soaked in 4 cups water 2 or 3 hours ; 3 
oranges peeled and every seed removed very carefully. 
Put alternate layers of the soaked tapioca and slices of 
orange in a buttered pudding-dish with I cup sugar. Bake 
45 minutes. Serve hot or cold, with cream. 


Mrs. F. McKercher, Chicago. 

cup molasses, 
cup sour milk, 
cup fruit. 

cups Graham flour, 
teaspoon salt, 
teaspoon soda. 
^ teaspoon cloves. 
I teaspoon cinnamon. 

Steam 2 hours and put in the oven for half an hour. 
Serve with any sauce preferred. 


Mrs. M. L. Galloway, Marseilles, 111. 

I cup Graham flour. 
I cup corn-meal. 
i cup white flour. 
i cup cream. 
^ cup molasses. 

i teaspoon soda. Steam 3 hours. 
Serve with sugar and cream, or with liquid sauce. 


Mrs. Bettie Reese, North Fork, Ky. 

5 e gg s > beaten separately. 

cup sugar. 

cup molasses. 

cup butter. 
3 cups flour. 

cup buttermilk. 

pound raisins, cut up. 
J teaspoon soda. 
Spice, if desired. Grease the pan well, and steam 2\ 
hours. Serve with lemon sauce. 


Rolled. PUDDINGS. Cabinet. 


One pint flour, 2 small teaspoons baking powder, salt, 
milk to make soft enough to handle. Roll thin ; spread all 
over it fresh cranberries, candied cherries, or any sauce. 
Roll up like a jelly-roll. Lay in steamer and steam I hour. 
Serve with lemon sauce. 


Mrs. Jeanie J. H. Norton, Middletown Springs, Vt. 

Place in a mold a layer of slices of bread or cake. Cover 
this with jam of any kind. Then another layer of bread 
and jam until the mold is f full. Pour over this a custard 
made of 2 eggs, a pint of milk, a pinch of salt, and J cup 
sugar. Boil 2 hours. Lemon sauce. 


Grandma Graves. 

On baking day, take ij cups dough, work in a little 
shortening, place in a basin. Let it get light and steam I 
hour. If the basin has no tube, put an inverted cup in the 
center. Eat with vanilla sauce. 


Mrs. Oliver P. Arnold, White Pigeon, Mich. 

I cup raisins. 
i^ cups molasses. 
i cup warm water. 
2j cups flour. 

Dessert-spoon soda yolks 2 eggs. 
Steam 2 hours. Silver sauce. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Use a smooth, plain mold with straight sides. Butter it 
thickly with cold butter. Stick all around it, on the sides 
and bottom, small slices of French candied fruit, if wished 
very fine, or raisins and currants for a plainer pudding. 
They may be put on in rings, stars, or any fancy shapes. 
Half a pound is sufficient for a 3-pint mold. Place slices of 


Cottage. PUDDINGS. Puff Pudding. 

cake, sponge is best, on the layers of fruit ; then fill the 
mold with alternate layers of fruit and cake. Pour over all 
a simple custard made of 6 eggs, pint of milk, and 4 table- 
spoons sugar. Steam the pudding, either in a kettle of 
water over the fire, allowing the water to come half way up 
the side, or in a pan of water set in the oven. Cook about 
45 minutes ; but test it by running a knife down the center. 
If no liquid adheres, it is done. Bread may be used instead 
of cake. Serve with jelly sauce. 


One cup milk, 2 cups flour, 2 eggs well beaten, a little 
salt, I teaspoon soda, 2 cream of tartar. Bake quickly and 
eat hot with rich sauce. 


Mrs. Julia B. DeLon, Chicago. 

Seven eggs, 11 heaping tablespoons of flour, I quart milk, 
i teaspoon vanilla, I teaspoon salt. Bake and serve with 

butter sauce. 


1 cup sweet cream. 

3 e gg s pinch of salt. 

2 cups flour. 

I teaspoon baking powder. 

Bake in a square tin. Serve hot with hard sauce. In 
time of ripe currants, stir a cup of them into the sauce. 

1-2-3-4 PUDDING. 

1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

3 cups flour. 

4 eggs. 

I cup sour milk. 
J teaspoon soda. 
Bake in a pan and serve with butter sauce. 


Mrs. Dr. B. M. Baker, Chicago. 

One quart milk, 6 eggs, 6 tablespoons flour, salt. Bake 
2O minutes. Serve with lemon sauce. 


Queen. PUDDINGS. Chocolate. 

I pint fine grated bread crumbs. 
I quart milk. 
I cup sugar. 
Yolks of 4 eggs beaten. 
Grated rind of I lemon. 
Piece of butter the size of an egg. 

Bake until done, but not watery. Whip the whites of the 
eggs stiff, beat in a teacup of sugar, in which has been 
strained the juice of lemon. Spread over the pudding a 
layer of jelly ; pour the whites of the eggs over this ; re- 
place in the oven ; brown slightly. To be eaten cold with- 
out sauce. 


One quart milk, I pint bread crumbs, 2 eggs, pinch of 
salt, i tablespoon butter. Bake about 20 minutes. Serve 
with hard silver sauce, unless it is preferred to sweeten the 
pudding before baking. 


Take pieces of dry bread, about a quart, soak in warm 
water till soft. Add 3 beaten eggs, I cup of sugar, I cup of 
raisins. Mix well. Boil in a bag or pudding-mold an hour 
or two. Serve with vanilla sauce. 


Mrs. L. Currey, Detroit, Michigan. 

One quart bread crumbs, softened in boiling water, I cup 
chopped suet, I cup currants, or any other fruit, ^ cup 
molasses, 2 eggs, pinch of salt. Bake in a hot oven about 
J hour. Serve with any kind of sauce. 


I quart milk. 

14 even tablespoons grated bread crumbs. 
12 tablespoons grated chocolate. 
6 eggs. 

I tablespoon vanilla (less if very strong). 
I cup sugar. 
B'at 4 yolks and 2 whole eggs very light with the sugar. 


Napoleon PUDDINGS. Almond. 

Scald the milk and pour it hot over the bread and chocolate. 
Add the eggs, sugar and vanilla, and more sugar if desired 
sweeter. Pour into a buttered pudding-dish and bake I 
hour in a moderate oven. When cold pour over the 4 whites 
well beaten with 4 tablespoons powdered sugar and I tea- 
spoon vanilla. 


3 tablespoons grated chocolate, 
i quart sweet milk. 

^ cup sugar. 

4 tablespoons corn starch. 

Scald the milk over hot water. Stir in the corn starch 
dissolved in a little cold milk with the chocolate. Add the 
sugar and stir until cooked. Eat with cream or hard sauce. 


Mrs. Elliott Durand, Chicago. 

Line a deep plate with rich paste. Cover with a thick 
layer of preserves, covered with a tablespoon of chopped 
almonds and half as much candied lemon peel. Beat well, 
separately, 4 yolks and 2 whites of eggs, add a coffee-cup of 
sugar, J pound of butter melted. Mix thoroughly and pour 
over the preserves. Bake in a moderate oven. Cover with 
a meringue made of the whites of 2 eggs and 2 tablespoons 
sugar. Brown delicately. 

| pound sweet almonds blanched and chopped 


I teaspoon rose water. 
6 eggs well beaten. 

4 tablespoons powdered sugar mixed with eggs. 
I quart sweet milk. 

3 tablespoons powdered crackers. 

4 tablespoons melted butter. 
4 ounces citron shredded fine. 

Add almonds after the other ingredients are mixed to- 
gether. Line a pudding-dish with rich pie-paste. Pour the 
mixture in and bake till done. Serve cold. Make at least 
12 hours before serving, if possible. 


Transparent. PUDDINGS. Snow. 


Miss Olive Parker, Tollesboro, Ky. 

4 yolks of eggs, well-beaten. 
I cup sugar. 
I cup butter. 
| nutmeg grated. 

Cream the butter and sugar ; add the yolks. Bake in 
tart shells. Will make about 3 dozen. Beat the whites 
with 4 tablespoons sugar and I teaspoon lemon extract, and 
put on as a meringue. Brown lightly in a quick oven. A 
cup of cream is used with the above ingredients when 
wanted richer. 


Four tablespoons sago soaked in water all night. In the 
morning add 3 cups milk, 4 eggs, pinch of salt, I small cup 
sugar. Lemon peel, cinnamon, nutmeg, either, or all. 
Bake slowly. 


One pint milk. Stir in J cup cassava, J cup cocoanut, 2 
eggs, i tablespoon butter ; salt, sugar, and vanilla to taste. 
Cook like boiled custard. When done, put it in the dish in 
which it is to be served, and beat the white of I egg to a 
stiff froth with I tablespoon sugar, and lay over the top 
smoothly, and brown in the oven. Eat warm or cold, with 



Half box of gelatine, whites of 3 eggs, 2 cups sugar, pint 
of hot water, juice i lemon. Dissolve gelatine in the water; 
then add lemon-juice and sugar ; mix well, and strain 
through flannel into a large mixing bowl. When cool 
enough to begin to thicken stir in the whites of the eggs 
beaten to a stiff froth with egg beater, and beat until it is 
thick and snow-white all through. It will take a half hour 
or longer, and the colder the better. Tnrn into molds which 
have been dipped in cold water, or pile in pyramid form in 
the center of a glass dish, leaving a space all around. Keep 
on ice till the next day. Make a soft custard with a pint of 


Minute PUDDINGS. Indian. 

milk, yolks of 3 eggs, pinch of salt, 4 tablespoons sugar, 
little grated lemon rind. The custard should be very cold, 
and if the pudding is in a pyramid, pour the custard around 
it (not over it). If in a mold, serve the custard from a 


Put i quart milk over the fire, with a bit of lemon peel 
or essence of lemon ; let it boil ; then having made a large 
cup of flour into a smooth paste with a little cold milk, stir 
by degrees into the boiling milk ; let it boil, stirring all the 
time until thick ; then dip a bowl in cold water, pour the 
pudding in, and let it cool a little before turning it out. Eat 
with sweetened cream. The juice of a lemon is an improve- 


3 cups milk, scald and pour over 

5 tablespoons corn-meal, add 

i cup molasses. 

J cup chopped suet. 

\ nutmeg grated. 

i teaspoon ginger, little salt. 

Butter a pudding-dish, pour in i cup cold milk, then the 
mixture and bake 2 hours. 

i cup corn-meal, stirred slowly into 
i quart boiling milk. Let cool ; add 
I cup sugar. 
\ cup flour. 

i tablespoon butter ; 3 eggs, 
i teaspoon each cinnamon and cloves. 
Half a cup of cold milk may be added also. Bake 3 or 4 


Mrs. Marrion Clinton, Menasha, Wis. 

cup corn-meal, stirred into 
3 pints scalding milk. Let partly cool, and add 
i beaten egg. 

i cup raisins, and butter size of an egg. 
Spice or ginger added if liked. Bake till it wheys. 


Indian. PUDDINGS. Suef. 


Author's Recipe. 

J pound beef suet chopped fine, 
ij cups corn-meal. 
ij cups hot water. 
2 large spoons flour. 
I cup brown sugar. 

^ teaspoon each of saleratus, and salt. 
Steam 4 hours. Eat with sugar and cream. 

I pint sweet milk. 
I teaspoon each of soda, and salt. 
I tablespoon wheat flour. 
10 tablespoons corn-meal. 

1 tablespoon butter. 

2 tablespoons brown sugar. 
i tablespoon molasses. 

4 tablespoons dried berries. 
Boil 3 hours. 


Author's Recipe. 

I cup fine chopped suet, 
i cup brown sugar. 
I cup hot water. 

1 cup raisins chopped. 

2 cups flour. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 

i teaspoon each cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg. 
Steam 2 to 5 hours. The longer the better. Serve with 
lemon sauce. 

i cup chopped suet, 
i cup molasses. 
i cup chopped raisins, 
i cup sour milk. 

3 cups flour. 

i teaspoon soda, salt. 

Steam 3 hours. Vanilla sauce. A cup of chopped apples 
is sometimes added to this pudding. 


CAKE Ornamental Frosting. 











VERY delicate cake should be made of but- 
ter freed from salt. Wash it in very cold 
water, then press in a cloth till the moist- 
ure is out. "Cooking butter" is gener- 
ally a rancid commodity, unfit for cook- 
ing in any shape. Those who use cream- 
ery for the table, can procure dairy butter several cents a 
pound cheaper that is good and sweet, and will do nicely 
for cooking. In fact, there are those who prefer it for the 
table. Butter for cake should be warmed sufficiently 
to soften it. Do not melt it, but set it in a warm room be- 



Fresh eggs are as essential as good butter. " A middling 
good egg" is generally a bad one. There are eggs, however, 
which smell agreeably, that will not make frosting, but will 
beat up light and sweet in a cake batter. 

To separate the white and yolk of an egg, break the egg 



Sugar CAKE. Flour. 

carefully into a dish. Then with the fingers pick the yolk 
up and remove to another dish, letting the white drip be- 
tween the fingers. This is quicker than to divide the egg 
and pour the yolk from one half to the other. 

In breaking eggs always break each one in a dish by it- 
self, else by a little careless handling a poor one might be 
put with good ones, thus spoiling them all. Strain the 
beaten yolks for very nice cake. "Beat separately" means 
to beat the whites and yolks separately. The results are 
better than if beaten together. 

The whites of eggs will beat up much better if the eggs 
are kept in cold water for an hour or more. 

To beat the whites of eggs quickly, put in a pinch of salt. 
Salt cools and also freshens them. 


Pulverized sugar is best for angel food, white sponge cake, 
and delicate cake ; granulated sugar for layer cakes and white 
fruit cake ; coffee crushed sugar, rolled and sifted, for pound 
cakes and rich cakes in general; for coffee cake and fruit 
cake, or any dark cake, use brown sugar. 


See chapter on " BREAD." 

Flour should always be sifted, and with it the baking pow- 
der or cream of tartar. 

It is safer not to put in at once all of the flour a recipe 
calls for. If it stiffens the batter considerably, it may be 
necessary to leave out a small portion of it. Bake a little 
of the batter on a paper or a tin before filling the pans. It 
will take but a very few minutes, and may be the means of 
saving a nice cake. 


In using fruit, dredge it with flour. Rub the stems off ot 
raisins ; cut with a small sharp knife or scissors to remove 
the seeds. For a light fruit cake cut in two only ; for a 


Almonds CAKE. Coloring. 

black cake chop with a chopping-knife, but not so fine as to 
be pasty. For a black cake brown the flour. To cleanse 
currants, wash in several warm waters, drain through a col- 
ander until the water looks clear, then spread out to dry on 
a sieve or cloth. A very simple way to cleanse them for 
those who have a hydrant and a faucet is to make a little 
bag of double mosquito-netting. Put the currants in, tie 
the bag to the faucet, and let the water run slowly through 
until it runs clear. The currants will be found to be clean 
and the bottom of the bag will contain the sediment that is 
too coarse to run through. 


Almonds are blanched by pouring boiling water over 
them. The skins will then rub off easily. If one applica- 
tion is not sufficient, another will be. The skin is tough and 
hard to digest. 

The easiest way to reduce almonds to a paste is to 
chop them a little, then roll with a rolling-pin. If 
rolled on a table, put a light sprinkling of sugar 
under them so there will be less oil absorbed by the 
board. A marble slab is the best. Use a marble-top table 
if you have one and have no slab. It will not harm it. 

2 teaspoons pulverized cochineal. 
i teaspoon alum. 
I teaspoon cream of tartar. 

Mix in I cup hot water. Bottle and cork for future use. 
Make it the shade wished by using more or less of the prep- 
aration. Coloring may be bought already prepared at fancy 


It is better to put a greased paper in the pans for all 
loaves of cake. For very large cakes especially fruit cakes 
line the pans with 2 or 3 heavy greased papers, pasted 
between with a thick paste of coarse flour and water. Paste 



Cake-Pans. CAKE. Heating the Oven. 

the papers together to keep them in place, grease the out- 
side of the upper paper, and pour the batter in. This lining 
will help very materially to keep the cake from burning on 
the bottom. 


with tubes bake more uniformly than those without. A 
tube may be improvised by using a tumbler, lamp-chim- 
ney, or bottle. Grease and stand in the middle of the pan 
and pour the batter around it. 


Those who burn wood have comparatively an easy task 
to get the oven heat just right. It is oftener too hot than 
too cool. But with reasonable care, and the selection of 
good hard wood, letting the fire burn clear until there is a 
heavy bed of coals before the damper is turned onto the 
oven, it can generally be regulated to suit the degree of 
heat wanted. If fuel must be added, add it by littles in order 
to keep the heat as uniform as possible. Fruit cakes and 
other large loaf cakes require an oven heat nearly equal to 
that required for bread. If the bottom is too hot put the 
oven-grate under the cake-pan. If the top is too hot, put a 
pan of water or a pie-pan on the grate above the cake. For 
patty-pans and layer cakes, let the fire be brisk and hot, to 
bake them quickly. Large cakes should rise and commence 
to bake before browning, hence the slower heat required. 
With a coal fire, the ashes are a source of trouble. The 
fire-box should be cleared, and if a quick hot fire is wanted, 
empty the ash-pan also. If a slower, steadier heat is 
wanted, the draft should be less. Build the fire up fresh and 
as soon as there is a bed of clear, bright coals turn the dam- 
per for the direct oven heat. If a large baking is to be done, 
fill the fire-box even with the oven-plate (never above) and 
as soon as the oven is hot close the drafts. A draft from an 
open door or window will often check the heat and interfere 
very seriously with baking. 

The supposition thus far is that the coal burned is the 


Browning, Etc. CAKE. Baking and Steaming, 

anthracite. If soft coal is used, the tendency is to too great 
heat, and due care is necessary to keep the fire under control. 
The instructions given for wood will apply equally as well 
to soft coaL 


At the first sign of a cake browning too soon, it should be 
covered with smooth, brown paper. It is easy to make 
covers for cake-pans and keep them on hand. Use the 
paper from groceries and dry goods stores. Cut the corners 
from a square, and either pin or take stitches in plaits to fit 
the cake. Newspaper will not answer, being too light and 

If a cake has to be turned or moved in the oven, do it 
very gently. 

A plain cake may be baked in a quick oven, but if rich, 
the oven heat must be moderate. 

A lady says that to prevent cake from falling, lift it up, 
and let it drop suddenly to the table after putting it in the 
tin. The air-bubbles will rise and when baking there will 
be no falling. 

If the oven is thought to be too hot do not leave the door 
open, but lift one of the stove-lids off a little way, for a 
short time. 

When a cake is taken from the oven leave it in the pan 
for 15 or 20 minutes. Do not put it in the cake-box until 



Put fruit cake in a steamer and steam 3 hours, then 
remove quickly to a well-heated oven and bake I hour. 
This has proven more satisfactory than baking alone. It 
keeps more moist. 


If fruit cake is allowed to stay in the oven till the fire dies 
out, it is a great improvement. Plan so as to make it after 
dinner, and get it about done before the fire decreases 

Extracts. CAKE. General Directions. 

much ; then leave it till bed-time.- If fruit cake cracks on 
the top, it is because the oven is too hot when first put in. 
In place of wine or other liquors, you can use an extra egg 
and a trifle more spices. 



Put the rind of 3 lemons into half a pint of alcohol. In 
4 days pour off into a bottle and add I ounce oil of lemon. 
This will make a strong flavor at less than half price. 

Orange extract may be prepared in the same manner as 
the above. 


Get 3 fresh vanilla beans of a druggist, break them in 
small pieces, and put them into J pint alcohol. It will be 
fit for use in a few days. 


are better and stronger and take less if dropped on top 
of the cake after it is baked. 


for cake is obtained by placing a geranium leaf in the 
bottom of a cake-tin and pouring the cake over it. 


Have all of the ingredients at hand before beginning to 
make cake. The fruit should be made ready before hand. 
The tins should be papered and greased at the outset. 
Earthenware is the best mixing-bowl. A wooden spoon is 
better than iron. A large cake batter had better be beaten 
with the hand. 

Work butter and sugar to a cream. Add the yolks of 
eggs that have been beaten light, then add the milk or 
water, and the flour or flavoring, then the stiffly-beaten 
whites of eggs. If fruit is used, dredge it with part of the 
flour, and add the last thing. Baking powder and cream of 

Weights and Measures. CAKE. Frosting. 

tartar should be sifted with the flour. Soda is sometimes 
dissolved in the milk or water, and sometimes sifted in dry. 
NOTE. Attention is called to "Substitutions" on page 
152, and a " Cup of Flour," page 151. 

Less shortening and more flour than the recipes call for 
must be used in the mountains. To boil or steam, more 
time must be allowed, as water boils at a lower temperature. 
In fact, in very high altitudes food cannot be cooked at all, 
either by steaming or boiling. 


When recipes are used which specify the amounts by 
weight, the table of Weights and Measures, page- 151, will 
be of service if scales are not at hand. 


When frosting cake, dip the knife frequently in cold 

To make sure that frosting will adhere to the cake, put it 
on when the cake is quite warm. Another way is to dust 
the cake with flour, then rub it off. 

A tablespoon of sweet cream added to frosting will pre- 
vent crumbling. A teaspoon of vinegar, it is said, will 
answer the same purpose. 

Place a rim of stiff paper about a cake to retain the frost- 
ing in place until it sets. 


Take the white of I egg and stir into it all the pulverized 
sugar it will take ; spread on the cake, and smooth with a 
knife dipped in water now and then. 


Boil 2 cups sugar with I cup water till it will <~lick in cold 
water. Beat whites of 2 eggs to a stiff froth ; \dd to the 
syrup, after removing from the stove, and sti/ constantly 
till well mixed. It may be used at once. 


Icing. CAKE. Glazing. 


Mrs. J. T. Hewlett, Niles, Mich. 

2 whites of eggs ; beat to a stiff froth. Add 

ij cups pulverized sugar. 

6 tablespoons grated chocolate. 

J tablespoon essence of vanilla. 


Yolks of 3 eggs, beat very light with I J cups sugar ; flavor 
with J teaspoon vanilla. 


One tablespoon gelatine soaked in I tablespoon cold water 
| hour. Add I tablespoon boiling water and i cup pow- 
dered sugar. Flavor to taste. Spread on cake while warm. 


Take I teaspoon gelatine and dissolve in 3 tablespoons of 
warm water ; then add I cup powdered sugar and beat until 
smooth. Flavor with whatever you like. 


Whites of 4 eggs, beaten stiff; I pint of sugar melted in 
water and boiled to a clear, thick syrup ; add to it the eggs, 
and beat until cold. 

| cup of sweet German chocolate. 
| cup of sugar. 
* I tablespoon of sweet cream. 

i egg, well-beaten ; all simmered together in a 
dish. Set in boiling water, till it is a thick paste. 


Take the beaten white of i egg, stir it well in a basin with 
a little water, let boil, and while boiling put in a few drops 
of cold water ; then stir in a cup of powdered sugar. Boil 
to a foam, and then use. 


LOAF CAKES. Bride s 



i pound butter. 
i pound sugar 
I pound browned flour. 
3j pounds currants. 
2 pounds raisins. 
\ pound citron. 
10 eggs. 

\ teaspoon soda. 
\ cup molasses. 
\ gill rose-water, 
\ ounce mace. 
\ ounce cinnamon. 
\ ounce cloves. 
i nutmeg. 


| pound butter. 

I pound sugar. 

i pound flour. 

Whites 1 6 eggs. 

\ teaspoon soda. 

i^ teaspoons cream tartar. 

i teaspoon peach flavor. 

Cream the butter and sugar. Have the whites of eggs 
beaten to stiff froth by some one else. Put together, and 
before stirring add the flour sifted with the cream of tartar. 
Stir very gently, do not beat add the flavor, then the soda 
dissolved in a spoon of vinegar. Stir the batter one way 
only, and bake in a moderate oven. 

See Weights and Measures, page 151, if you have no 


Wedding. LOAF CAKES. Pl-.-m. 


Mrs. W. F VanBergen. 

I pound sugar. 
i pound butter. 
I pound flour. 
I pound citron. 
3 pounds raisins. 

3 pounds currants. 

24 large eggs or 30 small ones. 
I gill rose-water. 

1 cup molasses. 

4 nutmegs. 

3 teaspoons cloves 
3 teaspoons cinnamon. 
3 teaspoons allspice. 


Miss Fannie DeBell, Mt. Carmel, Ky. 

2 cups butter. 
2 cups sugar. 

Cream together ; then add 

1 2 eggs; leave out 2 whites. Beat separately, 
then mix. Add 

2 cups flour. 

2 pounds currants. 

2 pounds raisins. 

J pound citron. 

J pound dates. 

J pound almonds, weighed before shelling. 
Juice of 3 lemons in a cup ; fill cup with rose-water or 
clear water. Dredge the fruit with flour after chopping it 
fine. Stir all together and add 

\ ounce of mace. 

i teaspoon cloves. 

\ ounce cinnamon. 

i nutmeg grated. 

And just as you 'put in the oven add i teaspoon soda dis- 
solved in i tablespoon molasses. If the cake is to be iced 
put the icing on while the cake is warm. The almonds 
should be blanched and chopped as directed on page 219. 

Fruit. LOAF CAKES. Fruit 


Mrs. E. B. Baldwin. 
2 pounds flour. 
2 pounds sugar. 
2 pounds butter. 
6 pounds currants. 
4 pounds citron. 
10 pounds raisins. 
i pound almonds. 
20 eggs. 

I gill rose-water. 
i ounce mace. 

1 ounce cinnamon. 
\ ounce cloves. 

2 nutmegs. 

The yellow of 3 fresh lemons grated. Beat the butter to 
a cream ; add the sugar ; beat with the hand until very 
light ; add the rose-water, then add the eggs (they must be 
well beaten), and the flour ; next, the spices, lemon, and 
blanched almonds, chopped fine. Lastly add the fruit, 
dredged with a little flour. The raisins should be chopped 
not very fine, and the citron shredded fine. Bake from 4 to 
6 hours. 

Fruit Cake. 
Mrs. Orson Potter, Bloomington, 111. 

2 pounds butter. 

2 pounds sugar. 

3 pounds flour. 

2 pounds currants. 

2 pounds raisins. 
i pounds citron. 

3 cups molasses. 
20 eggs. 

1 teaspoon soda. 

2 teaspoons cream tartar. 

i tablespoon powdered mace. 

1 tablespoon cinnamon. 

2 teaspoons cloves. 
2 grated nutmegs. 

This cake will serve 40 persons. It will make 2 large or 
3 medium-sized loaves. 


Empress. LOAF CAKES. Black. 

ij cups butter. 
3 cups sugar scant. 
3 cups flour. 

9 eggs. 

ij pounds almonds in the shell. 

| pound citron. 

J pound raisins, seeded. 

I lemon, grated peel and juice. 

Cream the butter and sugar. Add the beaten yolks, then 
the beaten whites, and part of the flour, then the fruit 
chopped and dredged with flour, and the almonds blanched 
and chopped. 


i pound butter. 

I pound dark brown sugar. 

1 pound flour (browned). 

2 nutmegs. 

2 teaspoons cloves. 

3 teaspoons cinnamon. 

10 eggs. 

2 pounds figs (chopped fine). 
2 pounds chopped raisins. 
2 pounds currants. 
J pound citron. 

2 pounds almonds, shelled, blanched, chopped. 
I pint black molasses. 

I teaspoon soda. 
cup rose-water. 


Mrs. L. Currey, Detroit, Michigan. 

I pound flour (browned). 
ij pounds brown sugar. 
ij pounds butter. 

3 pounds raisins. 

3 pounds currants. 
\ pound citron. 

I cup molasses. 

4 tablespoons rose-water. 
10 eggs. 

Season with cloves, cinnamon and mace, to taste. Better 
have too little, than too much. 


White Fruit. LOAF CAKES. Quaker Pound. 


1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 
2^ cups flour. 

| cup sweet milk. 
Whites of 6 eggs. 
i pound blanched almonds chopped. 

1 pound citron sliced thin. 
i^ teaspoons baking powder. 

N>YE. It will take 2 pounds almonds before shelling. 

White Fruit Cake. 
Mrs. O. Blackman, Chicago. 
| cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

i cup sweet milk. 

3 cups sifted flour. 

I cup stoned raisins, chopped. 
3 teaspoons baking powder. 
Whites 4 eggs. 
Flavor with lemon. 


Mrs. J. A. Reichelt, Chicago. 

| cup butter. 

\\ cups brown sugar. 

3 cups flour. 

3 eggs. 

\ pound raisins. 

\ pound citron. 

i teaspoon cinnamon. 

\ teaspoon cloves. 

\ nutmeg. 

\ teaspoon soda. 

1 teaspoon cream tartar. 


Mrs. L. S. Hodge. 

2 eggs. 

2 cups flour. 

i Cup sugar. 

^ cup butter. 

| cup sweet milk. 

^ cup chopped raisins. 

i nutmeg, grated. Scant J teaspoon soda. 


Common. LOAF CAKES. Apple Fruit. 


i^ cups syrup. 
J cup melted lard. 

cup water. 

cup raisins. 

cup currants. 
; cup sugar. 

egg. 4 cups sifted flour. 

tablespoon vinegar. 

even teaspoon soda ; pinch of salt. 

tablespoon cinnamon. 

teaspoon each of nutmeg and cloves. 
Bake in a deep bread-pan. 


i cup dried apples. 
J cup sugar. 
| cup butter. 
ij cups flour. 
\ cup sour milk. 

1 egg. 

2 teaspoons cinnamon. 
I teaspoon cloves. 

I teaspoon saleratus. 

hoak the apples over night and chop fine, and stew 2 or 3 
hours in sugar, until they are candied a little 


3 cups dried apples, 

soaked over night. In the morning, stew in 

3 cups molasses. When cold, mix with 
3 cups flour, 
I cup butter. 
3 eggs. 

1 teaspoon soda. 

2 teaspoons cloves. 

1 tablespoon cinnamon. 

2 cups raisins. 

i cup currants, 
i lemon, chopped fine. 
This makes 2 loaves. 


Pork. LOAF CAKES. Raisin. 


^ cake compressed yeast. 

i pint flour. 

\ teaspoon salt. 

| pound currants. 

i cup chopped raisins. 

I cup sugar. 

\ cup shortening. 

i ounce citron. 

i teaspoon lemon extract. 

Use water sufficient to make a sponge of the flour and 
yeast. Let the sponge rise ; then knead like bread. When 
light again, work in all the other ingredients ; place in the 
pan for baking. When light, bake. 


i pound fat salt pork, chopped fine, dissolved in 

I pint boiling water. 

3 cups brown sugar. 

i cup molasses. 

i pound raisins, or more if liked. 

1 pound currants, or more- if liked. 

2 tablespoons cinnamon. 
i teaspoon cloves. 

1 teaspoon soda. 

2 teaspoons cream of tartar. 
2 nutmegs. 

7 cups flour. 


Mrs. W. F. VanB. 

1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

i cup molasses. 

i cup sweet milk. 

i^ cups raisins. 

6 cups flour after sifting. 

3 eggs. 

\ teaspoon soda. 

i teaspoon cream of tartar. 

Spice to suit taste. 


Coffee. LOAF CAKES. Spice Raisin. 

cup cold strong coffee, 
cup molasses, 
cup sugar. 

cup butter or drippings, 
cup chopped raisins, 
teaspoon soda. 

teaspoon each cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, 
cup five times full of flour. 


Mrs. O. Jones, South Royalston, Mass. 

1 cup butter. 

2 cups white sugar. 
i cup milk. 

6 eggs, well-beaten. 

4 cups flour. 

J pound raisins, chopped. 

i teaspoon cream of tartar. 

teaspoon soda. 

Nutmeg, or any other flavoring. 


1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

3 cups flour. 

i cup sweet milk. 
Whites of 8 eggs. 

1 teaspoon soda. 

2 teaspoons cream of tartar. 

i pound blanched almonds, cut in small pieces, 
Instead of almonds, you can use ij cups of hickory-nut 


I cup sugar. 
2\ cups flour. 
i cup molasses. 
| cup butter. 
i cup milk. 
i cup stoned raisins. 

i tablespoon each allspice and cinnamon, 
i teaspoon soda. 


Clove. LOAF CAKES. Pound. 

I cup sugar. 
i cup butter. 
3 scant cups flour. 
I cup raisins, chopped. 

1 cup milk or water. 

2 well beaten eggs. 

1 teaspoon soda. 

2 teaspoons cream of tartar. 
2 teaspoons cinnamon. 

2 teaspoons cloves. 

i cup butter. 

3 cups sifted loaf sugar. 

4 cups flour. 

i cup sweet cream. 
Whites of 10 eggs. 
J pound blanched almonds. 
J pound candied lemon. 
I pound citron. 

3 teaspoons baking powder. 

Slice the fruit very thin, and dredge with flour. 


1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

1 cup sweet milk. 
4j cups flour. 

4 eggs. 

2 teaspoons cream of tartar. 

i teaspoon each soda, cinnamon, cloves, all- 
spice, nutmeg and mace. 


Mrs. Augustine Owens, Tollesboro, Ky. 

10 eggs. 

I pound flour (about 3 cups). 
i pound sugar (about 3 cups). 
i pound butter (about I J cups). 

Wash the salt out of the butter, cream it with the sugar, 


Soda Pound. LOAF CAKES. Buckeye. 

add the well beaten yolks, then the sifted flour, alternately 
with the stiffly-beaten whites. Beat with the hand very 
thoroughly. Use flavoring, if any is desired. 


Mrs. C. S. Johnston, Harford, Pennsylvania. 

1 cup each butter and sugar. 

2 cups flour. 

4 e gg s 5 small teaspoon soda ; flavoring. 
Rich and moist ; will keep a long time. 


i cup fine white sugar. 

^ cup butter. 

Beat to a cream and add whites of 2 eggs. 
Then beat 10 minutes. Add 

i teaspoon cream of tartar, sifted with 

i^ cups flour. 

^ teaspoon soda. 

\ cup sweet milk. 

i teaspoon lemon. 

Beat all together 15 minutes. Bake i hour in moderate 
, in a round basin. 


Miss Sarah Hall, Wallingford, Conn. 

\\ cups butter. 

3 cups sugar. 
i cup milk. 

4 cups flour. 

5 eggs. 

\ teaspoon soda. 

1 teaspoon cream of tartar. 


Mrs. C. S. Johnston. 

3 eggs. 

\\ cups sugar. 
\ cup butter. 
\ cup milk. 

2 cups flour. 

\ teaspoon soda. 

i teaspoon cream of tartar. 


Watermelon. LOAF CAKES. Marble. 



2 cups pulverized sugar. 
| cup butter. 

cup sweet milk. 

3 cups flour. 
Whites of 5 eggs. 

2\ teaspoons baking powder. 

\ cup butter. 

1 cup red sugar sand. 
\ cup milk. 

2 cups flour. 

5 yolks of eggs. 
\ pound raisins whole. 
I tablespoon baking powder. 

Put the red batter in the center of the pan, and the white 
around the outside. 



1 cup butter. 

2 cups white sugar. 

1 cup sweet milk. 

3 cups flour. 
Whites of 7 eggs. 

2 teaspoons cream of tartar. 
i teaspoon soda. 

i teaspoon lemon. 


1 cup butter. 

2 cups brown sugar. 

1 cup molasses. 

\ cup sour cream. 

5 cups flour. 

Yolks of 7 eggs. Pinch of pepper. 

2 tablespoons cinnamon. 

i tablespoon each nutmeg, cloves, and allspice. 
i teaspoon each vanilla and soda. 

Butter the cake-tin and put in alternate spoonsful of the 
light and dark batter. 


Gold. LOAF CAKES. Angels' Food. 


Mrs. E. B. B. 

\ cup butter. 

\\ cups sugar. 

2,\ cups flour. 

\ cup milk. 

\ teaspoon soda. 

i teaspoon cream of tartar. 

Yolks 6 eggs. 

i teaspoon vanilla. 

Frost with yellow frosting. 


1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

3 cups flour. 

\ cup sweet milk. 
\ teaspoon soda. 
i teaspoon cream of tartar. 
Whites 6 eggs. 
i teaspoon lemon. 
Frost with white frosting. 

This is also an excellent recipe for layer cakes ; likewise 
for a light fruit cake. 


Miss Sarah Hall, Wallingford, Conn. 

i cup butter. 

3 cups sugar. 

i cup milk. 

3 eggs. 

3^ cups flour. Small teaspoon saleratus. 

\\ cups pulverized sugar. 
i cup flour. 

i teaspoon cream of tartar. 
Whites of 10 eggs. 

Beat the whites to a stiff froth. Sift the sugar 2 or 3 
times, and add it very lightly to the eggs. Sift the cream 
of tartar through the flour, after sifting the flour alone, four 


Sponge Cakes. LOAF CAKES. Sponge Cakes. 

times. Add it very carefully, mixing as gently as possible. 
Then add rose-water to flavor. Some prefer lemon. Put it 
into a bright cake-pan, not buttered, and bake in a moderate 
oven about 45 minutes. Try it with a straw. Let it 
cool off gradually by leaving the oven door open. Turn the 
pan upside down on the tube, if it has one ; if not, set it up 
on something. When entirely cold, take out. 


Mrs. S. E. Duncan. 

2 cups sugar. 
2 cups flour. 
4 eggs. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 
I teaspoon lemon. 

| cup boiling water. 

Add the water last. The cake may seem too thin, but 
will come all right from the oven. 

I quart sugar. 
I quart flour. 

12 eggs ; pinch of salt ; flavoring. 

Bake in a dripping-pan. Requires no baking powder, as 
the eggs lighten it sufficiently. 


Mrs. M. J. Hurford, Brownsville, Pa. 

I cup sugar. 

I cup flour. 

^ cup scant very thick sour cream. 

3 eggs. 

Beat whites and yolks separately very thoroughly. Sift 
i teaspoon soda and 2 of cream of tartar with the flour. 
After mixing beat very hard. 


Mrs. J. G. Botsford, Sioux Falls, Dakota. 

Whites of 5 eggs, beaten to a froth on a large platter. Add 
carefully I cup sugar, and | cup flour, with \ teaspoon cream 
tartar sifted through it. Stir in lightly. J teaspoon rose. 


Dakota. LOAF CAKES. Corn Starch. 


Author's Recipe. 

Yolks of 5 eggs. 
^ cup sour milk. 
ij cups sugar. 
J cup butter. 
I pint flour. 

1 teaspoon soda. 
^ nutmeg grated. 


Mrs. W. F. Van Bergen. 

cup butter. 
i^ cups sugar. 
| cup milk. 

2 J cups flour, after sifting. 
2 eggs. 

1 teaspoon vanilla. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 


G. W. Ashard, Vermillion, Dak. 

1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

i cup sweet milk. 

1 cup corn starch. 

2 cups flour. 

Whites of 7 eggs, and yolk of I egg. 

1 teaspoon soda. 

2 teaspoons cream of tartar. 

Mix flour, starch, and cream of tartar together. Flavor 
with i teaspoon almond. 

Whites of 3 eggs. 
^ cup butter. 
| cup corn starch. 
i teaspoon baking powder. 
i cup sugar. 
cup sweet milk. 
i cup flour, 
teaspoon lemon. 


Eugenia. LOAF CAKES. Snow-Ball. 

^ cup butter. 

1 cup sugar. 
\ cup milk. 
i^ cups flour. 

3 whites of eggs. 

2 scant teaspoons baking powder. 

Bake in a pan about 10x4^ inches, 40 minutes, in a mod- 
erate oven. Frost with yellow frosting. 

ij cups sugar (powdered is best). 
\ cup corn starch. 
Yolks 3 eggs. 
\ cup water. 

2 teaspoons baking powder, in 
I cup flour before sifting. 
I teaspoon vanilla. 

Bake 35 minutes in tin 5x9 \ inches in moderate oven. 
Frost with white frosting. 


Mrs. C. B. 

1 cup sugar, 
ij cups flour. 
\ cup butter. 

Whites of 3 eggs well beaten. 
\ cup milk. 

2 large teaspoons of baking powder. 


Mrs. J P. Hewlett, Niles, Mich. 
2 cups pulverized sugar. 
\ cake chocolate, grated. 

4 eggs. 

I cup flour. 

I teaspoon vanilla. 

Cook the chocolate to a smooth paste in a very little 
milk. Beat the yolks of eggs and sugar to a cream, add 
the chocolate, the flour by degrees, the vanilla, and the 
beaten whites. Bake in a square shallow pan. Frost with 
white frosting. This cake cut in 2 inch squares with white 


Chocolate. LOAF CAKES. Delicate. 

sponge cake makes a very pretty appearance in a cake- 

Chocolate Cake. 

1 full cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

3j cups sifted flour. 

i scant cup milk. 

5 e gg s leaving out whites of two. 

3 teaspoons baking powder. 

R jb the butter and sugar to a cream ; add the milk ; then 
the eggs, well beaten, and the flour lastly, with the baking 
powder sifted in. Bake in a dripping-pan. The cake 
should be about an inch thick when done. While hot, turn 
on to a perfectly flat surface, and spread with chocolate 

Chocolate Cake. 

Mrs. Dr. C. H. Evans. 
\ cup butter scant. 

1 cup sugar. 

\ cup hot water, 
ij cups flour. 

2 eggs. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 

Bake in a square tin. Spread chocolate icing over the 
top. Cut in squares. 


Mrs. Belle Parker, Tollesboro, Ky. 

Whites 13 eggs. 

i cup butter. 3 cups sugar. 

I cup sweet milk. 

5 cups flour. 

3 teaspoons baking powder, 
i teaspoon lemon extract. 

Delicate Cake. 

1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

3 cups flour, after sifting. 
\ cup milk. 

Whites of 6 eggs. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 


White LOAF CAKES. Walnut 

| cup butter. 
ij cups sugar. 
cup sweet milk. 
3 cups flour. 

1 teaspoon almond extract. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 
7 whites of eggs. 


Miss Cora Belle Hewlett, Niles, Mich. 

^ cup butter, scant. 

2 cups sugar. 

1 cup milk. 
2| cups flour. 
Whites of 3 eggs. 

3 teaspoons baking powder. 


Mrs. Nellie Roe. 
^ cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 
I cup milk. 
3^ cups flour. 

3 eggs. 

I teaspoon cream of tartar. 
^ teaspoon soda. 
I teaspoon lemon. 

Put soda in half the milk, the yolks of eggs in the other 
half. Beat whites stiff, and put in last. This cake requires 
a great deal of beating. Make one very large loaf, or two 
small ones. 


Mrs. Duncan, Sing Sing, N. Y. 

| cup milk. 

1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

3 cups flour. 

4 eggs. 

1 tablespoon baking powder. 

2 cups walnut or hickory nut meats, cut small. 


Huckleberry. LOAF CAKES. Raised. 

1234 CAKE. 

1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

3 cups flour. 

4 eggs. 

I cup milk. 

1 teaspoon soda. 

2 teaspoons cream of tartar. 


1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

3 cups flour. 

5 eggs. 

i cup sweet milk. 

i teaspoon soda, dissolved in spoon of hot water. 
i teaspoon each nutmeg and cinnamon. 
I quart huckleberries, 
dredged with flour, and stirred in lightly at the last. 

3 cups bread sponge, rather thick. 

1 cup butter or part lard. 

2 cups sugar. 
i cups raisins. 

3 eggs. 

teaspoon soda. 

1 teaspoon cloves. 

2 teaspoons cinnamon. 

Mix the dough and the other ingredients with the hand 
very thoroughly. Put into a bread-pan, let rise and bake 
without adding more flour. 


Mrs. Morris C. Hutchins, Maysville, Ky. 

I cup butter. 

1 cup sweet milk. 

2 cups sugar. 

4 cups flour. 

5 whites of eggs. 

1 pound figs, cut up. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 

Put dough and figs in alternate layers in the pan, and bake. 


Orange. LOAF CAKES. Feather. 

Yolks of 10 eggs. 
^ cup butter. 
2 cups sugar. 
2^ cups flour. 

1 large orange grated rind and juice. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 

Squeeze the juice in a cup. Add sweet milk till the cup 
is | full, and then mix with the other ingredients. 

i cups butter. 

3 cups sugar. 

4 cups flour. 
| cup milk. 

5 eggs 

I teaspoon soda. 
I teaspoon cream of tartar. 
Grated rind and juice of I lemon. 
Makes 2 loaves. 


Annie and Marrion. 

1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

3 cups flour. 

4 eggs. 

I cup milk. 

1 teaspoon soda. 

2 teaspoons cream of tartar. 

Bake in a large dripping-pan, and frost* heavily. When 
the frosting is partly dry, mark it off in small squares and 
put half an English walnut meat on each one. (A very 
delicious cake.) 


Mrs. J. H. Wilson, Chicago. 

I cup sugar. 

I cup milk. 

2,\ cups flour ; butter, size of an egg. 

I teaspoon lemon extract. 

\ teaspoon soda. 

I teaspoon cream of tartar. Bake slowly. 


Cream. LOAF CAKES Tea. 


Mrs. S. E. Duncan, Aberdeen, Dak. 

I egg. Break into a cup. 
Fill the cup with thin sour cream ; mix with 

i scant cup sugar. 

i \ cups flour. 

^ teaspoon scant soda. 

Pinch of salt. 
Very nice also for patty-pans. 

1 egg. 

\ cup butter. 
i cup milk. 

1 large cup sugar. 
2i cups flour. 

\\ teaspoons baking powder. 

When the cake is cold, stick a cup of soft almonds over 
the top, and pour over a cream, made as follows: 

2 eggs. 

i quart milk. 

1 cup sugar. 

2 tablespoons corn starch. 

\ teaspoon vanilla, all cooked over hot water. 


Mrs. H. F. Marvin. 

i egg. 

i cup sugar. 

i large tablespoon butter. 

1 cup water. 

2 cups flour. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 

1 teaspoon flavoring. 


Mrs. A. G. Leffet, Dallas, Texas. 
cup butter, 
ij cups sugar. 

3 eggs. 

2\ cups flour. 

2 teaspoons yeast powder. 


One- Egg. LOAF CAKES. Graham. 


Mrs. Kate Peckham, Dallas, Texas. 

I cup sugar. 

1 cup sweet milk. 

2 cups flour. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 
I egg, butter size of an egg. 

^ cup butter, 
i egg. 

I cup sweet milk. 
2$ cups flour after sifting. 
I cup sugar. 
J teaspoon soda, 
i teaspoon cream of tartar. 


If any reader of this book 

Would like a Graham cake, 
I give you here a recipe 

Which I quite often make. 

First take one cup of sugar white, 

And butter one-half cup, 
Together mix, then add an egg, 

And lightly beat it up. 

Then take one cup of pure sweet milk, 

And well dissolve therein 
A teaspoon full of soda so 

Its trace cannot be seen. 

Then scatter in a little salt, " 

And flavor it with spice, 
A little nutmeg, if you please, 

Or lemon peel is nice. 

And then of flour you may put in 

Three even teacups full, 
And when you've stirred it well around, 

Then quickly pour the whole 

Into your buttered pan, my dear, 

Which ready stands the while, 
Then, if you give it a good bake, 

'Twill be so nice you'll smile. MRS. J. B. BRYAN. 


Cake-Tins. LOAF CAKES. Cocoanut Meat. 

\ cup butter. 

1 cup sugar. 

\ cup sweet milk. 

2 cups flour. 

\ teaspoon soda. 

I teaspoon cream of tartar. 

I cup butter. 
I cup molasses. 
I cup light brown sugar. 
I cup sour milk. 

1 cup chopped raisins. 

2 eggs. 

I teaspoon soda. 

i teaspoon lemon. Graham flour sufficient to 
make like ginger bread. Bake i hour. 



In layer cakes, as well as all others that follow, attention 
15 called to " Substitutions" on page 152, and directions for 
mixing cake on page 222. 


In making layer cakes, grease the jelly-tins, then 
dust some flour over then ; then turn upside down 
and shake it off. This prevents sticking. Make any 
number of layers desired, from 3 to 6, or even more. 
Four is a good average. 

To get the meat from a cocoanut, cut a hole in the shell, 
k4 the milk out, then pound the nut all around. This 


Frosting. LAYER CAKES. Icing, 

loosens the meat ; crack it, take out the pieces, set in a dr/ 
place for a few hours. It can then be grated. What is not 
needed for present use may be sprinkled with sugar and 
kept in a cool, dry place till wanted. 


Break the whites of 2 eggs into a bowl ; do not beat. 
Add a tablespoon corn starch and pulverized sugar to make 
thick. Mark the frosting on cake when it is warm, so it 
will cut easily when dry. 


2 whites of eggs. 
| cup pulverized sugar. 
Beat well together and flavor with J teaspoon extract. 


Mrs. A. C. Galloway, Marseilles, 111. 

One cup sugar, boiled in J cup of water till it will ''hair." 
Then have the white of I egg beaten to a stiff froth, and 
keep beating it with an egg-beater while the syrup is poured 
on slowly by some one else. It can be used right away, and 
is sufficient for a cake of 4 layers, between and on top. 


Three cups sugar ; I cup water. Boil to a thick syrup 
and pour boiling hot over the stiffly-beaten whites of 3 eggs, 
stirring constantly, and flavor with I teaspoon lemon or 
vanilla. It can be used immediately, and is enough for a 
large cake of 6 layers or more. 


Beat a cup of sweet cream with an egg-beater, and when 
about half done, or quite light and frothy, add J cup sugar 
and J teaspoon of flavoring, and finish whipping. 


Whip thick sweet cream, slightly sweetened, to a foam. 
Add chopped almonds, or other nut meats ; mix well ; spread. 


Filling. LAYER CAKES. Roll Jelly, 

\ cup sugar. 
i cup sweet milk. 
i teaspoon butter, 
i dessert spoon corn starch 
wet with part of the milk. Cook over hot water. 

i cup sugar. 
\ cup grated chocolate. 
i egg ; \ teaspoon vanilla. 
Mix well together, without whipping the egg separately. 

i cup milk. 
i beaten egg. 
i tablespoon corn starch dissolved in the milk. 

1 teaspoon butter. 

2 tablespoons sugar. 

Cook over hot water, and add f cup desiccated or fresh 


i lemon grated peel and juice. 
i cup sugar. 
i beaten egg. 

i teaspoon each water and flour. 
\ teaspoon butter. 

Mix well together and set in a kettle of hot water. Stir 
till it is cooked through. Add more water to it, if liked 



Take the juice of oranges and make thick and creamy with 
powdered sugar. Lemon juice may be used similarly. 

i cup sifted flour. 
i cup coffee sugar. 

3 eggs. 

i large teaspoon baking powder. 

Stir quickly, pour into square tin and bake in hot oven ; 
turn on flat surface, spread with jelly, and roll. 


For Jelly, Etc. LAYER CAKES. Cream. 



Mrs. Judge Bennett, Yankton, Dak. 

4 eggs. 

4 tablespoons water, 
ij cups sugar, 
ij cups flour. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 

This will make 4 good layers. It is a nice recipe for 


Miss Emily A. Kellogg, Mt. Forest, 111. 

3 eggs. 

ij cups flour. 
I cup sugar. 
i tablespoon water, 
ij teaspoon baking powder. 

Bake in layers and put between them the grated peel and 
pulp of a lemon mixed with grated apple. 


Mrs. Kate Peckham, Dallas, Tex. 

I cup each sugar and flour. 

3 e gg s > an d whites of 2 more. 
i teaspoon extract vanilla. 

4 tablespoons milk, cream, or water. 

i teaspoon baking powder ; pinch of salt. 
Sift together the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt. 
Make a hole in the center of the flour, break in 3 eggs ; 
add the milk. Mix together as quickly as possible, only 
beating enough to stir it together well. Bake in 3 layers. 
Put together with icing for filling flavored with vanilla. 

Break 2 eggs into a cup, and fill with thin sour cream. 

i scant cup of sugar. 

i J cups flour ; pinch of salt. 

teaspoon scant of soda. 
If sweet cream is ased, use a scant teaspoon of baking 


Caramel. LAYER CAKES. Chocolate. 

powder instead of soda. Bake in 3 layers. Put together 
with soft frosting. 


Mrs. Lizzie Saunders, Red Oak, Iowa. 

I heaping cup sugar. 

1 cup milk. 

2 cups flour. 

4 teaspoons baking powder. 

5 teaspoons butter. 

Four layers. Put together with cocoanut rilling. 


1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

i scant cup milk. 
i^ cups flour. 
I cup corn starch. 
Whites 7 eggs. 

3 teaspoons baking powder. 

Bake in a long dripping-pan. For the caramel, take 

1 cup brown sugar. 
\ pound chocolate. 

2 tablespoons butter. 
^ cup milk. 

2 teaspoons vanilla. 

Cook until stiff enough to spread. Then spread over the 
whole cake. Cut the cake in two crosswise, place one half 
on the other. Set in oven to dry the top. 

i cup butter. 

1 cup milk. 

2 cups sugar. 

3 cups flour. 

4 whites of eggs. 
^ teaspoon soda. 

i teaspoon cream of tartar. 

Bake in two flat tins, 5x10 inches, or in a large dripping- 
pan, and divide in two crosswise when done. For frosting, 
take i cup grated chocolate and dissolve in a dish over a 


Almond Nagout. LAYER CAKES. Confectioner's. 

kettle of hot water. Take the beaten yolks of 2 eggs, ^ cup 
milk, and i^ cups sugar. Boil 7 minutes. Take off, and 
add the melted chocolate ; stir well together. Spread 
between and over the cakes. 


Mrs. M. L. Currey, Detroit, Mich. 
\ cup butter. 
\\ cups sugar. 
J cup milk. 
2 cups flour. 
2 eggs. 

1 teaspoon soda. 

2 teaspoons cream tartar. 
i teaspoon lemon extract. 

Bake in 4 layers. For the jelly, take 

i pound sweet almonds blanched and chopped. 
i cup sour cream. 
i cup sugar. 
i teaspoon vanilla. 

Beat all together and put between the layers. Frost all 
over with the whites of 2 eggs and | cup pulverized sugar 
flavored with lemon. 


Mrs. Mary Van B. Owens, Oak Park, Illinois. 
I large cup sugar. 

1 cup butter. 

3 eggs. ^ 

\ cup milk. 

2 cups flour. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 

Take out half of the batter and add to it \ cup of stoned 
raisins, J teaspoon cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg. Bake on 
jelly-tins, and place in alternate layers, light and dark, with 
frosting between. 


Mrs. Elliott Durand, Chicago. 

Make 3 thick layers of cake, i gold, flavored with lemon, 
and 2 silver, flavored with almond. Make the cream as fol- 


Charlotte Polonaise. LAYER CAKES. Rocky Mountain. 

lows : i^ pints cream or new milk ; put over water, and add 
the yolks of 6 eggs, well beaten with 2 tablespoons arrow- 
root. When cooked, divide in two parts. To one part add 

2 tablespoons pulverized sugar. 

6 tablespoons grated chocolate. 

\ pound crushed macaroons. 

(Desiccated cocoanut may be used in place of maca- 
roons.) To the second part add 

I dozen bitter almonds and 

6 dozen sweet almonds, blanched and split. 

I ounce citron, sliced thin. 

4 tablespoons pulverized sugar. 

i teaspoon rose. 

Color with cochineal coloring. Put the cakes together in 
this order: First, a white cake with chocolate cream, then 
yellow cake with rose cream, then white cake covered with 
icing made as follows : Whites of 4 eggs beaten with I 
pound pulverized sugar; add, by degrees, I poun4 sweet 
almonds beaten to a paste with rose-water. When nearly 
dry, finish with a plain white icing over top and sides. Pro- 
cure the almonds ready shelled. 


Mrs. J. A. Reichelt, Chicago. 

For the cake, take 

^ cup butter. 

1 cup sweet milk. 
6 whites of eggs. 

2 cups sugar. 

3 cups flour. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 
Bake in 3 deep layers. For the fruit, take 

I fresh cocoanut. 

I cup stoned raisins. 

| pound citron. 

^ pound almonds. 

I pound dates. 

6 large figs. 

i cup currants. 
Make a thin icing of whites of 3 eggs and 2 cups sugar. 


White. Mountain. LAYER CAKES. Ice Cream. 

Ice both sides of each cake. To prepare the fruit, blanch 
the almonds. Grate the cocoanut. Take one-third of the 
almonds and chop fine with all of the fruit. Mix with a 
small part of the cocoanut. After icing the cakes, spread 
the mixture on each layer and sprinkle with cocoanut. On 
the top layer spread fruit and use the whole almonds for 
decoration, sprinkling plentifully with cocoanut. Desic- 
cated cocoanut will not answer for this beautiful cake, it is 
not so fluffy. 


Mrs. A. C. Hastings, Middletovvn, Vt. 

^ cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

3 cups flour. 

1 cup milk. 

2 eggs. 

2 teaspoons cream of tartar. 
i teaspoon soda. 

Stir together without separating the eggs. Put frosting 
between the layers. 

ij cups sugar. 
J cu-p butter. 
2\ cups flour. 
| cup sweet milk. 
Whites of 4 eggs. 
\ teaspoon cream of tartar. 
\ teaspoon soda. 

Use \ cup corn starch and 2 cups flour, if desired. Use 
lemon filling for the layers. 


6 eggs. 

i scant cup sugar, 
i cup flour, 
i tablespoon water, 
i heaping teaspoon baking powder. 

Bake in 3 layers, and put whipped cream between and on 
top. In the absence of cream, use cocoanut filling. 


Cocoanut. LAYER CAKES. Gilt-Edge. 


Mrs. M. A. Woodworth, Chicago. 

1 cup sugar. 
\ cup butter. 

2 eggs. 

J cup sweet milk. 
2 cups flour. 

i^ teaspoons baking powder. 

Bake in layers. Spread with cream filling while warm, 
and sprinkle with cocoanut. 


Miss Lilla E. Miller, Belvidere, 111. 
J cup butter. 

1 cup sugar. 

| cup sweet milk. 
1 1 cups flour. 

2 eggs. 

J teaspoon soda and 

i teaspoon cream of tartar. 
For the cream, take 

i cup milk. 

\ cup flour, or large tablespoon corn starch. 

^ cup sugar. 

i egg ; pinch of salt. 

Mix egg, flour, and sugar with part of the milk, and stir 
into the remainder of the milk when scalding hot. Flavor 
with ^ teaspoon extract after cooking. 


1 cup sugar. 

2 cups flour. 
| cup water. 

i tablespoon butter. 

1 teaspoon soda. 

2 teaspoons cream tartar. 
2 yolks of eggs. 

Bake in 3 layers. For filling, take | cup sugar in enough 
water to melt. Let boil up, add whites of 2 eggs, beaten 
stiff. Mix well, add | teaspoon each vanilla and lemon. 
Put between and on top. 


Ribbon. LAYER CAKES. Ribbon Fig. 


Mrs. Rice, Sioux Falls, Dak. 

2 cups sugar. 

I cup butter. 

i cup milk. 

4 cups flour. 

4 eggs. 

i teaspoon cream of tartar. 

^ teaspoon soda. 

Have ready two tins alike ; put one-third of the mixture 
in each, and bake. To the other third add 3 teaspoons mo- 
lasses, i cup of currants, and citron and spices to suit the 
taste, and bake in a tin same size as the others. When done 
put a layer of the light cake, then spread with jelly, then the 
dark cake, jelly, and the light cake on top. Lay a paper 
on, turn over on a plate or tin, lay a white paper or cloth 
on the top, and put under flat irons or some other weight 
until cold. Two flat-irons are about the right weight 
to use. 


Mrs. L. A. Clinton, Chicago, Illinois. 

1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

3 cups sifted flour. 

4 e gg s > whites and yolks beaten separately. 
i cup milk. 

3 heaping teaspoons baking powder. 

1 teaspoon vanilla. 

Take half the batter, pour it into 3 or 4 jelly-tins. On 
each put a layer of split figs, seeds up ; bake. 
To the rest add 

2 tablespoons molasses. 
i cup seedless raisins. 

^ cup currants. 

i teaspoon cinnamon. 

^ teaspoon cloves. 

A little more flour. Bake in 2 or 3 jelly-tins. Place 
the layers alternately, with frosting between, having a fig 
cake for the top. 


Fig. LAYER CAKES. Orange. 


Use the recipe for gold and silver cake. Bake the silver 
cake in 2 long pie-tins. Half fill a long pie-tin with the 
gold cake batter. Lay on it a pound of split figs, close 
together, dusted with flour. Cover with more batter till the 
tin is nearly full. Bake. Put the layers together with frost- 
ing, the gold between the silver layers, and frost the top. 
Use Mrs. Galloway's recipe for boiled frosting. If you have 
too much batter for the gold layers, make a small cake 



Mrs. Morris C. Hutchins, Maysville, Ky. 

^ cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

^ cup sweet milk. 

3 cups flour. 

8 whites of eggs. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 

Bake in layers. Beat the whites of 3 eggs with 2 cups 
powdered sugar. Spread a thin coating of icing on each 
layer, then a layer of split figs, then more icing, another 
cake layer, etc., finishing by icing the top. 


Mrs. Laura A. Brodie, Chicago. 

\ cup cold water. 
2 coffee cups sugar. 
2 coffee cups flour, 
\ cup butter. 

4 whites of eggs. 

5 yolks of eggs. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 

Beat butter and sugar to a cream. Add the beaten yolks, 
then the flour, baking powder and water, and lastly, the 
beaten whites. Then take the grated rind and juice (except 
i tablespoon) of I large orange, and stir in the batter. 
Bake in layers. Make frosting of whites 2 eggs, tablespoon 
orange juice, and 6 tablespoons sugar. Spread between 
layers and on top. 


Lemon Jelly. LAYER CAKES. Banana. 

Orange Cake. 
\ cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

3 cups flour. 

1 cup milk. 

2 eggs. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 

Bake in 3 or 4 layers and put together with icing and 
thin slices of peeled orange. Cover the top with icing. 
Put a tablespoon of orange juice in the cake batter if you 
have an extra orange. 


Miss Lizzie Callahan, Tangipahoa, La. 
\\ cups sugar. 
\ cup butter. 

Beat to a cream. Then add 
2\ cups flour. 
\ cup milk. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 

3 e gg s we ll beaten. 

Bake in sheets or jelly-tins. To make the jelly, take 

i cup sugar. 

1 egg. 

Grated yellow rind and juice i lemon. 

i teaspoon water. 

i teaspoon flour. 

Place in a kettle of boiling water and let it thicken. 
When cool, spread between the cakes. 


Miss Maria Berry, Mitchell, Ind. 

1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 
Whites of 8 eggs. 
2 cups flour. 

- I cup sweet milk. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 

Bake in 5 layers. Spread very thin slices of banana be- 
tween the layers, and serve the same day, if possible. 


Pine-Apple. LAYER CAKES. Caramel. 


1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 
3^ cups flour. 
cup milk. 

5 eggs. 

1 teaspoon soda. 

2 teaspoons cream of tartar. 

Bake in jelly-tins ; grate a pine-apple and half a cocoanut 
and put between the layers, after baking. 


Mrs. Dolly Lee, Rectorville, Ky. 

3 eggs. 

i cup sugar. 
| cup butter. 
i\ cups flour. 

i cup blackberry jam or preserves. 
3 tablespoons sour cream. 

i teaspoon each soda, allspice, and cinnamon. 
i nutmeg. 
Stir well, and bake in layers and put icing between. 


3 cups sugar. 

i cups butter. 

i cup milk. 

4| cups flour. 

5 eggs. 

1 small teaspoon soda. 

2 teaspoons cream of tartar. 
Bake in layers. Caramel for filling 

ij cups brown sugar. 

i cup milk. 

i cup molasses. 

i teaspoon butter. 

1 tablespoon flour. 

2 tablespoons water. 

Boil 5 minutes ; add half a cake of grated chocola> -;. 
Boil until like custard. Add a pinch of soda, stir well, a id 
remove from fire. When cold, flavor with vanilla, and 


Piince of Wales. LAYER CAKES. Peach. 

spread between the layers of cake. Cover the top with the 
same, and set in sunny window to dry. The above will 
make 2 large cakes. 


Mrs. S. C. Kelley, Mexico, Mo. 
J cup butter. 
2 cups flour. 
i cup brown sugar. 
\ cup sour milk. 
i cup raisins chopped. 
teaspoon soda. 
Yolks 4 eggs. 
i tablespoon molasses. 
\ tablespoon ground cloves. 
i tablespoon ground cinnamon. 
\ nutmeg. Bake in layers. 


i cup corn starch. 
i cup butter. 
i cup white sugar. 
\ cup sweet milk. 

1 cup flour. 
Whites 4 eggs. 

If corn starch is not used put in 2 cups flour. Bake in 
layers. Put light and dark layers together alternately with 
icing between. Flavor with lemon. 


Miss Ida M. Berry, Mitchell, Ind. 

\ cup butter 

2 cups sugar. 

1 cup sweet milk. 

3 cups flour after sifting. 
Whites of 4 eggs. 

2 scant teaspoons baking powder. Bake. 

Put on the layers fresh peaches peeled and cut in thin 
slices and pour whipped cream over each layer. This cake 
should be eaten the day it is made. The layers should nof 
be put together till just before serving. 


Apple Jelly. LAYER CAKES. Dolly Varden. 


J cup butter. 

1 cup sugar. 

J cup sweet milk. 

2 cups flour. 
2 eggs. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 
For jelly, take 

i pint grated tart apple. 

I lemon, juice and grated rind. 

i cup sugar. 

1 egg. 

Mix together thoroughly, cook over hot water, let cool, 
and put between the layers. Dust the top with sugar. 



J cup butter. 
cup milk. 

2 cups flour. 

1 cup sugar. 
J cup syrup. 
Yolks 4 eggs. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 
I cup raisins, chopped. 

J cup currants. 
i teaspoon cloves. 
i teaspoon cinnamon. 
^ nutmeg. 

Whites 3 eggs. 

1 cup milk. 

ij cups sugar. 
^ cup butter. 

2 cups flour. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 

2 teaspoons vanilla. 

Bake in square tins and put together in alternate layers 
with jelly between. Make a frosting of the remaining white 
f i e gg an d i cup pulverized sugar .for the top. 


Variety Layer Cake. COOKIES. Christmas. 


| cup butter and 

i cup sugar worked to a cream ; add 

\ cup milk. 

5 yolks of eggs, well beaten, and 

I teaspoon baking powder in 2 cups flour. 
Divide, and flavor one-half with orange water and the 
other with vanilla and enough grated chocolate to color. 
Bake in 2 jelly-tins. Mix another cake batter as follows : 

\ cup butter. 

i^ cups sugar. 

\ cup sweet milk. 

Whites 5 eggs. 

i teaspoon baking powder in 2 cups flour. 
Divide, and flavor one-half with rose-water and the other 
with lemon, and color with pulverized cochineal a bright 
red. Bake in two jelly-tins. When done, place the brown 
cake first, then white, then red, and last yellow, with jelly 
between, and frost the top with boiled icing. When cold 
and hard, ornament the top with a funnel of the frosting. 



It adds to cookies to sprinkle with sugar after rolling out. 
Then cut and bake. Cookies and small cakes require a quick 


Mrs. W. F. Van Bergen, Oak Park, Illinois. 

Four eggs and I pound sugar stirred together for one hour. 
Add \ teaspoon pulverized hartshorn ; then enough flour to 
make a stiff dough. Roll out and cut. Keep in a warm 
room all night. Then bake in a slow oven. Sprinkle the 
pans with anise seed before putting cookies in. Make as 
stiff as you can roll out. There is no butter used in them. 

Wate* COOKIES. German. 


Mrs. Monroe Heath, Chicago. 
^ cup butter. 

ij cups light brown sugar. 
! cup sour cream, 
i egg. 
J cup sour milk. 

1 teaspoon saleratus. 

Nutmeg, or caraway seed if liked. 
Mix soft with flour. Bake in a quick oven. 

3 eggs. 

2 cups sugar. 
I cup butter. 
I cup water. 

teaspoon soda. Mix soft with flour; roll thin 

J cup butter. 
I cup sugar. 
^ cup buttermilk. 
J teaspoon soda ; nutmeg. 
Flour to roll soft and thin. 


1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

J cup sour milk. 

2 eggs. 

I teaspoon soda. 

nutmeg. Flour to roll soft and thin. 


Mrs. J. Engel, Chicago. 

1 pound flour. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 
\ pound sugar. 

3 eggs. 

\ pound butter. 
Lemon and mace. 

Roll, spread on a beaten egg with a brush, and sprinkle 
with cinnamon and sugar. Bake quickly. 


Cocoanut COOKIES. Lemon 

i grated cocoanut. 

1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

cup sweet milk. 
2 teaspoons baking powder. 
Flour to roll. Desiccated cocoanut maybe used. 

| cup lard. 

1 cup buttermilk. 

2 cups light brown sugar, 
i teaspoon soda. 

i teaspoon cream tartar, 
i nutmeg. 
Flour for stiff dough. 


1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

J sweet cup milk. 
3j cups flour. 

3 eggs. 

1 scant teaspoon soda. 

2 scant teaspoons cream of tartar, 
i^ teaspoons vanilla. 

Cream the butter and sugar, add the eggs and milk. 
Mash the soda and cream of tartar very fine, and sift into the 
flour, and sift all together. Add the extract, mix soft, using 
more flour, if necessary, roll thin, and bake quickly. 


1 cup butter. 
i cups sugar. 

\ cup water less the juice of I lemon. 

2 eggs. 

2 teaspoons baking powder. 

Grated rind of lemon. 

Squeeze the lemon juice in a cup, and put in water to 
make the cup half full. Cream the butter and sugar, add 
the beaten eggs ; mix well, add the water and other ingre- 

264 COOKIES. Measure. 

dients. Mix as soft as can be rolled, sprinkle with sugar, 
cut, and bake in quick oven. 


Mrs. W. F. Van Bergen. 

| cup butter. 
. 2 cups brown sugar. 

1 cup raisins or currants. 
| cup warm water. 

2 eggs. 

I nutmeg. 
I teaspoon cloves. 
i teaspoon cinnamon. 
i teaspoon soda. 
Flour to roll. 


Mrs. Fannie H. Bower, Parker, Dakota. 

i cup butter. 

1 cup sour cream, as thick as can be taken from 
the top of a cream jar. 

2 cups sugar. 
2 eggs. 

i teaspoon soda. 

Flour to roll soft and thin, sprinkle thickly with sugar and 
roll the rolling-pin over once lightly. Cut, and bake in a 
moderate oven. 

| cup sour cream. 
i cup granulated sugar. 

J teaspoon soda ; pinch of salt. 
Mix very stiff with flour. 


Mrs. James Halstead, Jerseyville, 111. 

I egg, broken into a cup. Put into the cup 
butter the size of an egg. Fill the cup with sugar. 

i tablespoon thick sour milk. 

To every 3 measures like the above put i teaspoon soda. 
Flour to roll out. Flavor with lemon or nutmeg. 

26 5 

Delicate. COOKIES. Molasses. 


Mrs. M. M. Hale. 

1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

J teaspoon soda. 
Whites of 6 eggs. 
Flour to roll as soft as can be handled. 


1 cup thick sour cream, 

2 cups sugar. 

J teaspoon soda. 

Mix with Graham flour to roll out. Bake in an oven not 
as hot as for white flour cookies, as it takes longer to bake 

i cup lard. 
i cup brown sugar. 

1 cup molasses. 

2 cups fine oatmeal. 

I teaspoon soda, dissolved in 
| cup boiling water. 
i teaspoon salt. 
i tablespoon ginger. 
White flour for stiff batter. 
Drop in little pats in a greased dripping-pan. 


Mrs. E. B. Baldwin. 

1 cup butter. 

2 cups molasses. 

i teaspoon cloves. 
i tablespoon ginger. 
Flour to make a stiff batter. 

Mold with the hand into small cakes, and bake in a steady 
rather than quick oven, as they are apt to burn. 

Molasses Cookies. 

Mrs. W. F. Van Bergen, Oak Park, 111. 

i pint molasses. 
I coffee cup butter and lard. 

Put on stove and boil 2 minutes. When nearly cold, add 


Ginger. COOKIES. Snaps. 

3 tablespoons boiling water and i tablespoon soda. Stir un 
til it foams. Add salt to taste and I tablespoon ginger. 

Flour to roll. 


Miss Kittle Bradford, Sidney Plains, N. Y. 

i cup butter (or half drippings will answer). 
I cup sugar. 
i cup molasses. 

I tablespoon soda. 
^ tablespoon ginger. 

Mix not very stiff. Sprinkle with sugar before baking. 
^nokies took the premium at a State Fair.) 
Ginger Cookies. 

Mrs. Julia B. De Lon, Chicago. 

cup sugar. 
cup molasses. 
cup butter. 
cup boiling water. 
tablespoon ginger. 
tablespoon soda. 
Mix not very stiff with flour. 

Ginger Cookies. 

Mrs. William Morrison, Spencer, Iowa. 

I cup shortening. 
i cup molasses. 
i cup sugar. 
3 teaspoons soda. 
3 teaspoons ginger. 
Sour milk to dissolve soda in. Flour to roll. 


Mrs. J. P. Hewlett, Niles, Mich. 

cup New Orleans molasses. 
cup brown sugar. 

cup butter or lard. Boil 20 minutes ; then add 
teaspoon soda. 
well beaten egg. 
tablespoon ginger. 
Flour to make it very sliff. 
After it is well kneaded, cut off a small piece to roll out, 

26 7 

i_2_3_ 4 Jumbles. JUMBLES. Old- Fashioned. 

and put the balance where it will keep warm until needed. 
It should be so stiff that it will be necessary to keep it quite 
warm in order to roll out smoothly. 

Ginger Snaps. 
Mrs. D. W. Rice, Kenosha, Wis. 

I cup molasses. 

\ cup shortening. 

I teaspoon ginger. 

I teaspoon soda. 

Flour to roll thin. Bake quickly. 


Mrs. John N. Owens, Lewisburg, Ky. 

| cup lard. 
3 cups sugar. 
\ cup sour cream. 
Yolks 7 eggs. 

\ teaspoon cream of tartar, 
I teaspoon soda. 
\ nutmeg. 

Mix soft and roll out. Cut in small cakes. Will keep 
well and improve with age. 

I _ 2 _3_ 4 JUMBLES. 

Lottie Berry, Maysville, Ky. 

1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

3 cups flour. 

4 eggs. 

Beat butter and sugar to a cream, add the well beaten 
eggs, and then the flour, and beat all together until white 
and creamy. Drop from a spoon on a greased pan, about 
2 inches apart, and bake in a hot o^en. 


Mrs. Augustine Owens. 

9 eggs. 
3 cups sugar. 
I \ cups butter. 
Flour to roll. Cut in small cakes and bake quick. 


Suet for Frying. DOUGHNUTS. How to Fry. 



Doughnuts, fried cakes, and crullers are almost synony- 
mous terms. They are cooked in hot fat. If beef suet is 
used instead of lard the cakes are more digestible. 

Nice clean leaves of beef fat may be procured from the 
butcher. Cut into inch pieces and put a pint of water to a 
large pot full. After it commences to melt stir frequently 
to keep from burning. It will render out in one forenoon. 
Strain through a coarse cloth into jars. Drippings if clarified 
may be used also for frying doughnuts. 

If the fat is at the right heat it will have stopped bubbling. 
Test it with a bit of the dough. If of the right temperature 
the dough will rise to the top very shortly and the under- 
side will brown very quickly. 

Put in only enough to cover the surface of the fat without 
crowding. Watch closely, turn, and cook evenly on both 
sides. When done skim out, drain and put in a colander. 
When the batch is finished put a few slices of raw potatoes 
into the fat and boil up to clarify it. When it settles drain 
the top for future use and put the sediment in the soap 

cup sugar, 
cup cream, 
cup sour milk. 


teaspoon soda ; nutmeg. 
Flour to roll. 


Mrs. M. M. Curtis, Seattle, Washington Ty. 

i egg. 

ij cups sugar. 
3 cups water or sweet milk. 
3 teaspoon baking powder sifted into 2 quarts 
flour twice. Mix soft, not rolled even, but handled lightly. 


Amalgamation. DOUGHNUTS Raised. 


Mrs. Dr. B. M. Baker, Chicago. 
\ cup butter. 
2 cups sugar. 

2 cups sweet milk. 

3 eggs. 

Pinch of salt ; nutmeg. 

i heaping teaspoon of baking powder to every 
pint of flour used to make them stiff enough to roll out. 
This will make 100 cakes. 


1 cup yellow corn-meal. 

2 cups flour. 

3 teaspoons baking powder, 
i teaspoon salt. 

I teaspoon nutmeg. 

1 cup sugar, and enough milk to roll well. 
Then fry in hot lard. 

\ cup sugar. 

2 eggs. 

1 cup sour milk. 

2 tablespoons melted lard. 
\ teaspoon soda. 

Stir as stiff as possible, with flour. Drop from a teaspoon 
in hot lard, and fry brown. Dip spoon in lard after each 
time, and they will not stick to the spoon. 


Set sponge for them in the middle of the afternoon. Fry 
the next forenoon. For the sponge take i quart of water, 
i cake of yeast, and flour for thick batter. Let rise till very 
light (about 5 hours). Add I coffee cup lard, 2 cups white 
sugar, 3 large mashed potatoes, or 2 eggs (the potatoes are 
nicer) and a small nutmeg. Let rise again, until very light. 
Either roll it and cut, or break off bits for frying. Lay 
enough for one frying on a floured plate and set in the oven 
to warm. When they are put in to fry, set some more in 


Fried Cakes. DOUGHNUTS. Rissoles. 

the oven. This improves fried cakes very much. It takes 
longer to cook raised doughnuts than those made with bak- 
ing powder. 


Mrs. O. Blackman, Chicago. 

2 eggs. 

i cup sugar, beaten thoroughly together ; add 
I cup sweet milk, and a little more than 

1 quart flour. 

3 teaspoons baking powder. 
Mix as soft as can be rolled. 


Mrs. A. C. Galloway, Marseilles, 111. 

2 cups buttermilk, 
i cup sour cream. 
I cup sugar. 

i egg. 

i teaspoon soda ; pinch of salt. 

Flour to roll. Fry in hot lard. 


3 eggs. 

i^ cups sugar. 

i^ cups milk. 

i tablespoon lard or butter. 

1 teaspoon soda. 

2 teaspoons cream of tartar. 
Spice to taste. 

Cut in rounds, boil in hot lard, like doughnuts. 


Put into a saucepan a teacup of water, a tablespooh of 
powdered sugar, \ teaspoon salt, and 2 tablespoons butter. 
While boiling, add sufficient flour for it to leave the sauce- 
pan ; stir in, one by one, the yolks of 4 eggs. Drop a tea 
spoon at a time into boiling lard, and fry a light brown. 


Roll out nice pie-paste, and put bits of jelly or preserves 
in a row along the edge, about two inches apart. Then 


Puffs. bOJGHNUTS. Crullers. 

turn the whole row over on to the layer of paste and cut 
down through the two layers with a cake or biscuit-cutter, 
inclosing the bit of preserves in the cutting. Either fry in 
hot fat or bake in the oven. Stick the edges together with 
a little water. 


1 pint sweet milk. 
6 tablespoons flour. 
4 eggs. 

Pinch of salt. 

Scald the milk and pour over the flour, beat until smooth, 
whisk the eggs to a froth, and add to the flour and milk 
when sufficiently cool. Have ready a kettle of boiling 
lard, and drop one teaspoon of the batter at a time into the 
lard, and fry a light brown ; sift white sugar over them, or 
eat with syrup. 


2 eggs, beaten separately. 
I teaspoon salt. 

Flour to roll thin as a wafer. 

Cut in strips an inch wide and four long, and wind around 
the finger ; slip off and fry in hot lard. 


Beat 2 eggs very light, add teaspoon of salt and flour to 
roll. Take a piece of dough as large as a hickory-nut, roll 
as thin as paper and fry in hot lard. They will be done in a 
few seconds. 


1 heaping tablespoon butter. 

2 cups sugar. 
i cup milk. 

4 e gg s J pinch of salt. 
\ nutmeg. 

3 teaspoons baking powder sifted with 
6 cups flour. 

Mix well together. Add more flour, if needed. Roll very 
thin. Cut in cakes 3 inches square ; then make slits in each 
cake nearly the whole width, like a comb with the teeth half 


Love-Knots. DOUGHNUTS. Nun's Sighs. 

an inch wide. Fry in hot lard. The success in these lies 
very greatly in the cutting out. 


Mrs. Franc B. Wilkie, Chicago. 
1 Cgg- 

I tablespoon sugar. 
i tablespoon butter. 
I tablespoon milk. 
Pinch of salt ; pinch of nutmeg. 
Flour to knead very hard. 

Roll out ; then cut like a pipe-stem, tie in 2 or 3 knots, 
and fry in hot lard. Sprinkle with pulverized sugar while 


Mrs. Z. B. G., Boston, Mass. 

Warm a lump of butter the size of a walnut, a lump of 
sugar, a little lemon peel and a pinch of salt in a tumbler 
full of water. Set in a saucepan of water on the stove, stir in 
flour until it becomes a thick paste, and continue stirring until 
cooked. Leave in the sauce pan until cold. Then stir in I 
e gg a t a time until thin enough to drop out of a spoon. 
Take a dessert spoon and drop lumps of the paste about the 
size of walnuts into not quite boiling lard. Take out when 
risen to four times their original size and of a golden color. 
Dust with sugar. Good hot or cold. 



Use only a moderately-heated oven for ginger cakes. 
Molasses cakes brown very quickly and will not bear a 
quick heat. Use New Orleans molasses if possible to get it. 


Hard Gingerbread. GINGER CAKES. Soft Gingerbread. 


ij cups sugar. 

\ cup melted lard. 

I cup water. 

I tablespoon vinegar. 

1 even teaspoon soda. Pinch of salt. 

2 teaspoons cinnamon. 

i nutmeg, 
inger to suit the taste. 

Mix soft as can be rolled. Put into a dripping-pan and 
mark off with a knife. Bake in a moderate oven. 


4 quarts sifted flour. 

quart molasses. 

scant tablespoon soda dissolved in a little 


tablespoon good ginger. 

pound butter. 

tablespoon vinegar. 
^ cup boiling water. 

Make as soft as pou can roll out, cut in cards, and bake in 
a. rather quick oven. 

i cup molasses. 

1 cup sour milk. 

2 eggs. 

4 teaspoons soda. 

2 teaspoons cream of tartar. 

i cup brown sugar. 

^ cup butter. 

i tablespoon ginger. 

Mix stiff enough to roll out. Bake in a large dripping- 
pan and mark off. 


Miss Nellie Roe, Mantorville, Minn. 

1 cup molasses, sorghum if you have it. 

2 tablespoons butter or drippings. 

Stir in just as much flour as the mixture will bear. Put a 


Spice Gingerbread. GINGER CAKES. Soft Ginger Cake. 

tablespoon of soda in a cup, fill cup with boiling water, turn 
it on the batter and stir it in. Add a pinch of salt and a 
teaspoon of ginger. Bake in a long pie-tin. 


Mrs. C. Butterfield. 
I cup butter. 
I cup molasses. 
i cup sour milk. 
I cup sugar. 
2\ cups flour. 
4 eggs. 
I teaspoon cinnamon. 

1 teaspoon ginger. 

2 teaspoons soda. Bake in a deep pan. 


Lou K. Brown, Sigourney, Iowa. 

\ cup butter. 

3 cups flour. 
\ cup lard. 

cup sour milk. 

teaspoon soda, (or water and baking powder), 
cup molasses, 
cup sugar, 
teaspoon cinnamon, 
teaspoon allspice, 
teaspoon cloves, 

2 teaspoons ginger. 
I teaspoon pounded mace. 
Bake in a dripping-pan. Improves with age. 


Mrs. O. Blackman. 

tablespoon butter. 

cup molasses, 
cup warm water, 
teaspoon ginger, 
teaspoon soda ; pinch of salt. 
2\ cups sifted flour. 

Soft Mofasses. GINGER CAKES. Ginger Drops. 

i tablespoon butter. 
I cup molasses. 
cup warm water. 
2j cups sifted flour. 
1 egg- 

^ teaspoon soda. 
I teaspoon ginger. 
Pinch of salt. 
Bake in a deep tin. 


3 eggs. 

I cup molasses. 
i^ cups flour. 
I teaspoon soda. 
i teaspoon ginger. 
I teaspoon cloves. 

Bake in a deep tin. This would make very nice patty- 
pans or small cakes. 


Mrs. H. H. Harvey. 

i cup molasses. 

1 teaspoon soda in 

2 cups boiling water, 
i large spoon lard. 

i teaspoon ginger. 

3 cups flour. 

Bake in a large tin. Is good for dessert, with sauce. 


Mrs. Fidelia Evett, Chicago. 

\ cup sugar. 
I cup molasses. 
\ tablespoon ginger. 
5 tablespoons melted butter, 
i teaspoon soda in 
J cup boiling water. 

Stir rather thick with flour. Bake in a dripping-pan and 
eat warm. Bake in muffin-pans, if preferred. 


Ginger Germ Jumbles. MISCELLANEOUS CAKES. Sponge Drop. 

I cup brown sugar. 
1 cup molasses. 

1 cup sour milk. 
| cup butter. 

2 eggs. 

3^ cups flour. 
i teaspoon ginger. 
\ teaspoon cloves. 
i teaspoon cinnamon, 
i small teaspoon soda. 
Bake in gem-irons. 

i cup butter. 

1 cup brown sugar. 

2 cups molasses. 
4^ cups flour. 

2 eggs. 

i teaspoon soda. 
I tablespoon ginger. 
Drop on buttered tins. 


In our miscellaneous subdivision we put "Cheese," 
" Cheese-cakes," and " Welsh Rare-bit," with other odd and 
hard-to-classify dishes. It is a difficult matter to enter 
such dishes under any distinctive head. 

3 eggs. 

ij cups sugar. 
2 cups flour. 
\ cup cold water, 
i teaspoon cream of tartar and 
\ teaspoon soda (or 2 teaspoons baking powder), 
i teaspoon lemon extract. 
Bake in muffin-pans or cups in a quick oven. 




1 cup light brown sugar 
ij cups flour. 

2 tablespoons sweet milk. 

3 tablespoons melted butter. 
3 eggs, beaten separately. 

I teaspoon vanilla. 

i teaspoons baking powder, in the flour. 
Add the beaten whites last. Bake in patty-pans. 


Mrs. O. Blackman, Chicago. 
I cup sugar. 
i cup molasses. 
i small teaspoon soda. 
3 cups flour. 
3 e gg s - Pinch of salt. 
| cup butter, 
i cup sour milk. 
J teaspoon cinnamon, 
i teaspoon nutmeg. 
^ teaspoon cloves. 
Bake in patty-pans or muffin-rings. Sift soda in dry. 


Mrs. Julia B. DeLon. 

J cup butter. 

i cup sugar. 

J cup sour milk. 

i cups flour. 

\ teaspoon saleratus. 

1 e gg- 

i teaspoon flavoring. 

Bake in muffin-tins. This will make 12 small cakes. 

\ cup butter. 

1 cup sugar. 

\ cup sweet milk. 

2 cups flour. 

2 eggs ; nutmeg. 

i heaping teaspoon baking powder. 
Stir quickly, and bake immediately in gem-pans 

Ragamuffins. MISCELLANEOUS CAKES, Comfits. 


Mrs. Julia B. DeLon. 

1 cup shortening heaping. 

2 cups sugar. 

ij cups molasses. 
I cup boiling water. 
4 cups flour. 

I heaping teaspoon saleratus. 

Bake in gem-irons. The recipe will make 4 dozen small 
cakes. To vary it somewhat, bake half and then add to the 
remainder i teaspoon cinnamon, J teaspoon cloves and nut- 
meg, and a little ginger. 

Molasses Tea Cakes. 
\ cup water. 
i cup molasses. 

I 1 cups flour. 

1 egg. 

2 tablespoons lard. 
i teaspoon soda. 

i teaspoon ginger. 

1 teaspoon cinnamon. 
Bake in gem-irons. 


Take biscuit-dough, roll out, spread with butter, sugar, 
and cinnamon ; roll up like a jelly roll, cut from the end, and 
bake quickly. 

Whites of 6 eggs. 
\ pound grated cocoanut. 
\\ cups sugar. 

Drop the size of hickory-nuts, separately, on buttered 
paper laid on tins, and bake in a moderately hot oven. 

Whites of 6 eggs. 
\ pound of grated chocolate. 
\\ cups sugar. 

2 scant cups sifted flour. 

Beat the whites stiff. Stir in the sugar, chocolate, and 


Seed Cakes. MISCELLANEOUS CAKES. Widow's Cake. 

lastly the flour lightly. Drop from a spoon on a buttered 
dripping-pan, and bake in a moderate oven. This quantity 
of chocolate makes it very strongly flavored. 


1 cup butter. 

2 cups sugar. 

J cup sourish cream. 

2 whites of eggs. 

^ teaspoon soda. 

Stir like cake, then mix stiff with flour, and roll thin as 
pie-crust, with caraway seeds sprinkled in. Then roll with 
fluted roller, and cut in square cakes. 


Mrs. Nellie Roe, Kansas City, Mo. 

ij cups brown sugar. 
^ cup butter. 

1 cup currants. 
\ teaspoon salt. 

2 eggs. 

1 teaspoon soda in 

2 tablespoons milk. 

1 teaspoon each of all kinds of spices. 

Mix stiff with flour. Roll thin ; cut in squares, like soda 


2 well beaten eggs. 

2 cups syrup. 

| cup water and dissolve in it 
I teaspoon soda. 
I tablespoon butter. 

3 cups sifted flour. 

Bake 35 minutes in moderate oven in dripping-pan 9 by 
12 inches. 

3 cups Indian meal. 

3 cups wheat flour. 

1 pint buttermilk. 

4 tablespoons molasses. 

2 teaspoons saleratus. 

To b* eaten hot, with butter, for tea or breakfast. 


German Coffee Cake. MISCELLANEOUS CAKES. Florentines. 


Mrs. J. Engel, Chicago. 

Take \ cake of compressed yeast (or teacup of home- 
made), put it in a pint of warm milk. Stir this in the mid- 
dle of a pan of flour. When light, add J pound of butter, 
J pound sugar, some raisins, lemon, nutmeg, cinnamon, and 
flour. Put in dripping-pans like gingerbread, or a short- 
cake. Let it rise, for baking. Then, with a cake-brush, rub 
over the top a beaten egg, and sprinkle on some sugar and 
cinnamon. Bake. 


Take tender, pleasant, tart apples, peel, quarter, and cut 
in two, and spread in a nice even layer over the top of the 
German coffee cake. Sprinkle freely with sugar and bake 


Mrs. Dr. C. H. Evans, Chicago. 

I cup sour cream. 

1 small cup butter. 

2 eggs. 

\ teaspoon soda ; same of ginger. 
Flour like ordinary cake. 
Eat hot with butter. 


Melt cup of butter in I cup of hot water, and, while 
boiling, beat in I cup of flour. Then remove from stove, 
and, when cool, stir in 3 eggs, one at a time, without beat- 
ing. Drop by small spoonsful on tins quickly, about 2 inches 
apart, and bake about 25 minutes in a moderate oven. For 
the cream, ^ pint of milk, I egg, 3 tablespoons of sugar, 2 
large tablespoons of flour. Boil and flavor with lemon. 
When puffs are done, open the side with a sharp knife and 
fill with the cream. 


Roll rich paste to the thickness of the eighth of an inch, 
and lay it on a thin baking-tin. Spread over it a layer of 

28 1 

Pyramid Paste. MISCELLANEOUS CAKES. Lady Fingers. 

green gage or any other preserve or jam, and bake it in a 
moderate oven. Take it out, and when partially cool, hav- 
ing whipped some whites of eggs with sugar, put the whip 
over the preserve, and strew some minced almonds all over 
the surface, finishing with sifted sugar. Put it once more 
into the oven until the whip is quite stiff. The Florentines 
should be of a pale color, and a few minutes after the paste 
is finally removed from the oven it should be cut into dia- 
monds and served up. 


Make a rich pie-paste and cut three or four sizes, fitting 
one upon another. Cut a bit from each except the bottom. 
Bake on a buttered paper laid on tins. Then place one 
above another with a different kind of preserve or jam in 
each. On top place green gages, currants, grapes, or other 

J cup butter. 
I cup sugar. 
6 eggs. 

Beat butter and sugar to a cream ; add the beaten eggs, 
and flour to make a stiff batter ; drop little pats on a but- 
tered paper, 3 inches apart ; spread thin, bake in a pan 5 
minutes, or until a light brown ; lay on a sugared molding- 
board while warm, and roll on a stick ; when cold, fill with 


4 tablespoons sugar mixed with 
4 yolks of egg. Add 
4 tablespoons flour and 
I teaspoon lemon extract. 

Beat whites to a stiff froth and stir in. Squeeze through 
a funnel of writing paper on to a greased paper in a drip- 
ping-pan, and bake in small cakes in a moderate oven. 
These are good for Charlotte Russe. 
* 3 6 




Whites of 10 eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. 
i\ cups sifted sugar. 

1 cup sifted flour. 

I teaspoon cream of tartar. 
Put into rings and bake quick. 


Cut off the end crust from a loaf of bread. Butter the 
bread on the loaf, and cut off the slice very thin with a sharp 
knife. Butter the next slice on the loaf and cut it off thin 
as before, until the plate is full, one upon another evenly. 
Then cut down through the middle of the slices, serving 
each one with a half slice. Thin bread and butter is nice 
for an impromptu lunch, or a Sunday tea. It is an old En- 
glish dish. 


Take 2 tablespoons raspberry jelly, 2 tablespoons pounded 
loaf sugar, and the whites of 2 eggs ; beat well together till 
it is perfectly mixed and forms a stiff paste ; then turn it 
into a dish, and it is ready for use. This is most delicious, 
and is still further improved by mixing currant jelly with 
the raspberry. It can be made with any kind of jelly. 
Care should be taken to beat it well. 



2 tablespoons butter. . 

4 tablespoons bread crumbs. 
J pound cheese. 
I cup sweet milk. 

3 eggs. 

Cut the butter and cheese into small pieces and place 
them in a large bowl with the bread ; on this pour,the milk 
heated to scalding, -after which add the yolks well beaten, 
and a pinch of salt ; mix well together, cover, and place on 
the back of the range, stirring occasionally until all is dis- 



solved, when add the whites beaten to a stiff froth ; place 
in a buttered pie-plate, and bake in a quick oven for about 
20 minutes ; serve the moment it is taken from the oven. 
Many eat mustard on this. 



Cut a piece of bread | of an inch thick. Remove the 
crust. Toast nicely on each side. Lay cheese over the 
toast and set in the oven. When the cheese is sufficiently 
melted to penetrate the toasted bread, serve immediately. 


Soak i cup of dry crumbs of bread in new or fresh milk. 
Beat into this 3 well beaten eggs. Add I tablespoon of 
melted butter and J pound of grated cheese. Sprinkle the 
top with sifted bread crumbs and bake in the oven a deli- 
cate brown. A delicious relish to eat with thin bread and 



Scald the buttermilk, then set it over the fire to boil, 
skim ofT, and put it in a vessel to drain. Add salt, and it is 



Set a pan of thick rriilk on the stove and heat ver^ slowly. 
When it comes to a scald take off, as boiling toughens the 
curd. Pour it into a clean cloth and let it drip till the whey 
is out. Mix with it salt, pepper, cream, or butter. It may 
be made into small balls and served whole, or in a large 
cake and sliced, or let remain soft and serve with a spoon. 


Mrs. Glynn, Boston, Mass. 

Make a large pan of curds and whey of sour milk. Cut a 
piece of rennet the size of a dinner-plate, put it in a stone 
crock, pour over it all the whey, and add a large handful of 
salt. Set it behind the stove all night. Next morning 
pour this whey slowly through a sieve into 4 or 5 quarts of 



sweet milk. Leave it until it thickens. Then with hands 
open, gently press the curd down without breaking until it 
separates from the water. Take a napkin and gently place 
the curd in it, double it squarely, and tie lightly in a cross 
tie. Hang this to drain all night. It will be fit for use the 
next day, and is to be served in sauce dishes, and is nice to 
eat with preserved fruit. 


Put a spoonful of rennet in a quart of new milk. Keep 
near the fire. When the curd forms, drain off the whey 
through a sieve. Rub into the curd 4 tablespoons powdered 
sugar, about ^ pound of butter, I nutmeg grated, and the 
yolk of I egg. Beat together, then add a whole egg and 
beat again, and mix in J pound of currants. Line patty- 
pans with rich paste, half fill with the mixture, and sprinkle 
over with sugar. Bake in a well-heated oven. 


Prepare mixture as for cheese cakes from curd. Leave 
out the currants and put in the grated rind and juice of a 
lemon instead. Bake in tart shells. 

4 tablespoons warmed butter. 
4 tablespoons powdered sugar. 
Grated peel of 2 lemons, and juice of one. 
Mix, and bake in tart shells. 


One ounce of sweet almonds and 3 ounces of bitter 
almonds, blanched and reduced to a paste with 2 table- 
spoons loaf sugar. Mix with the whites of 2 eggs and the 
yolk of I, and 2 tablespoons soft butter. Beat well, bake in 
tart shells. Put a few cut pieces of almonds on top. 

IGHT, pleasant dishes for summer, and espe- 
cially recommended as desserts to follow 
very heavy dinners. They are far more 
healthful than pastry that is, if pastry can 
be regarded in any healthful light at all. 
The subdivisions of this chapter will be found 
quite exhaustive. 


Blanc-mange may be made of arrow-root, corn starch, 
farina, gelatine, Irish moss, isinglass, manioc, sago, and tapi- 
oca. These, incorporated with different fruits and fruit 
juices, give a pleasant variety of dishes of this descrip- 

Blanc-mange should be made in a farina kettle or double 
boiler which is one vessel fitting in a larger one. Both 
may be of tin, or the smaller one of block tin and the outer 
one of iron. The water is put into the outer one, so that 
all danger of scorching is obviated. Use a tin pail in a 
kettle of hot water, if you have no farina or custard kettle. 
Blanc-mange is served with cream and sugar, fruit juices, or 
cold sauce, or preserves of any kind. 


Mrs. M. W. Miller. 

One quart milk, 3 eggs, 5 tablespoons corn starch, a pinch 
of salt, sugar to sweeten a little. Let the milk come to a 


Arrowroot. BLANC-MANGE. Farina. 

boil slowly. Blanch, i pound almonds. Pound in a mortar 
with loaf sugar, putting into the mortar 2 or 3 almonds and 
a lump of sugar at a time. As soon as they are beaten as 
fine as possible, pour the paste into the milk, letting it 
warm gradually with the milk. Beat the yolks of the eggs 
with the corn starch, salt, and sugar, and stir into the scald- 
ing milk. Flavor with vanilla strongly. Just before taking 
from the fire, stir in the whites beaten to a stiff froth. 
Pour into a mold and let get cold. Take fruit syrup as a 
sauce, pouring over the whole. 


Four tablespoons arrowroot, same of sugar, 4 eggs, I tea- 
spoon vanilla. Beat all together. Boil a quart of milk and 
turn on to the mixture gradually, stirring constantly until it 
thickens. Turn into a mold. 

Four tablespoons corn starch, same of sugar, I quart milk, 
pinch of salt. Heat the milk to boiling. Stir in the corn 
starch, made smooth with part of the milk, and the sugar. 
Cook 5 or 10 minutes. Remove and pour into molds. 


Heat I quart milk to boiling, add 4 tablespoons farina, 
a pinch of salt, and 2 tablespoons sugar, and stir while cook- 
ing for 15 minutes. Take off and pour into molds wet with 

cold water. 


Use strawberries or raspberries, | juice and J water ; boil 
this, strain and stir into it sufficient corn starch to thicken it. 
Put it in one large dish ; when cool turn it over on a plate 
and stick long narrow slices of sweet almonds into it. This 
has a very pretty effect. 

Use any kind of berries, currants, or cherries; stew in clear 
water to cover ; skim, cook 5 minutes longer, strain ; return 


Gelatine BLANC-MANGE. Quincs. 

the juice to the kettle, add sugar according to acidity of the 
fruit. When it comes to a boil stir in 4 tablespoons dry 
farina to each quart of juice. Stir constantly for 15 minutes. 
Then pour into molds. 


Three pints cream. Boil with J cup sugar and i ounces 
gelatine dissolved in warm water to cover it. Add to the 
cream ; let come to a boil, flavor with I teaspoon lemon 
extract ; stir well ; pour into a mold. 


Put half a cup of Irish moss in a quart of sweet milk, after 
washing carefully. Let it set over a pan of hot water for 
fully 30 minutes. Then strain and mold. 


Mrs. E. Judson. 

One ounce isinglass soaked 'for an hour in enough of the 
milk to cover it. The remainder of one quart of milk heated 
smoking hot, but not boiling, in a farina kettle. To this 
add the soaked isinglass and stir constantly till it is dissolved. 
Add I tablespoon sugar, and when it is thoroughly dis- 
solved, take off the fire, and allow it to cool. When cool, 
not cold, add I teaspoon of vanilla, or other flavoring. 
Then pour into molds and set in a cool place to harden. 
Eat with cream and sugar. 


Three tablespoons manioc soaked in 4 cups sweet milk i 
hour ; add \ cup sugar, heat to scalding, and cook 10 min- 
utes. Pour into a mold. Manioc sometimes called man'- 
oca and mandioc. 


One ounce isinglass dissolved in I pint juice of quinces; add 
8 tablespoons sugar; stir over the fire 25 or 30 minutes; .skim; 
pour the jelly over \ pint good cream, stirring till cool; pour 
into mold wet with cold water. 


Sago. BLANC-MANGE. Souffle Vanilla. 


Three-fourths cup sago soaked in 3 cups water 2 hours. 
Heat 3 cups milk to boiling. Stir in the soaked sago with 
\ cup sugar and cook 15 minutes, stirring constantly. Mold 
in cups or a large mold. 


One cup tapioca soaked all night in 3 cups water. In the 
morning heat 3 cups milk to boiling and pour in the soaked 
tapioca and let cook 15 minutes, stirring constantly. Add 
\ cup sugar. Pour into a mold or cups wet with cold water. 


Make a plain corn-starch blanc-mange, and also a fruit 
blanc-mange. When cold pour into a mold, wet with cold 
water a layer of the white. As soon as this is firm pour 
in an equal quantity of the dark. Let this stiffen, and 
repeat until the mold is filled. Let stand in a cold place 
until thoroughly set. Turn out in a glass and serve with 
whipped cream, or cream and sugar. 


Separate the whites and yolks of 4 eggs ; mix 2 table- 
spoons powdered sugar, a pinch of salt, and a few drops of 
strong extract of vanilla with the yolks. Have the whites 
beaten a long time, even after they seem as light as possi- 
ble. Heat and butter an earthen dish, and pour in two- 
thirds of the mixture. Put in a very hot oven, and, after a 
few minutes, open the oven door, and you will find that it 
has risen to a high pyramid. Break open the apex with a 
fork and pour the remainder of the uncooked portion into 
the opening. Work fast, and close the door as soon as 
possible. Leave the dish in a few minutes. Let it turn a 
golden brown, and try with a straw as you would cake. It 
will boil and bubble at the top, but this will not injure the 
looks or taste. Eat with sugar and lemon. 


Angel. CREAMS. Coffee. 





One pint milk, \ cup sugar, little salt, 3 even tablespoons 
corn starch. Cook the above over hot water, and, at the 
last, stir in the beaten whites of 2 eggs. Use the yolks for 
a boiled custard with not quite a pint of milk. Flavor. 
Set on ice. 


Stew apples, leaving quarters whole. Skim them into a 
glass dish, and whip with egg-beater I cup cream and I cup 
sugar ; pour over the apples. When cold, it makes a deli- 
cious dessert in warm weather. 


One quart milk or cream, 6 eggs, \ box gelatine, I coffee- 
cup sugar, 3 teaspoons vanilla. Make syrup of the sugar by 
boiling it in water enough to dissolve it. Dissolve the gela- 
tine in water just to cover it. Boil the milk. Stir in the 
gelatine while on the stove. Take it off. Stir in the beaten 
yolks of eggs, the syrup, flavoring, and the whites beaten to 
a froth. Turn into a mold. Eat cold. 


Six cups milk, boiled with 2 tablespoons grated chocolate 
and 3 tablespoons white sugar. Add this slowly to the 
well-beaten yolks of 3 eggs flavored with I teaspoon vanilla. 
Mix well, put into cups about 8 and place in a steamer 
to steam, or in a baking-pan of water in the oven, covering 
with another pan. They will cook in an hour. Eat cold. 


Six eggs, 2 cups sugar, I coffee-cup strong coffee. Beat 
the yolks of the eggs and the sugar together ; add a little 


Charlotte. CREAMS. Oak Park. 

cold milk. Then add I quart boiling milk and the coffee, 
stirring the same way till it begins to thicken, but don't let 
it boil. Pour into a large glass dish, and add the whites 
of the eggs, beaten stiff, for a frosting. 


Make a sponge cake in 3 layers from any plain recipe. 
Pour on each layer a boiled custard made of I quart milk, 
3 e gg s > 3 tablespoons sugar. Take \ pint good cream, whip 
to a froth, sweeten and flavor and spread smoothly over the 
whole. Set on ice. 


Miss Lutie Owens, North Fork, Ky. 

One pint tapioca covered with water over night. Drain 
off in the morning and cover with hot water. Let simmer 
until it becomes clear, stirring all the time. Add juice of 
2 lemons, \ can chopped pine-apple, 2 cups sugar, and the 
beaten whites of 2 eggs. Let get cold and serve with cream. 


Take \ ounce of isinglass, dissolved in a little water, then 
add i pint good cream, sweetened to the taste ; boil it ; 
when nearly cold, lay some apricot or raspberry jam on the 
bottom of a glass dish and pour it over. 


A pint of gooseberries put into a jar, cover and set in a 
vessel of boiling water. When tender, put through a sieve. 
Add a cup of white sugar and a pint of cream. Whisk 
quickly until it thickens. If you have no cream, use milk 
and I egg. Make it a couple of hours before it is wanted, 
and keep it in a cool place. Serve in a glass dish. 


Put i pint water on \ box gelatine. Add juice of 2 small 
lemons and i cup sugar. Strain when cool. Then slice 6 
oranges thin, removing the seeds, and place on jelly, putting 
sugar over them as you slice them. Then whip J pint of 
cream, sweeten a little and flavor. Pour on top when cold. 


Orange. CREAMS. Princess. 


Take 6 oranges, grate the peel into 3 cups of hot water, 
and beat the juice and pulp with 4 eggs ; sweeten the liquid, 
pass it through a strainer, then simmer all together until it 
becomes of the consistence of cream, and pour it into 

Orange Cream. 

Yolks 3 eggs, i pint cream, \ pound powdered sugar, I 
orange, juice and grated rind. Mix thoroughly, heat, and 
stir till cold. 


Half a box of gelatine, dissolved in i pint water. Add 
the juice of I lemon and i cup sugar. When dissolved 
thoroughly, pour into a mold or large glass dish. Make a 
boiled custard of I quart milk, yolks of 4 eggs, and flavor 
with lemon. Let get cold and pour over the jelly. Beat 
the whites to a stiff froth ; spread over all. Heat a shovel 
and hold over to brown slightly. To be eaten cold. 


Take 2 quarts peaches, pare, cut in two, and sprinkle 
lightly with sugar. Set a quart of milk over hot water, 
after it has stood for 2 hours with I large spoon tapioca 
soaking in it. When it comes to a boil, add the yolks of 2 
eggs, 2 spoons sugar, pinch of salt. Stir well, and when 
cooked pour over the peaches. Beat the 2 whites of eggs 
to a stiff froth with 2 tablespoons sugar. Spread over the top. 
Serve cold. 


Mrs. Azuba Mcllvain, Maysville, Ky. 

Half package gelatine in i cup cold water, half an hour. 
Add 2 cups sugar and 3 cups boiling water. Let dissolve 
perfectly and set on ice to cool. When nearly congealed, 
put it in a preserve dish by spoonsful and peel and slice 3 
large oranges and put in layers with the gelatine. It should 
be cold enough to hold the slices in place. This will serve 
eight persons. 

Pine-Apple. CREAMS. Strawberry. 


Chop I can pine-apple ; add cup sugar ; cook till clear. 
Put in a dish I ounce gelatine that has been dissolved in J 
cup warm water ; add I quart milk, let come to a boil, 
sweeten to taste, flavor with lemon ; strain slowly over the 
pine-apple. Serve very cold. 


Half cup rice, 3 cups milk. Stew until soft. Then add 
2 cups milk, yolks 3 eggs beaten with 4 tablespoons sugar. 
Let boil up and put in custard-dish. Make frosting of whites 
"rtid add 4 tablespoons sugar ; flavor and brown delicately. 


Put J box gelatine in i cup milk to soak. Put another 
cup of milk on the stove, and when hot stir in 5 tablespoons 
Sugar, the soaked gelatine and the beaten yolks of 2 eggs. 
As soon as it becomes thick, take off and stir in the whites 
of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth and a teaspoon of vanilla. 
"Put into a mold. Eat with cream and sugar. 


One pint sweet cream, I pint ripe strawberries, hulled, f 
cup sugar, whites of 2 eggs. Mash the berries, put them 
through a sieve, add the sugar. Put the cream in whip- 
churn, if you have one, or into a pitcher holding a quart or 
more. Set the cream and the other ingredients in the 
refrigerator, or in a very cold place until they are thoroughly 
cold. Then set the pitcher into a basin of ice-cold water, 
and whip with an egg-beater until the froth begins to rise. 
Add the juice and continue whipping. Have the whites of 
eggs beaten to a stiff froth in a cold room. Add this, and 
whip until the froth ceases to rise. Serve immediately. 

Strawberry Cream. 

Mash the fruit gently ; drain it on a sieve ; when well 
drained (without being pressed) add sugar and cream to 


Tapioca. CREAMS. Syllabub. 

the juice, and if too thick, a little milk ; whisk it in a bowl, 
and as the froth rises lay it on a sieve ; when no more will 
rise, put the cream in a dish and lay the froth upon it. 


Soak i cup tapioca in two cups milk over night. In the 
morning add beaten yolks of 3 eggs and boil in I quart 
milk ; add a little salt. When at boiling heat, sweeten and 
flavor. Then stir in the beaten whites of the eggs lightly. 

Eaten cold. 


Half box gelatine soaked in I quart milk I hour. Set on 
the fire, add the yolks of 3 eggs, beaten with I cup sugar. 
Heat to boiling, flavor with i teaspoon vanilla and turn 

into a mold. 


One pint sweet cream, i ounce gelatine, 3 tablespoons 
sugar. Dissolve the gelatine in warm water. Whip the 
cream to a stiff froth. Pour the gelatine in, while whipping. 
Sugar and flavoring should be with the cream. Pour into 

a mold. 


Take a pint of cream, 2 tablespoons sugar, flavor with ^ 
teaspoon lemon extract, and whip with an egg-whip. Stop 
for a minute, and remove the froth with a spoon to a sieve. 
Repeat, and stop again, to remove the froth, until all has 
set that can be raised. Set the sieve in a cool place until 
the whipped cream is wanted. Use it for Charlotte Russe, 

or Vienna coffee. 


Put i pint cream in a custard-kettle. Stir it one way 
gently until it thickens, and add, while stirring, 4 table- 
spoons powdered sugar, juice of 2 lemons, grated rind of I 
lemon, and the stiffly-beaten whites of 2 eggs. Serve in 
glasses, and leave some of the syllabub to whisk into froth 
for tops of glasses. 


Baked. CUSTARDS. Floating Island. 




When floating island or custard, through neglect or by 
accident, has been cooked too long and curdles, take a bowl 
full at a time and beat with patent egg-beater, and you will 
never know it had been curdled. 


Three pints milk, 6 eggs, well beaten, pinch of salt, sugar 
and flavor to taste. Mix together and pour into cups, and 
set in a baking-pan of boiling water, to reach to the top of 
the custard, if possible. As soon as done, set cups in a 
pan of cold water. They will be firm and not watery. 
The custard may be baked in one large dish, if preferred. 

[Custards are very nice set in a steamer and cooked in 

cups. ED.] 


Miss Bertie Cooper, Rectorville, Ky. 

One gallon sweet milk, 10 eggs. Beat separately. Add 
a small quantity of the whites to the yolks. Put the milk 
on to cook. When it comes to a scald, put the remainder 
of the whites on top, and cook slightly. Skim off, and stir 
into the milk, gradually, the yolks and \\ cups sugar and I 
teaspoon vanilla. When cooked pour out quickly. When 
cool, put the whites on top. 


One quart milk, 4 beaten eggs, 5 tablespoons grated 
chocolate, I cup sugar. Mix well, pour into custard-cups. 
Set in a pan of water and bake until done. 


One quart sweet milk put over hot water to heat. Whites 
of 6 eggs beaten stiff and laid on the milk until cooked. 

2 9 5 

Snow. CUSTARDS. Charlotte Russe. 

Remove to a platter. Beat the yolks with 3 tablespoons 
sugar. Pour hot milk over them, instead of putting the 
eggs into the milk, and there will be no danger of the 
milk curdling. Flavor to suit. Stir till cooked through. 
Turn into custard-dish. A silver spoon in the glass dish 
will prevent its breaking. Put the whites on top, and 
serve with a bit of jelly on each dish at table. 


Mrs. Coulson, Ennis, Texas. 

Squeeze I large lemon, grate the rind, add 2\ tups water. 
Rub 2 tablespoons corn starch smooth in part of the water. 
Beat 3 eggs. Mix all together, and cook in custard-kettle. 
Sweeten to suit the taste. Put in tumblers to cool. If pre- 
ferred the whites may be beaten separately and added last. 


Mrs. Lizzie A. Walter, Louisville, Ky. 

Beat 8 eggs, leaving out the whites of 4. Add a quart of 
milk and 5 tablespoons sugar. Set the dish in a pan of hot 
water in the oven, and bake. Let cool. Beat the 4 whites to 
a stiff froth, add I cup pulverized sugar and a teaspoon 
lemon juice. Put over the -top in heaps, but do not let them 
touch each other. 


One pint finely-mashed sweet potatoes, 2 beaten eggs, I 
tablespoon butter, \ cup milk, \ cup syrup (more or less tq 
suit the taste). Flavor with nutmeg. Beat all well together 
and bake in a deep pie-pan, with bottom crust. 


One pint cream whipped light, \ ounce gelatine dissolved 
in i gill hot milk, 2 whites of eggs well beaten, I small cup 
pulverized sugar. Flavor with \ teaspoon each of bitter 
almond and vanilla. Mix the cream, eggs and sugar, and 
let get quite cold before adding the gelatine and milk. 
Line the mold with slices of sponge cake, or lady fingers, 
and fill with the mixture. Set upon the ice to cool 


Meringue. CUSTARDS. Apple Island. 


Mrs. J. R. Jackson, Centerville, Miss. 

Put alternate layers of sponge cake slices and raisins in a 
glass custard-bowl. When nearly full pour over it a rich 
boiled custard with icing on top. Ornament with jelly. 


Author's Recipe. 

Use plain blanc mange recipe on corn starch package. 
Take half a.dozen or a dozen egg shells and fill with the 
blanc mange while warm. When cold, take out of the shells 
and place in a glass dish. Cut small strips of lemon 
peel and boil in a clear syrup till tender. Place them around 
the egg-forms, and make a boiled custard and pour over all. 
(Very pretty and very good.) 


Stew tart cooking apples until smooth and soft. Sweeten 
as for the table. Then take the whites of eggs 3 or 4 to a 
quart of sauce and beat to a stiff froth ; add J cup sugar 
and beat again. Spread over the apples in the dish in which it 
is to be served, in little mounds heaped up. Serve cold, 
with cream. 


Two tablespoons corn starch, 3 tablespoons sugar, 3 cups 
milk, 2 eggs, and pinch of salt. Heat the milk to boiling, 
stir in the corn starch, dissolved in 3 tablespoons of water, 
add the beaten yolks of the eggs, sugar, and salt. Cook 3 
to 5 minutes, pour into a pudding-dish, cover with a frost- 
ing made of the beaten whites and J cup sugar. Brown in 
the oven. Dot with jelly when serving. 


Mrs. Kate Toncray, Tollesboro, Ky. 

Pare and stew 10 large apples. Put through a sieve, add 
I cup pulverized sugar and whites of 4 eggs beaten to a 
stiff froth. Mix well. Take 3 pints milk, and heat to 
boiling. Stir in the well-beaten yolks of 4 eggs and I cup 


Trifle. CUSTARDS. . Snow Ball. 

sugar, and I teaspoon lemon. In 5 minutes pour the cus- 
tard over the apples in a custard-bowl. 


A pint of strawberries or any other fresh fruit in a glass 
dish. Sprinkle with sugar. Put a layer of macaroons over 
them. Pour over a custard made of one quart fresh milk, 
yolks of 8 eggs, i cup sugar, scalding hot. When cold, 
place the beaten whites with half a cup of sugar on top, or 
whipped cream may be used instead. Dots of currant jelly 
improve the looks of it. 


Miss Betlie Hill, Maysville, Ky. 

One cup rice boiled in water until soft. Add a pint of 
milk, little salt, 2 eggs, well beaten, J cup sugar, tablespoon 
of flour mixed with cold milk ; flavoring. Boil up. Eat 
cold or warm. It does not require sauce, and is much nicei 
than one would think. 


Take a cup of raw rice and a cup of raisins ; put together 
in a bag, tie securely, leaving plenty of room to swell. Boil 
about 2 hours in water salted a little. To be sliced and 
eaten with cream and sugar. Or, put the rice and raisins 
into 4 cups water, and steam I hour, and serve with any 
sweet sauce. 


Boil rice and mold it in cups. Serve each person with I 
ball in a saucer, and pour over it I or 2 spoons of very sweet 
cranberry sauce. 


Mold simple boiled rice in tea-cups. When turned out, 
serve with cream and sugar, or boiled custard. A pretty 
effect is obtained by using red sugar-sand to sweeten the 
rice before molding. Call it "red rice." 


Artificial Honey. CUSTARDS. Lemon Butter. 


Boil rice in a double boiler in water until soft. Then 
pour in milk, and mold in cups or balls. Then take blanched 
almonds, cut in halves, and stick around in the rice. Serve 
with cream sauce, or plain cream and sugar. 


Five pounds nice brown sugar, 3 cups water, 20 grains 
cream tartar, 5 drops essence peppermint, i^ pounds honey. 
Dissolve the sugar in water slowly; skim. Dissolve 
cream of tartar in a little warm water, and add. Stir well ; 
add the honey already heated to boiling. Add the essence, 

stir, let cool. 


One pound lump sugar, 4 whole eggs, and 2 yolks extra, 
juice of 4 lemons, grated rind of 2, 3 tablespoons butter. 
Stir altogether until thoroughly incorporated, and heat over 
a slow fire. Put into jars, cover with paper, and keep with 
canned fruit. Use for tarts and layer cakes. 


Take 6 well-beaten eggs, 3 lemons, grated rind, I pound 
white sugar, 2 ounces butter. Add juice of lemons, stir 
butter and sugar to a cream, then add all but the eggs, and 
simmer. When hot, turn in the eggs, stir quickly for five 
minutes and take from the fire, setting in a pan of cold 
water. Very nice for jelly cake and will keep months. 


Mrs. J. W. Smith. 

Two pints white sugar, ii pints water, 3 eggs well-beaten, 
lump of butter size of a hickory-nut, 2 tablespoons corn 
starch, juice of 2 lemons, rind of I. Cook in a dish set over 
boiling water. Stir often to keep it smooth. Use as sauce, 
filling for tarts, or as jelly for layer ctike. 




N the absence of a regular freezer, a covered 
tin pail will answer very well. It should be 
set in a wooden pail enough larger than 
itself to allow plenty of room for the ice 
and salt. The inner vessel should be about 
the same depth as the outer. If it is much 
less, there is great danger of the salt water entering it 
as the ice dissolves and the vessel descends. Another 
reason, the mixture can be more easily stirred if the 
vessel rests on a solid foundation. To prepare the ice, 
put it in an old gunny-sack, and pound with a hatchet 
or mallet into lumps about the size of hickory-nuts. 
Have the freezer or pail set firmly in the center of 
the tub or bucket. Fasten .the cover on very securely. 
Allow about 2 pounds of coarse salt to 6 pounds of ice. 
Put a 3-inch layer of ice at the bottom, then a thick 
layer of salt, until the tub is filled to the top of the 
freezer, with salt for top layer. Pack firmly. Turn the 
freezer or pail briskly for 5 minutes. Then brush the 
salt carefully from the cover ; take it off. Stir the 
cream thoroughly from bottom and sides. Replace the 
cover. Turn again for 5 minutes. The accumulated 
water must be dipped out, if there is no hole in the 
bottom of the tub. Add more ice and salt as fast as 
needed. As the cream forms into consistence, scrape 


Lemon. ICE .CREAM. Vanilla. 

it from the sides and beat very hard, for on this 
depends the smoothness of the cream. Continue the 
turning until the cream is well set. If it is to be 
served from the freezer, pour off all the water, fill up 
with ice, putting a layer on top of the cover, spread 
a woolen blanket, or double a piece of carpet over, 
and set aside till wanted. If it is to be molded, fill 
the molds, pressing it in very firmly when the cream 
is well frozen. Pack the molds in ice and salt until 
wanted. Dip them in hot water for an instant, and 
turn out. Mold half or three-quarters of an hour before 


Two gallons fresh milk, 4 pounds sugar, 6 eggs, well-beaten, 
2 tablespoons lemon extract. Mix together and freeze. 

Lemon Ice Cream. 

One quart of cream, juice and grated rind of I lemon, I 
cup white sugar ; mix and freeze. 


Two gallons fresh milk, 4 pounds sugar, 6 eggs, well 
beaten, 2 tablespoons vanilla. Mix together and freeze. 

Vanilla Ice Cream. 

One quart cream, \ pound sugar (granulated), half a 
vanilla bean. Boil half the cream with the sugar and bean, 
then add the rest of the cream. Cool and strain. If ex- 
tract of vanilla is used, do not boil it, but put in when ready 
to freeze. Make it strong with flavoring, as it loses strength 
by freezing. 


Two gallons fresh milk, 4 pounds sugar, 6 eggs, well 
beaten, I cup grated chocolate. Dissolve the chocolate in 
warm milk. Then mix together and freeze. Eggs may be 
dispensed with if cream is used instead of milk. Add 2 
tablespoons vanilla, if liked. 

Chocolate. ICE CREAM. Coffee. 

Chocolate Ice Cream. 

Allow i tablespoon of grated chocolate dissolved in warm 
milk and f cup nice brown sugar to every quart of cream. 
Put in when partly frozen. 


Take a good-sized cocoanut, pare and grate very fine. 
Mix with i cup sugar and I quart sweet cream. Freeze, 
and during the freezing process stir well from the bottom 
and sides. 


To every pint of fruit-juice, allow a pint of sweet cream. 
The quantity of sugar will depend upon the acidity of the 
fruit used. Consult other recipes in this chapter for a guide. 
Apples, peaches, pears, pine-apples, quinces, etc., should be 
pared and grated. Small fruits, such as currants, raspber- 
ries, or strawberries, should be mashed and put through a 
sieve. After sweetening with powdered sugar, and stirring 
thoroughly, let it stand until the cream is whipped 2 or 3 
minutes. Put together and then whip the mixture for 5 
minutes. Put into the freezer, stirring it from the bottom 
and sides 2 or 3 times during the freezing process. 


Scald a pint of milk with 4 tablespoons good tea. Take 
off, and in about 5 minutes strain into a pint of cold cream. 
Heat the mixture to scalding, and mix with it 4 well-beaten 
eggs and 2 cups sugar. Mix thoroughly, let it cool, and 



Two quarts cream, i pint milk, 4 eggs, 2 tablespoons 
arrowroot, 2 cups strong liquid coffee, 4 cups white sugar. 
Mix the arrowroot in \ cup cold milk, and add to the well- 
beaten eggs. Pour over this mixture a pint of milk, heated 
to boiling. Let cool and add the cream. Put into the 
freezer. Stir thoroughly. When partly frozen, add the 
coffee. Beat well, and freeze. 


Lemon. SHERBETS. Strawberry. 


Mrs. S. C. Kelley, Mexico, Mo. 

Dissolve i box of gelatine in a pint of warmed milk. 
Beat very light the yolks of 8 eggs ; add 2 large cups sugar. 
After mixing the eggs and sugar thoroughly, add the 
warmed milk. Then put in J gallon of cream, stirring all 
the time to prevent the gelatine from congealing. Flavor 
with vanilla, pour into the freezer, and freeze quickly. It is 
best to dissolve the gelatine in enough boiling water to 
cover it before using the milk. The whites of eggs are not 




Six lemons, ij pounds sugar, I pint good, fresh cream, 
whites of 6 eggs, 2 quarts water, boiling. Pour the 
water over the rinds of the lemons. Mix the sugar with 
the juice of the lemons. Add the water drained from the 
lemon peelings. Put into a freezer. When it begins to 
freeze, pour in the cream, beaten whites of eggs, stir well, and 



Miss Phebe Wood, Maysville, Ky. 

For a gallon freezer, take I quart granulated sugar and I 
quart water. Boil to a thick syrup and pour it boiling hot 
over I can of grated or finely-chopped pine-apple. Add 
the juice and pulp of 4 lemons, and put into the freezer. 
Add the stiffly-beaten whites of 3 eggs, fill up with cold 
water, lacking a quart. That leaves room enough to freeze. 
Be sure and turn the freezer until it is filled. 


One quart strawberries, 3 pints water, I lemon the juice 
only i tablespoon orange-flower water, | pound white 


Currant. WATER ICES. . Orange. 

sugar. The strawberries should be fresh and ripe. Crush 
to a smooth paste, add the rest of the ingredients (except 
the sugar) and let it stand 3 hours. Strain over the sugar, 
squeezing the cloth hard, stir until the sugar is dissolved, 
strain again, and set in ice for 2 hours or more before you 
use it. 




Six cups water, 4^ cups sugar, boiled 20 minutes. Skim 
well, and add 2 cups currant-juice. Put into a freezer and 
when partly congealed add stiffly-beaten whites of 5 eggs, 
stir in, and finish. 


Two cups lemon-juice, 4 cups sugar, 4 cups water. Put 
into a freezer and when it begins to congeal add whites of 
4 e gg s beaten to a froth. If the water is poured over 3 or 
4 of the lemon rinds and allowed to stand for an hour be- 
forehand, it adds to the flavor. The rinds should then be 


Lemon Ice. 

Make a rich lemonade. Strain into the freezer. Then 
add the beaten whites of 2 eggs to I quart. Freeze. 


Steep the rinds of 6 oranges in I quart of water in one 
vessel, while you make a syrup of 2 cups of sugar boiled 
with \ cup water for 15 minutes in another vessel. Skim 
the syrup, strain the water from the orange peel, put the 
syrup and water together, let cool, add the juice of the 
oranges, and freeze. The juice of a lemon added gives a 
more decided flavor. If the orange peel taste seems too 
strong, use only part of it, and clear water for the balance. 


Pine-Apple. WATER ICES. Watermelon. 

Orange Ice. 

Eight oranges, I pound sugar, I lemon, i quart and a cup 
of water. Make a syrup of the sugar and water, skim it 
well, cool, add the juice of the oranges. Boil up the rinds 
and strain the water into the syrup, and add the juice and 
rind of a lemon same way. Freeze. 


Peel and pound a pine-apple and put through a sieve. 
Add the juice of I or 2 lemons with \ cup of water and 
sugar to taste. Strain into the freezer. 


Three quarts berry juice, I quart water, 2 pounds white 
sugar. Loaf sugar is best. Put into the freezer, and, as 
soon as it begins to congeal, stir in the whites of 6 eggs 
beaten to a stiff froth. Use more sugar if not sufficiently 
sweet, and finish freezing. 


Allow a pound of sugar to a quart of berries. Let stand 
an hour or two. Put through a strainer, add an equal 
quantity of water, and, when partly frozen, add the stiffly- 
beaten whites of 3 eggs to each quart of the mixture. 


Take a very ripe and very red melon. Save all the 
water and scrape the red pulp fine. Add water, being care- 
ful to have melon enough for a strong flavor. Use I pound 
of sugar to a gallon. Put into a freezer, and, as soon as it 
begins to freeze, add the well-beaten whites of 3 eggs to a 
gallon. Stir often and very thoroughly from the bottom 
while freezing. If liked sweeter, use more sugar. It will 
depend largely upon the ripeness and quality of the melon. 



POPULAR mixture of coffee for boarding- 
houses is one-fourth Java, one-fourth chic- 
ory, and one-half Rio, mixed and ground 
together. Very good, too. The chief effect 
of chicory is to darken the color. The coffee 
we prefer in our family is equal parts of Old 
Government Java and Mocha, but a very delightful mixture 
is equal parts of Java, Mocha, and Rio. [But I have been 
informed by reputable dealers that there is scarcely any 
Mocha imported to this country now, so we probably get it 
only in name. ED.] 


Look the coffee berry over, picking out imperfect kernels 
and bits of grit. Wash and dry it and put only a pound or 
two into a dripping-pan for one browning. The oven should 
be hot, but not hot enough to scorch. A very few burnt 
grains ground up would spoil the flavor of the whole. 
Watch very carefully and stir thoroughly from the outer 
edges to the center, and vice versa. The color of browned 
coffee must not be yellow, but a very decided brown not 
very dark, however. When partly cool, stir a beaten egg into 
it, touching every kernel, if possible. This will clarify the 
coffee when prepared for drinking. Some prefer the use 
of butter, in which case stir a small lump among the kernels 
while hot. Coffee may be browned in a spider on the 
stove as well as in the oven. A patent coffee-roaster is 
very convenient and quite a luxury for the kitchen. Do 


The Coffee- Pot. COFFEE. Coffee with Egg. 

not grind coffee into a fine powder, but only to medium fine- 
ness. And do not grind in quantities only as needed. Keep 


A very important factor in coffee-making is the coffee- 
pot. It must be kept clean and to do this it must be 
emptied and washed thoroughly after every time of using. 
This applies to any coffee-pot in use, whether the common 
tin or the drippers. It is a good plan occasionally to put a 
teaspoon of common saleratus in the pot with half a pint 
or more of water and let it boil briskly for 15 or 20 minutes. 
The incrustation will be loosened and a thorough cleansing 


It is now generally conceded that coffee is better not to 
be boiled. A thorough steeping will draw out the strength 
as effectually as boiling. If allowed to boil, the tannic acid 
is extracted, and it becomes bitter and , unhealthy. By 
combining with the milk, an indigestible substance is 
formed in the stomach. To keep the aroma in the coffee- 
pot, the spout should be stopped up, either with a cover to 
fit, or a cloth-stopper. 

Put the required amount of coffe in the coffee-pot, and 
pour over it a cup of boiling water. Let steep about 5 
minutes on the back of the stove ; then fill up with boiling 
water. Let stand 5 or 10 minutes. Pour in J cup of cold 
water to settle it, unless an egg-shell is used. Half an egg- 
shell, crushed, to a quart of coffee will settle it nicely. 


A tablespoon of ground coffee for one person, 3 table- 
spoons are sufficient for 4 persons. Take egg enough to 
moisten the coffee, put in a pinch of salt. Pour on a cup of 
cold water. Set on the hot stove. When it comes to a 
boil, fill witn boiling water and set back where it cannot 


Steamed COFFEE. 

boil. If it is necessary to use cold water to settle coffee, 
take a little in a cup at a considerable height above the 
coffee-pot, and pour it in. A little salt is always good. 


John McGovern, Chicago. 

Have a tinner make an inside can something like a 
"plug hat," with a rim to fit any common, large coffee-pot. 
On the inside of the pot, a little below the top, set out 4 
tin shoulders to catch the rim of the inside can as it is set 
down into the pot. The bottom of the inside can should 
almost touch the bottom of the pot. Put the required 
amount of coffee and water in this inside can. Then hang 
the can in about 3 inches of boiling water in the pot. It 
will cook in about 20 minutes, the same as oatmeal is cooked, 
and is done when the grounds sink. 


Mrs. M. W. Callahan, Tangipahoa, La. 

Provide yourself with a dripper. It should be f the size 
of the coffee-pot, to drip well. Put the amount of ground 
coffee required in the bottom of the dripper. Be sure that 
the water is actually boiling, and do not pour on the water 
until you are ready to serve it. Scald the coffee-pot, and 
pour in the upper part of the dripper as many cups of 
water as you wish coffee, and an extra half cup. See that 
the dripper fits tightly, and has a tight cover. Never let the 
coffee boil, and do not let it stand and get cold. Stir 'sugar 
and cream well together in the cup, and pour in the coffee. 
Do not stir after the coffee is in the cup, as it makes it stale. 


Put the ground coffee into flannel bags, each holding half 
a pound, and sew up tightly. When the first coffee is 
wanted, put as much water in a wash-boiler as will be re- 
quired ; when it boils throw in a couple of the bags and 
steep long enough to extract the strengh. Then take out. 
Add boiling water when necessary, and throw in another 


Vienna Coffee. COFFEE TEA. Cream Substitute. 

bag, letting it remain as before. In this way, by removing 
the old and adding the new, the beverage will be kept 
aromatic as well as strong, and the bitterness of long-boiled 
coffee prevented. 


Make your coffee in your usual way. Put one quart of 
cream into an oatmeal cooker, or, if you have none, into a 
pitcher in a kettle of boiling water. Keep the water boil- 
ing. Beat the white of an egg to a froth, put with it 3 table- 
spoons cold milk, mix well and add to the cream after re- 
moving from the fire. Stir briskly for a minute and serve 
in the coffee cups with the coffee. 


Wash and roast until the kernel is very brown. Grind it 
and steep as other coffee. 


Take fresh milk, put it in an oatmeal cooker, or in a pail 
set in a kettle of boiling water. Let cook a long time, 
stirring often until it becomes rich and creamy. The yolk 
of an egg beaten well, and a pint of the heated milk poured 
over it gives it a still richer consistence. 


" Except the water boiling be, 
Filling the tea-pot spoils the tea." 

After scalding the tea-pot, put in a teaspoon of tea for 
one person, but of course a less proportion if for many per- 
sons. Pour less than a cup of actually boiling and freshly- 
boiled water on. Let steep on the back of the stove a short 
time, and fill up the required amount with boiling water. 
Japan tea is better for families whose meals are kept wait- 
ing. Its flavor is not injured by long standing as much as 
many other teas. If tea boils, the tannic acid is extracted 
and acts with very bad effects on the coats of the stomach. 
Black tea is generally regarded as wholesome. It should 
steep 10 or 15 minutes; green tea, about 3 minutes. 


Freezing Mixture. TEA CHOCOLATE COCOA. Soda-Water. 


It is better to put the tea in cold water and set in the ice- 
box the morning of the day it is to be used for supper. 
The flavor is better than if steeped in hot water. 


Scrape fine about one square of a cake, add it to an equal 
quantity of sugar; put these into a pint of boiling milk and 
water (half and half) and stir constantly for 2 or 3 minutes. 
Some prefer boiling TO minutes. 


Allow about T egg to 2 cups. Prepare this chocolate 
as above, and the last thing pour it over the well-beaten 
yolks of the eggs, and at the same time have the whites 
beaten to a stiff froth and put a little on top of each cup 
(very hot) and serve. 


Put a teaspoon of the powder into a breakfast cup, add a 
tablespoon of boiling water and mix thoroughly. Then 
add equal parts of boiling water and boiled milk, and 
sweeten to taste. Let it boil a couple of minutes. 


Take about 2 ounces of the shells and pour 3 pints of 
boiling water over them. Boil rapidly half an hour. Serve 
like coffee. 


Put 2 ounces refined niter in a stone bottle. Nearly nil 
the bottle with hot water (spring water if you can get it). 
Cork the bottle and let it down in a well or cistern. In 2 
or 3 hours it will be frozen and the bottle must be broken. 
Leave room at the top for about a pint. 


One quart water, 2 pounds white sugar, I oimce tartaric 
acid, J ounce essence, 2 lemons, 2 eggs beaten, i tablespoon 


Cream Nectar. SUMMER DRINKS. Ginger Pop. 

flour. Strain, bottle, and shake every day for a week. 
When you wish a glass of soda-water, take ^ cream, f 
water, and add } 2 teaspoon stfda ; stir, and drink immedi- 
ately. You can use sassafras, winter-green, or any other 
essence you wish. Some prefer to flavor it to taste when 
preparing it to drink. Be sure to use bicarbonate of soda, 
and buy it of a druggist. 


Three pounds white sugar, 2 ounces tartaric acid, put into 
a quart of soft water over night. Then stir in the well- 
beaten whites of 3 eggs. Use any flavoring desired. Bot- 
tle, and keep in a cool place. Three tablespoons of it to I 
glass ice-water. Soda enough to make it effervesce. After 
one trial you can determine the amount of soda. The soda 
should be put into the water first. 


Mrs. Hattie A. Harris, Clinton, Iowa. 

It is an effervescent drink, and much pleasanter, I think, 
than soda-water. Two ounces tartaric acid, 2 pounds white 
sugar, juice of I lemon, 3 pints water ; boil together 5 min- 
utes ; when nearly cold, add, after beating together, the 
whites of 3 eggs, \ cup flour, and \ ounce of essence of 
winter-green. Some other essence may be used if preferred. 
After being well mixed, bottle and keep in a cool place. 
For a drink of this, take 2 tablespoons of the syrup to I tum- 
bler of water, and add \ teaspoon soda. Drink quickly. 


Ten gallons water, 15 pounds loaf sugar, whites of 6 
eggs well beaten and strained ; mix all together, then boil 
and skim. Put in \ pound of ginger, boil 20 minutes. 
When cool, put in the juice and rind of 4 or 5 lemons, 
also 2 tablespoons of good yeast, stir well together, bottle 
and cork tight. 

Water, 5.3 gallons ; ginger root, bruised, \ pound ; tartaric 

Grape Cordial. SUMMER DRINKS. Lemonade 

acid, ^ ounce ; white sugar, 2\ pounds ; whites of 3 eggs, 
well beaten ; lemon oil, I teaspoon ; yeast, I gill. Boil 
the root for 30 minutes in*i gallon of the water, strain off 
and put the oil in while hot. Then let cool and mix all 
together. Make over night, and in the morning skim and 
bottle, keeping out sediment. 


Juice of 2 pounds grapes, 3 tablespoons sugar, and I 
cup cold water. Drink with ice. 


The proportion is 2\ pounds honey to a gallon of warm 
water. When the honey is completely incorporated with 
the water, pour into a cask. When fermented and clear, 
bottle and cork tightly. A wholesome drink, if properly 



One cup vinegar, I tablespoon ginger, 3 tablespoons sugar, 

and i quart water. 


Two ounces cream of tartar, juice and rind of 2 lemons ; 
put into a stone jar, pour over it 7 quarts boiling water, stir 
and cover closely ; when cold, sweeten to taste, strain and 



One large lemon will make four good glasses. Peel the 
lemon. Cut it in two. Put half at a time in the lemon- 
squeezer, squeeze gently into the pitcher, open the squeezer 
and turn the piece over, squeeze again, then drop the entire 
pulp into the pitcher. Stir in 4 tablespoons sugar and mix 
thoroughly with the juice and pulp. Add a quart of water 
and stir well together. If made for a company and it is 
desired to have it look very clear, remove carefully all of 
the pulp and seeds, after squeezing, and take a firm whole 
lemon with the peeling on and slice just as thin as possible 
into the lemonade. 


Mead. SUMMER DRINKS. Mixed Syrups. 


One pound white sugar, I ounce tartaric acid, A ounce 
essence of lemon. Mix and dry. One tablespoon in a 
glass of water makes a very good substitute for fresh 


Twelve lemons, squeeze the juice. Boil the pulp in a 
pint of water. Add this to the juice and to each pint add a 
pound of sugar. Boif 10 minutes. Seal up. Use I table- 
spoon to a glass of water. 


Ten gallons water, 6 peeled lemons sliced, J pound ginger, 
J pound cream of tartar. 3 grated nutmegs. Boil all to- 
gether, When cool enough, add the beaten whites of 6 
eggs and J pint yeast, and let it ferment 12 hours. Strain 
and bottle. It is better after standing a day or two. 


To each pint of lemon-juice allow ij pounds of sugar. 
Let boil together gently for 10 minutes ; then seal up in 
bottles or jars! 


Quarter pound tartaric acid, 3 pounds brown sugar, 3 
quarts boiling water, I ounce sassafras essence, J ounce 
extract sarsaparilla. 


Mix raspberries and cherries, currants and raspberries, 
and make syrups. Or add lemon-juice to pine-apple syrup, 
or to any other preferred. Or any fruit-juice may be 
mixed with any other juice or syrup. 


One quart cider. Boil .* and put in a handful of cloves. 
Beat 6 eggs in a vessel and add sugar ..^ make very sweet. 
When beaten very light, pour the boiling cider over the 
eggs, and stir well and pour back and forth from one vessel 
to the other till it is all frothy. Serve warm in glasses. 


Orgeat. SUMMER DRINKS. Nectar. 


Put a piece of stick cinnamon in a quart of milk. Boil, 
let cool, remove the cinnamon. Blanch and reduce to a 
paste 4 ounces sweet almonds. Mix with the milk, add 
J cup sugar (more or less according to taste), let boil 3 to 
5 minutes. Strain through a fine strainer or sieve, and serve 
in glasses, either warm or cold. 


Take fully ripe fruit, and thin skinned if you can get them. 
Squeeze juice through a sieve and add a pound of sugar to 
every pint. Boil slowly for 10 minutes. Skim carefully. 
Bottle when cold. Two or three spoons of this in a glass 
of ice water in summer is refreshing. It may also be used 
with melted butter for pudding-sauce. 


Pare and cut the pine-apples in pieces and add a quart of 
water to 3 pounds. Boil till very soft. Mash and strain. 
To a pint of this juice add a pound of sugar. Boil to a 
rich syrup, and cork tightly. 


Pour over 2 quarts of ripe raspberries I quart vinegar. 
Let stand till the fruit ferments ; strain, and to every pint 
of juice add | pound of loaf sugar. Simmer 20 minutes. 
Bottle while hot. 


Take cider at the exact stage in which you wish it kept, 
heat it to boiling, skim very carefully, pour into bottles, jugs, 
or glass jars, and seal up hot. 


Two pounds loaf sugar, 3 pints water, juice of ^ lemon, 2 
ounces tartaric acid. Boil all 5 minutes. When nearly 

cool, add the whites of 3 eggs well beaten and ^ cup flour. 

Syrup of Vinegar. SUMMER DRINKS. Strawberry Syrup. 


Four quarts vinegar and 2 pounds sugar boiled until a 
clear syrup. Bottle it. One or 2 tablespoons to a glass of 
water is an agreeable beverage. 


Mash the grapes, press out the juice. Sweeten to suit the 
taste. Fill the bottles, set them on a thin board or founda- 
tion of some sort in a boiler, fill to the neck of the bottles 
with water, bring it to a boil and let it boil for 10 minutes. 
Then to make up the loss by settling and evaporation, use 
one bottle to fill the rest from, and cork up while hot. 

Unfermented Wine. 

Pick grapes from the stems. Weigh them. Put in a 
porcelain kettle with very little water (to keep from burn- 
ing). Cook until stones and pulp separate. Press and strain 
through a thick cloth, return to the kettle and add 3 pounds 
sugar to every 10 pounds of grapes. Heat to simmering, 
bottle hot and seal. 


A quart of unfermented wine, 2 quarts water, with \ 
lemon, sugar, and cracked ice is a drink that has no head- 
aches in it.^ 


Heat the berries until soft, then strain the juice. Allow 
a pound of sugar to each pint. Let come to a boil ; skim, 
then boil gently 10 minutes, and seal up. 



r RESH FRUITS, if thoroughly ripe, are more palat- 
able and more healthful than if cooked They 
should be looked over and sorted carefully. 
Reserve the finest for immediate table use, 
and put aside the bruised and imperfect to 
be cooked as soon as possible. Unless pos- 
itive decay has set in, they may be stewed, and utilized 

in various ways. 


Do not wash unless absolutely necessary. If it is neces- 
sary, take a few at a time before hulling, put into a basin of 
water, and press down till they look clean ; then the 
remainder, and then remove the hulls. Sprinkle with sugar 
just before serving. Serve with cream that has been on ice. 


After looking over carefully (they are very apt to have 
small worms lurking in their midst), put into a preserve or 
berry-dish. Do not wash unless absolutely necessary. It 
is just as well to serve without sugar, as many persons like 
them with very little, or none at all. The cream and sugar 
may be passed at table. 


Serve the same as raspberries. 


A very delicate dish is made by pouring sweetened cream 
over sliced bananas ; or they may be served whole. 

Cocoanut. FRESH FRUITS. Grapes, 


Grate a cocoanut into a preserve-dish, and serve with 
cream or jelly, or both. 


Pare and cut in halves. Remove the pits. To preserve 
their freshness, prepare them just before serving. Sprinkle 
with powdered sugar. Ornament the edges of the dish 
with fresh peach-leaves, if they can be had. Serve in sauce- 
dishes, and pass the cream around in a pitcher. 


Wipe very clean, and serve in a fruit-dish, either alone or 
with other fruit. The Bartlett is the best. 


Fine, smoothed-skinned apples rubbed with a cloth till 
bright and glossy are ornamental to any fruit-dish, as well 
as a nice accompainment to a breakfast or dessert. 


Cut the peel in quarters from the stem halfway down- 
ward. Turn it outward, leaving the white orange in a 
little cap, from which it is easily taken. A pile of oranges 
prepared in this way makes a very handsome center-piece. 


A layer of peeled .and sliced oranges sprinkled with 
sugar. Alternate with a layer of thin slices of bananas 
sprinkled lightly with sugar. Set on ice. 


Peel and slice oranges and place in alternate layers with 
pine-apple also peeled and sliced. Sprinkle each layer 
with sugar and grated cocoanut. The pine-apple may be 



It is not necessary to dwell upon the beauty of grapes as 
a center-piece on a table, or their healthfulness and luscious- 



ness. They can scarcely be served too often in their sea- 
son. The Malaga, Delaware, and Concord are the favorites. 


Pick off full clusters, removing every bruised one. Dip 
the end of the stem in sealing-wax, then wrap each bunch 
in tissue paper and pack in boxes in layers, with paper 
between. Close up the box and keep in a cool, dry room, 
and you are sure of success. 

The London layers are the finest brand for the table. 


Take large ripe cherries, apricots, plums, or grapes ; if 
cherries, cut off half the stem ; have in one dish some whites 
of eggs, well beaten, and in another some powdered sugar; 
take the fruit singly, and roll first in the egg and then in the 
sugar ; lay them on a sheet of white paper, in a sieve, and 
set it on top of the stove or near the fire until the icing 


Dip whole stems of currants into beaten whites of eggs. 
Sift white sugar over them. Set near the stove to harden. 


Melons are appropriate breakfast dishes as a first course, 
although they may be used as desserts at dinner with equal 
propriety. Do not serve melons with fruits. They should 
be fresh when eaten. In selecting, notice the stem if still 
on. If it breaks easily and looks fresh, it is a good indica- 
tion of the ripeness and freshness of the melon. But if it 
adheres with the firmness of a rock the melon is unripe. 
Cantaloupes, muskmelons, and nutmegs are very similar. 


Keep on jce till wanted. Put on a large platter and serve 
in crosswise slices, leaving the rind on. 

Almonds. . CANNED FRUITS. Sealing-Wax. . 


Cut in lengthwise sections from the stem down, being 
careful to avoid giving the seeds with the melon. Pepper, 
salt, and sugar are used singly or collectively by different 


The long Jordan almonds and the broad Valencia almonds 
are most valued in commerce. A nut-cracker should be 
placed in the dish, unless the nuts are cracked beforehand. 


By the canning process, fruits are preserved by simply 
cooking them and sealing up immediately, boiling hot, in air- 
tight glass jars or tin cans. They will keep almost any 
length of time and retain their flavor in a remarkable 

In our chapter on Fruits, the terms can and jar are used 

In very small families, it is a good plan to use pint jars. 
If the rubber rings become hard and inflexible, put them in 
water and ammonia I part of the former to 2 of the latter 
and let stay half an hour. It will restore their elasticity. 

Very small fruit is put up in bottles successfully. The 
corks should fit tightly and be sealed with sealing-wax. 

The proportions for sealing-wax are 8 ounces rosin, i 
ounce beeswax, and less than an ounce (perhaps | of an 
ounce) of beef tallow. Melt slowly and pour over corks or 
in the grooves of covers when well heated through, but not 
boiling hot. It must simply be melted sufficiently to be 
well mixed together. 

When the top of a glass jar refuses to yield to all efforts 
at unscrewing, hold a hot cloth around it, and it will soon 


Canning. CANNED FRUITS. Strawberries. 

succumb. In opening a tin can of fruit, empty the contents 
immediately, even if it is not all to be used at the time. 
Fruit acids in tin are said to produce poisons when exposed 
to the air. 

Tin should not be used for acid fruits. The acid cor- 
rodes it. 

Boiling hot fruit or fruit juices may be poured into glass 
jars without danger of breakage, if the jar is set on a folded 
wet towel during the pouring. A silver spoon put into the 
jar while being filled will also insure it against breaking. 
Some persons use both means at the same time for still fur- 
ther safety. 

The methods I give for canning small fruits are the sim- 
plest I ever saw, and the results are the nearest to fresh 
fruits I ever tasted. It is all fruit with no dilution what- 
ever. Sugar may be omitted if desired, which will lessen 
the expense of canning considerably. One can of this fruit 
is equal to 3 that you buy, and the expense of canning in 
the city is about the same per can as the price at the stores. 


Mrs. F. McKercher, Chicago. 

Look over carefully, and fill your cans, as many as will 
stand in your wash boiler. Put sugar enough in each can to 
sweeten for the table. Pack the jars full, and screw the 
covers on, but do not put on the rubber bands. Put cold 
water in the boiler, nearly to the top of the jars. It is 
safer to stand them on something in the boiler. Pieces of 
berry-boxes answer every purpose. Let the water boil 20 
minutes. Then remove a couple of the jars. Take off the 
covers. The fruit will have settled down some. Fill one up 
from the other. Put on the rubber band and seal up. Then 
take another from the boiler, and fill it up from the same 
jar. If you fill 13 to start with, it will take about 3 of them 
to fill up the other 10 that have settled. After canned 
fruit stands all night, it is safer to use a little wrench to g"Ve 
an extra turn to the cover before putting away fc 


Raspberries. CANNED FRUITS. Pie- Plant 


To can raspberries, blackberries, gooseberries, huckle- 
berries, plums, cherries, grapes, currants, or any small fruits, 
proceed exactly as with strawberries. I should also in- 
clude peaches in this list. 


Put them into bottles and set into a boiler of water and 
proceed as in canning fruit, only the bottles may be filled up 
with boiling water ; after settling, cork up and seal. These 
berries are nearly as good for winter pies as huckleberries. 


Dip a basket of peaches in a vessel of boiling water lor 
a moment. Then dip in cold water. The peeling process 
is very simple after this, as it will slip off very easily. The 
fruit should be ripe and firm, to peel in this manner. Di- 
vide the peaches in halves, remove the pits, and place on 
a plate in a steamer over boiling water. The steamer may 
be half filled. Let steam until a straw will pierce them 
easily. In the meantime prepare a syrup by boiling sugar 
and water in the proportion of a quart of water to a pint 
of sugar. Let boil and skim. Fill the can with peaches. 
Pour the hot syrup over until the can will hold no more. 
Seal immediately. The next day give an extra turn to the 
cover with a wrench for that purpose. 


Peel and cut in halves, or, if preferred, leave whole, 
Steam them as directed for peaches. It will take longer. 
When the syrup is ready, add the pears to it for a moment. 
Then dip them into cans and proceed exactly as with 


Cut in inch pieces and stew with its own weight of sugar 
slowly, until tender. Add only water enough to dissolve 
sugar. Seal up. Can without sugar, if more convenient. 


Pine-Apple. CANNED FRUITS. Pumpkin. 


Mrs. M. Jones, Chicago. 

Pare the pine-apples and cut into inch squares. Allow | 
pound sugar to each pound of prepared fruit. Melt the 
sugar in just water enough to dissolve it. When it comes 
to a boil put in the fruit and cook till tender. Put immedi- 
ately into cans and seal up hot. 


Cut apples up and stew either with or without sugar. 
Seal up as other fruit. 


Miss Genie Westgate, Uniondale, Pa. 

Pour on boiling water to loosen the skin. Peel carefully. 
Put them whole into a saucepan or other vessel and let scald 
through thoroughly. Add a little water if necessary. Seal 
up either in glass or tin. If glass is used, wrap it in paper to 
exclude the light. If simply scalded, they can be served as 
fresh tomatoes, and taste almost as well. Tin is generally 
regarded in better favor than glass for tomatoes. 

Tomatoes To Can. 

Peel and cut small. Put into a saucepan or preserving 
kettle without water. Let cook until done sufficiently for 
the table. Seal up hot. If glass is used, wrap in paper to 
keep it dark. Be sure and give the cover an extra turn the 
next day. 


Cut the pumpkin, remove the inside, leave the peel on 
and bake until done. It will peel out of the shell easily. 
Then mash it and fill the cans and seal up the same as fruit. 
It cannot be told from fresh pumpkin. 


Apple Croutes. FRUIT SAUCE. Apples In Jelly. 


Earthern milk crocks unglazed are best adapted for stew- 
ing berries or any sauce, or for boiling jelly, rice, and other 
things, as tin or iron injures the delicate flavor and color of 
fruits, and porcelain kettles are expensive and scorch easily. 
I have used these earthen crocks for years with but one ac- 
cident. Let water heat gradually several times in them 
on the back of the stove when new, to temper them. You 
will prefer them to anything else for cooking as above. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Take slices of stale bread. Trim off the crusts and shape 
them prettily to suit the size of the apple. Spread with a 
little butter, and a sprinkling of sugar. On each slice lay 
half an apple peeled and cored, flat side down, a bit of butter, 
more sugar on the apples, spice, if liked. Bake in a slow 
oven and dust with powdered sugar before serving. 


Peel, halve, and core 6 large apples, selecting those of the 
same size ; make a syrup of I pound of granulated sugar 
and a pint of water ; when it boils, drop in the apples with 
the rind and juice of a lemon. As soon as they are tender, 
care must be taken that they do not fall in pieces ; take the 
halves out one by one, and arrange, concave side uppermost, 
in a glass dish. Drop a bit of currant jelly into each piece ; 
boil down the syrup, and, when cool, pour around the 
apples. This makes a very nice preserve for tea. 


Place fair, smooth apples in a saucepan with just enough 
water to cook them, and boil until tender, but not to break 
them. Put in sufficient sugar to sweeten well, and let cook 
until apples are thoroughly penetrated. Skim apples out, 
cook syrup longer, and pour over. Do not peel them. 


Boiled Apples. FRUIT SAUCE. Baked Apples. 


Take about 20 nice cooking apples, wipe them clean, and 
place them in a preserving-kettle, with water enough to 
about half cover them ; then add 2 cups sugar, ^ cup vine- 
gar, and a dessert-spoon of ground cinnamon. Cover 
closely, and let them simmer over a slow fire until soft. 


Pare and core, without splitting, some small-sized tart 
apples, and boil them very gently, with one lemon for every 
6 apples, till a straw will pass through them. Make a 
syrup of \ pound of white sugar for each pound of apples ; 
put the apples, unbroken, and the lemons, sliced, into the 
syrup, and boil gently till the apples look clear; then take 
them up carefully, so as not to break them, and add an 
ounce, or more, of clarified isinglass to the syrup, and let it 
boil up ; then lay a slice of lemon on each apple, and strain 
the syrup over them. 

Take a wide jar with a cover ; put into it golden pip- 
pins, or any small apples of similar appearance, pared and 
cored. Cut very thin a small fresh- rind of lemon for 2 
quarts of apples and strew among them, and J pound of 
sugar thrown over the top. Tie the cover on and set in a 
slow oven for several hours. Serve hot or cold. 


Put good tart apples nicely washed in a pie-tin and bake 
until done in a moderate oven. Use sweet apples if wanted 
to eat in milk. Bake rather slowly. 

Quarter and core without paring ; fill a dish rounding full, 
with no water. Set in a kettle of water or steamer, and 
steam till nearly soft, then put in the oven, with a plate 
over them. Let them bake till the juice is nearly cooked 
out. Much nicer than cooked with the cores in. 

Jellied Apples. FfiUIT SAUCE. Fried Apples. 


Slice fresh apples and put in pudding-dish with alternate 
layers of sugar. Cover with a plate and put a weight on it. 
Bake in a slow oven 3 hours. A delicious dessert of slices 
of apples embedded in jelly will be the result when turned 
out cold. Better cook the day before it is wanted. 


Cider is best boiled down to about | of the original 
quantity. To 5 quarts of quartered sweet apples add I pint 
of boiled sour cider and I pint of water. Cover with a 
plate and cook on top of stove ^ day. 


Mrs. Dr. C. H. Evans, Chicago. 

Two pounds dried apples, I pound raisins. Put in a 
crock with plenty of water and set on the back of the stove. 
Let boil slowly all day. When almost done, add I lemon 
sliced very thin, and 2 pounds of sugar. Add hot water as 


Peel, quarter, and core apples. Cover with water and 
stew until tender. Mash with a spoon until very smooth. 
Add sugar to suit the taste. Juicy, tart apples make the 
best sauce. 


Pare, quarter, and core sour apples until you have 3 
quarts. Add the juice and finely-cut rind of I lemon and 
1 1 cups white sugar with I cup water. Stew 30 minutes. 
Add more water, if the apples are not very juicy ; and 
cook a snorter time, if they cook very quickly. 


Miss Juliet Corson. 

Remove the cores with an apple-corer. Cut the slices 
round, J inch thick. Put J cup drippings or butter in a fry- 
ing-pan. When smoking hot, put in slices enough to cover 
the bottom of the pan. Fry brown on both sides. Do not 

. 325 

Quinces. FRUIT SAUCE. Currants. 

let them break. As fast as done, take them up in little even 
piles, 4 or 5 together. Keep hot, dust a little sugar over, 

and serve. 


Put whole ripe quinces in the oven in a pan and bake 
thoroughly. When done, remove the skins, place in a glass 
dish, sprinkle plentifully with sugar, and serve with cream. 


Put 2 cups dried raspberries into 8 cups cold water. After 
they have come to a boil, cook slowly about 20 minutes. 
Add ij cups sugar, let boil up and take off. 

[NOTE. Dried blackberries or other berries, are cooked 
the same way. A good mixture is equal quantities of black- 
berries and raspberries.] 


Mrs. J. R. Jackson, Centerville, Miss. 

To i quart of cranberries put I cup cold water. Cook in 
porcelain kettle 10 minutes. Add 2 heaping cups sugar and 
cook 10 minutes longer. Pour into a mold, and when cold 

it will be jellied. 


A pint of water to a quart of berries. Boil till soft, put 
through a coarse sieve or colander, return to the kettle, put 
in a pint of sugar, boil up and take off. Less sugar may 
be used if desired very tart. 

[NOTE. If boiling water is poured over cranberries and 
allowed to stay till nearly cool and then poured off, they 
will require considerably less sugar.] 


To i quart cranberries add \ cup raisins, a pint of sugar, 
and a pint of water. Cook in earthen or porcelain until 
the berries are well broken. Watch that they do not burn. 
Pour into a sauce-dish to cool. 

Stew together and make palatably sweet. A nice sauce. 


Stewed Plums. JELLY. Making Jelly. 

To I pound prunes take J or J pound dried plums. Wash 
clean and stew in water to cover for J hour. Add J cup 
sugar, or more if liked sweeter. 


Dried peaches do not require as much water as apples. 
Stew faster than apples, and cook about hour, putting in 
the sugar required while cooking, and adding water, if 
needed to make more juicy. 


Wash the prunes in several waters. Cover with cold 
water and set on back of stove for 2 or 3 hours, to barely 
simmer. Half an hour before taking them off, make quit 
sweet with sugar. 


Allow 3^ cups water to I cup whole raisins. Stew 
45 minutes. Add i tablespoon sugar and i teaspoon 
lemon juice. Will serve 4 or 5 persons. It is insipid 
without the lemon-juice. 


In making jelly, it is safer to make but a quart or two at 
one boiling. By adopting the plan of heating the sugar be- 
fore adding it to the juice, the labor is very much reduced, 
and much more can be accomplished than by the old 
method. Use a porcelain kettle or bright tin. Brass may 
be used, but must be cleansed very thoroughly beforehand, 
and the jelly should not remain in it any length of time. 
Do not allow jelly to stop boiling. Sometimes when it will 
not harden it may be traced to this cause. Make jelly on 
a bright, sunshiny day. The weather affects it to quite an 


ToTes: JELLY. Blackberry. 

extent. When ready to fill jelly-glasses, set the glasses on a 
folded wet towel, and if thought best to still further temper 
them put a spoon into each glass as you fill it. The condition 
of the fruit makes a vast difference in the quality of the jelly. 
Those who raise their own understand this fact, while those 
who are dependent upon a city market can only select from 
the stock on hand. Fruit makes better jelly if not over ripe. 
Some of the nicest I ever saw was made of green grapes. 

To preserve fruit jellies from mold, cover the surface one- 
fourth of an inch deep with fine sugar. 


Test jelly by dipping some into a cold saucer. Set the 
dish on ice or in a cold place. If it hardens at the edges 
without spreading, it is done. Or the more common way is 
to dip a spoonful into a glass of cold water ice-cold if pos- 
sible. If it drops to the bottom without incorporating itself 
with the water, it is done. 

Dip the glass or mold in hot water for a moment and the 
contents will come out unbroken. 


Take tart apples and cut them up. Add a little water, 
and let boil until it becomes glutinous and reduced ; then 
strain ; put | pound white sugar to each pint of juice ; fla- 
vor with lemon essence and boil until it is a fine, clear jelly. 
Then strain into molds. 


Put the berries in a stone crock, and the crock in a kettle 
of warm water on the stove. Let boil till the berries are 
well broken. Then strain through a jelly-bag, coarse towel, 
or fruit-strainer. Weigh a pound of sugar for each pint of 
juice. Put the juice on to boil and then put the sugar in 
tins and pans and set in the oven to heat. Keep it from 
burning, but let it get very hot. After 20 minutes boiling, 

328 ^ 

Crab-Apple. JELLY. Currant. 

throw the sugar in, stir well until it is entirely dissolved. 
It needs only to come to a boil, and your jelly is done. Fill 
your glasses. 


Wash and quarter the apples and cover with water. 
Stew until well broken. Pour into a jelly-bag, drain without 
squeezing. Allow \ pound sugar to I pint juice. Boil the 
juice alone for 10 or 15 minutes. Heat the sugar meanwhile, 
and add slowly, stirring constantly. Sometimes it will 
"jelly" by the time the sugar is all dissolved. It will 
require but very little boiling, if any. Stick cinnamon 
boiled with the juice improves the flavor. Remove it before 
adding sugar. The pulp of the apples is good for marma- 
lade, as in wild plums. 


Two quarts dried apples put in a pan with water to cover. 
Boil 2 or 3 hours. Strain the juice, and to every pint add | 
pound sugar and the juice of 2 lemons. Cook till it jellies. 

Take 6 pounds dried apples, and let soak in 6 gallons cold 
water 12 hours ; then strain through a flannel bag ; add to 
each pint of the juice I pound of the gluco or grape sugar, 
and i ounce of sheet gelatine ; boil twenty-five minutes, 
and flavor to taste. 


Remove the pits of Morello cherries. To 4 pounds cher- 
ries add i pound red currants, and proceed as with currant 


Mrs. H. M. BaH, Normal, Illinois. 

Take good ripe currants, put them into a crock or porce- 
lain kettle to heat. When well heated through, squeeze 
out the juice, and weigh pound for pound of granulated 
sugar. Put the juice into the crock. Let heat to boiling, 
and the instant it boils add the sugar. Stir it well till it is 


Currant. JELLY. Green Grape. 

dissolved, and the very instant it boils take it from the 
stove. Dip into glasses, and have your papers previously 
cut larger than the tops of the glasses. The wrapping- 
papers used by grocers for wrapping up tea are the best. 
Dip a paper in the unbeaten white of an egg that is in a 
saucer. Saturate the paper well and cover the glass, press- 
ing down the edge. Dip another paper the same way and 
add to this paper. Take a third paper and cover the top. 
Be sure the jelly is perfectly air-tight. Tie the papers 
tightly around the glass. Keep your jelly in a cool, dry 
place not in a cellar. Be sure and put in a pound of sugar 
to a pound of juice. It will not answer to measure it, but 
must be weighed. When making jelly cake, warm the jelly 
if it is too hard to spread. 


Put a basin into one scale and its weight into the other. 
Add to the latter the weight which is required of the juice, 
and pour sufficient juice into the basin to balance the scales. 
Currant Jelly' 

After straining and squeezing the currants, usual way, 
measure the juice, and to every pint allow a pound of sugar. 
Put the sugar in a crock large enough to hold all of the 
jelly. Then place juice on stove, and let boil hard 20 min- 
utes. Then throw it over the sugar in the crock, and stir 
until sugar is dissolved. Your jelly is made. You can leave 
in same dish, or put in tumblers. To make white-currant 
jelly and not change color, use pure white cloth to strain, 
and have hands free from any soil ; place juice in a crock 
and stir 2\ hours, constantly ; then put in granulated sugar, 
and stir \ hour ; don't mash your currants, but stem them. 
Seal in glass tumblers, and in a couple of months your jelly 
will be hard, and clear as water. 


Grapes half-ripe are nicer for jelly than when fully ripe. 
Stem them ; put them over the fire with a very little water, 

* 4 2 


Ripe Grape. JELLY. Peach. 

just enough to keep them from burning. Let cook, and 
mash with a silver spoon until the juice is pretty well 
extracted. Then strain, and to every pint allow about | 
pound sugar. Boil 20 minutes. In the meantime have the 
sugar heating. Then pour over the hot sugar. Stir well, 
and fill your glasses. 


Mrs. H. M. Ball, Normal, 111. 

Pick the grapes from the stems ; wash ; to 2 quarts 
grapes add about ^ cup water. Cover closely in a pre- 
serving-kettle, and boil for 5 minutes ; then pour into a 
jelly-bag, and squeeze out the juice. To each pint of juice 
add i pound crushed or granulated sugar. Boil 15 minutes. 
Skim well. Fill your glasses while the jelly is hot, and tie 
them over with paper which should be previously saturated 
with unbeaten white of egg. 

Ripe Grape Jelly. 

Mrs. E. K. Owens, Minerva, Ky. 

Take grapes fully ripe. Remove the skins first. Then 
heat till scalding hot. Then strain, and to 2 measures of 
juice put 3 of sugar. Boil, and it will jelly in about 5 min- 
utes. Let stand in glasses 3 days before tying up. 

Half box gelatine soaked in I cup cold water one hour. 
Add i pint boiling water, \\ cups sugar, 3 lemons, grated 
rind and juice. Heat till boiling, then strain into a mold, 
and set away to cool. 


Mrs. H. M. Ball, Normal, 111. 

Take peaches and good, sour, juicy apples, half and half. 
Cut up without peeling. Then cover the fruit with water, 
and boil until the pulp is well cooked. Let run through a 
jelly-bag, without squeezing. Put in a porcelain kettle or 
crock, and boil until it is not quite as thick as molasses. 
Then weigh an equal weight of sugar. Put the sugar in 


Quince. JELLY. Calf's-Foot. 

and boil, and try it in a saucer until it jellies. This is very 
difficult to make, but when the knack is once acquired, it is 
always a success. 


Mrs. Ben K. Curtis, Jersey City, N. J 

Take the peeling and pulp of the quinces, cover with 
water ; put a plate over ; boil till tender ; put into a jelly- 
cloth and let drain, but do not squeeze. To 3 pints of 
juice take 2 pints of sugar. Boil together very fast, about 
5 minutes, or until it will jelly on the spoon when dropping 
off. Put it into glasses and let stand about 3 days ; then tie 
a paper over. 


Use ^ in bulk of red currants with f raspberries. Make 
as blackberry jelly. 


Cover the fruit with water and boil until the pulp is well 
broken. Then strain through a cloth or jelly-bag without 
squeezing. Proceed with the juice as with other jellies. 
It is not necessary to use pound for pound of sugar. Less 
will answer every purpose. 


One cup tapioca in I quart cold water over night. 
Cook it in a farina-kettle, in the water in which it soaked, 
until clear. Pour into cups wet with cold water. Set on 
ice or in a cold place. Serve the same as blanc-mange. 


Prepare this a day or two before it is required for use. 
Scald 2 feet of a calf, Avash them very thoroughly in warm 
water. Put them into 6 quarts cold water. Let come grad- 
ually to a boil, and skim very carefully. Let it boil gently 
about 6 hours. The liquor should be reduced more than 
half. Strain through a sieve into a basin. Measure it, and 
allow a little for the sediment. After it is cold, remove 
every particle of fat from the top, wipe the jelly oft with a 
clean cloth, so as to get every bit. Dip the jelly into a 


Jelly of Two Colors. PRESERVES. Remarks. 

saucepan, leaving the sediment in the basin. If there is a 
quart, add 6 tablespoons powdered loaf sugar and the shells 
and well-beaten whites of 5 eggs. Stir all together cold. 
Set the vessel over the fire, but do not stir the jelly at all 
after it begins to warm. Boil it 10 minutes ; then throw in 
a teacup of cold water. Boil 5 minutes longer ; then remove 
from the direct heat ; keep it ^covered closely, and let 
remain J hour near the fire. Now, strain through a jelly- 
bag that has been wrung out of hot water. Fasten the bag 
to something near the fire to keep the jelly from setting 
before it all runs out. If the jelly is not clear, run it through 
the bag a second time. If there is any doubt about the jelly 
being firm when it cools, J ounce of isinglass or gelatine 
might be added before straining. These should be well 
dissolved first. Two feet of a calf should make a quart. 


Make a quart of calf 's-foot jelly. Color half with a few 
drops of prepared cochineal. Have a mold wet in every 
part. Pour in a small quantity of the red jelly. Let this 
set. When it is firm, pour in the same quantity of the 
uncolored jelly letting this set until firm and so on alter- 
nately, until the mold is full. Blanc-mange and jelly are 
very nice molded as above directed. If blanc-mange or 
jellies are left over, they may be put into separate vessels 
and heated over boiling water and molded as above. 



Since canning came into vogue, the old " pound-for- 
pound " sweetmeats have found less favor in the majority 
of families. There are those, however, who cling to the 
old-fashioned preserves and jams, and to such we can 
recommend the following recipes. It has been found that 


Remarks. PRESERVES. To Clarify Sugar. 

many excellent fruit preserves can be made with less than 
" pound-for-pound " of sugar, provided they are sealed up. 
It is economy to use small jars for sweetmeats, as fre- 
quent dippings into a large quantity injure them. 

When preparing apples, peaches, pears, and quinces, for 
preserves, cover them with cold water as soon as peeled, 
to prevent them from turning dark. 

To help harden berries, and some of the softer fruits, 
such as peaches and plums, sprinkle part of the sugar over 
them for a few hours previous to preserving. 

Boil preserves gently. A porcelain kettle, granite ware, 
or block tin maybe used. Use a skimmer, or small-handled 
strainer, for dipping fruit out of the syrup into the cans or 
jars. It is better to seal up preserves, but not a necessity. 

Keep preserves in a cool, dry place. If they become 
candied, set the jar in a kettle of cold water. Let come 
gently to a boil. An hour's boiling will generally reduce 
them to a more liquid state. 

If mold appears in specks, remove carefully, and scald the 
preserves, either by the above method, or by putting them 
in a crock in the oven until well heated through. 

To prevent jams, preserves, etc., from graining, a teaspoon 
cream of tartar must be added to every gallon. 

I lived once upon a time in i country where the scarcity 
of fruit kept us all on the alert for the best modes of utiliz- 
ing the little we did have. We made delicious wild plum 
jelly, marmalade, and preserves, as directed in their appro- 
priate places, 


To each pound of sugar allow i cup of water. To TO 
pounds of sugar allow I egg. Beat it up ; put in when the 
syrup is cold. When it boils, pour in a very little water, 
just enough to check the boiling. When it boils up again, 
set it aside, and in 15 minutes skim the top. Then pour 
off the clear syrup, leaving the sediment at the bottom. 


Apple. PRESERVES. Grab-Apple. 


Select tart, nicely-flavored apples. Peel, divide in halves, 
and core them. Allow | pound white sugar to each pound 
of apples. Clarify the sugar ; add the apples to the syrup. 
Boil till clear. Skim out. Boil the syrup down till about 
the consistence of golden syrup. Pour it over the apples. 
If ginger-root is liked as a flavor, boil an ounce of it (after 
bruising) in a bag in clear water, and add the water to the 
sugar-water. If lemon is liked, cut in thin slices and add 
just before sealing up. Seal up hot. 


Mrs. L. ^. Owens, Cameron, Missouri. 

For Mayduke and Early Richmonds, allow pound 
for pound of granulated sugar, weighing after the cherries 
are pitted. Drain the cherries 20 minutes. To the juice 
add the sugar ; boil, and skim. Then add the cherries, and 
boil briskly 10 minutes. 


Pare, slice, and cut in fancy shapes. Take some ginger- 
root, an ounce to 8 or 10 pounds of fruit ; boil in sufficient 
water to extract the flavor. Throw the root away. Put the 
sugar into this water and make a rich syrup. For citron 
preserves, allow i| pounds sugar for each pound of citron. 
Skim very thoroughly. Put in the citron, and boil until 
transparent. Skim out. If the juice is not thick enough, 
cook still longer. Pour over, and then slice in some lemons, 
One lemon to every 2 pounds citron is about right. 


Core the crab-apples with a sharp pen-knife, leaving the 
stems on. Allow pound for pound of sugar. Put in just 
water enough to help dissolve the sugar. Let it boil up and 
skim. Put in the apples and boil till they look clear and 
tender. Skim out. Boil the syrup down and pour over the 


Cranberry. PRESERVES. Peach. 

Crab-Apple Preserves. 

Weigh the fruit after it is cored, and allow an equal weight 
of sugar. Dissolve the sugar in just water enough to melt. 
Add the apples. Bring to a boil. Take off, set in a cool 
place until the following morning. Bring to a boil again, 
and repeat another morning. Then omit 3 mornings. Then 
bring to a boil for 3 more successive mornings, and on the 
last one seal them up in glass jars. 


Author's Recipe. 

Weigh the berries ; take an equal amount of sugar. Put 
over to cook together, with just water enough to dissolve 
the sugar. Boil till the fruit is well cooked. This will be 
found a very delicious preserve. 


Weigh the fruit and sugar pound for pound, and put in 
layers in a stone crock. Set in the oven moderately heated, 
and cook for three hours. The result is a very rich flavor 
and the fruit but little broken. 


Press the pulp from the fruit. Put the pulp over to boil 
in a little water. Then press through a colander to re- 
move the seeds. Then put juice, pulp and skins together ; 
add a pound of sugar to a pint, and boil down thick. 


Mrs. Elliott Durand, Chicago. 

Peel the peaches and remove the pits carefully, keeping 
the fruit unbroken as much as possible. Take an equal 
weight of sugar. Make a syrup, using J cup of water to 
each pound of sugar. Blanch about 3 peach-pits for each 
pound of preserves, and put into the syrup and let remain. 
Boil 15 minutes, skimming until perfectly clean. Put in the 
peaches and cook until clear. It will take 15 or 20 minutes. 
Remove, and drain on a sieve, and let get perfectly cold, 


Pear. PRESERVES. Pumpkin. 

meanwhile boiling the syrup down until it is as thick as 
molasses. Put the peaches in jars and pour the syrup over 
hot. Seal up. 


Pare, cut in two, remove the cores, and to each pound al- 
low | pound sugar. Clarify the sugar, or, if preferred, make 
a syrup without clarifying. After skimming, add the pears 
and boil until they are clear. Skim out ; add more fruit, and 
continue until all are cooked. Then if the syrup is not thick 
enough, boil it down and pour hot over the pears in cans or 
jars, and seal up. 


Weigh the fruit and sugar, allowing | pound sugar to 
each pound of tomatoes. Put sugar and tomatoes in layers 
in a stone crock. Set in a moderately-heated oven, and 
cook for 3 hours. When cold, add 2 sliced lemons to each 


Put the berries and sugar, pound for pound, into a pre- 
serving kettle, and heat slowly till the sugar is melted. 
Then boil rapidly for 20 minutes, and seal up hot. 


Mrs. John Lee, Orangeburg, Ky. 

Get the pear-tomato, if possible ; if not, use the large ones 
cut in quarters. Ten pounds tomatoes, 10 pounds sugar, 
pound seedless raisins, 3 lemons, J ounce race-ginger, sliced. 
Put sugar in a quart of water, and boil and skim until clear, 
and of the consistency of syrup. Put in the tomatoes, and 
cook until thoroughly done. Add the raisins and ginger 15 
or 20 minutes before taking off, and add the sliced lemons 
at the last. Put away in crocks, and tie up securely. 


Cut and peel in square pieces of about 2 or 3 inches. 
Allow pound for pound of sugar ; steam the pumpkin till 
tender. Make a syrup of the sugar with water to dissolve 


Quince. PRESERVES. Watermelon Rinds. 

it. Add the pumpkin when boiling hot. When clear, 
remove. Add lemon juice for flavor. Boil syrup down till 
thick, and pour over. 


Take an equal quantity of smooth, sweet apples. Pound 
sweets are best and put with the quinces. Even double the 
quantity may be used. Pare, quarter, and core them. Steam 
in a steamer until a straw will pierce them readily. Make 
a syrup of an equal weight of sugar. Put in the steamed 
fruit and boil until of a rich red color. Skim frequently. 
Lay them out on flat dishes. Boil the syrup down until it 
begins to jelly at the side of the kettle. The syrup is nicer 
if strained through a sieve. Pour it over the quinces. Use 
the parings and cores for jelly. 


Author's Recipe. 

In order to make the skins tender and prevent that 
strong, rank taste, scald in saleratus-water, allowing a ta- 
blespoon to 4 or 5 gallons of plums. As soon as the skins 
commence to break, pour off the water, and drain the fruit. 
Then take out the pits, and weigh the plums, allowing pound 
for pound of sugar. Put the sugar over, with a little water. 
Let boil up and skim. Put in the plums, cook till tender, 
skim out, boil the syrup down till it is of the consistence of 
molasses, and pour over. They require no sealing. 

Peel and cut the rinds into the sizes and shapes desired. 
Put in a steamer and steam till a straw will pierce them 
easily. Prepare a syrup of i^ pounds of sugar to each 
pound of rinds, with a very little water. Boil up and skim. 
Cook the rinds in the syrup until clear. Use I lemon to 
every 2 pounds of rinds. Slice in when the preserves are 
cold, to prevent a bitter taste, 


Tomato Figs. JAM. Currant 


Three pounds sugar to 8 pounds tomatoes. Take round, 
ripe ones ; peel and boil whole in the sugar until it pene- 
trates them, but do not boil to pieces. Then lay on flat 
dishes to dry. Boil syrup until quite thick and pour over 
them from time to time. When dry pack in boxes in layers, 
with sugar sprinkled over each layer. 


Take very ripe peaches. Peel, stone and mash fine. 
Spread on a smooth surface, a platter, marble slab, or board, 
and keep in the sun. When dry, sprinkle with white sugar 
and roll up. Good in winter. 


Use Freestone peaches, mash them and put through a 
coarse sieve. To 2 quarts of pulp add a pint of brown 
sugar. Mix and cook for a couple of minutes. Spread on 
plates and put in the sun every day until it cleaves from the 
plates readily Dust white sugar over and roll up. Keep in 
a dry place. If the weather is good they will dry in 3 days. 


Weigh oranges whole, and allow pound for pound of sugar. 
Peel the oranges neatly and cut the rind into narrow shreds. 
Boil the rind until tender, changing the water twice, and 
replenishing with hot from the kettle. Squeeze the strained 
juice of the oranges over the sugar ; let this heat to a boil; 
put in the shreds and boil 20 minutes. Lemon peel can be 
preserved in the same way, allowing more sugar. 


Allow | pound brown sugar to a pound of berries. 
Mash the berries, cook 20 minutes ; add the sugar and let 
boil briskly 10 minutes. Seal up. 

Pick th'e currants from the stems, weigh them, and for 


White Currant. JAM MARMALADE. Peach. 

each pound allow | pound sugar. Boil the currants alone 
for 15 minutes, then add the sugar. Let boil together, 
removing all the scum that rises. Mash, and stir almost 
constantly to prevent burning. In 20 minutes seal up. 


Weigh an equal quantity of sifted white sugar and white 
currants picked over very carefully. Boil together 10 min- 
utes, stirring gently, and skim it well. Add the juice of i 
lemon to 4 pounds of fruit. Seal hot. 

Take sweet oranges. Peel and put the pulp through a 
sieve. Put a pound of white sugar to each pound of pulp 
and juice. Boil 20 minutes together, and seal up. 


Use white sugar for red raspberries ; brown sugar for 
black. Allow | pound for each pound of berries. Mash, 
and cook the berries alone for 20 minutes. Add the sugar, 
boil briskly for 10 minutes, skimming carefully. Seal up. 


Allow | pound white sugar for each pound of berries. 
Proceed as for raspberry jam. 


Allow i pound brown sugar to each pound of peeled and 
sliced tomatoes. To every 6 pounds of tomatoes allow I 
lemon and i ounce white ginger-root. Place all together 
in a preserving kettle. Remove the seeds from the lemon 
and cut it in slices. Cook gently, watching constantly. 
Boil one hour and seal up. 


Twelve pounds apples, 3 pounds brown sugar, 3 lemons. 
Boil slowly. Mash. w?U. 


To a pound of fruit put | of a pound of sugar. Boil the 
in water until the water is well flavored. Peel and 


Quince. MARMALADE. Orange. 

quarter the peaches and add to the water (only enough to 
cover) after the pits are removed. In half an hour add the 
sugar. Stir constantly. Boil an hour after the sugar is 


Pare and core the quinces, and cut up small. Boil the 
parings and cores in water that covers them. When soft, 
strain through a cloth. Add the quinces and sugar ( a 
pound to each pound of fruit). Boil all together over a clear 
fire until smooth and thick. Stir and watch almost con- 
stantly. When cold, put in glass jars. 


Author's Recipe. 

Take the plums that remain in the jelly-bag and rub 
through a sieve. To this, take a pound of sugar to each 
pint, and cook thoroughly. Watch, and stir almost con- 
stantly. Try it in a dish, and when it will harden like jelly, 

it is done. 


Pit the cherries and put them through a coarse sieve. To 
each pound of pulp add | pound of sugar, and to every 3 
pounds add a cup of currant juice. Boil all together until 
it will set like jelly. Put up in glasses or jars. 


Take bitter oranges and allow an equal weight of sugar. 
Pare off the yellow peel and cut it into thin shreds, and 
these into inch pieces. Boil the shreds an hour to take 
away the bitter taste. Then drain, and throw away the 
water. Cut the oranges up, saving every bit of juice and 
pulp, but not the seeds or white skins. Put pulp, juice, 
shreds, and sugar into a preserving-kettle, and stir until it 
boils. Let boil J hour, skim, pour into jars. When cold, 
cover with paper, and put away. 

[Marmalade is very nice to serve with dinners if put up in 
prettily-shaped bowls. It Twill turn out whole, like jelly.] 

Apple. FRUIT BUTTERS. Plum. 


Mrs. Azuba Mcllvain, Maysville, Ky. 

For 10 gallons of apple butter take 6 bushels apples ; 
peel, quarter, and core. Stew in water and put through a 
sieve when soft enough. Take 12 gallons of cider and boil 
it down to 3 gallons. Do this, and stew the apples and sift 
them the same day. The next day put the boiled cider and 
the sifted apples together, and cook all day, stirring all the 
time. An hour before taking off, add 8 pints coffee sugar 
and 3 ounces ground cinnamon. 

Take 9 gallons of cider, boil down to 3 gallons ; then add 
to the boiling cider about 3 gallons of apples that have 
been pared and quartered ; boil rapidly for about 2 hours 
without ceasing, to prevent the apples from sinking. By this 
time they are well reduced, and will begin to sink ; thus far, 
no stirring has been done, but must be commenced as soon 
as the apples begin to sink, or they will scorch. Spice to 
suit the taste. Stir without ceasing until it is reduced to a 
thick smooth pulp, which will take about half an hour. 
Apple butter made in this way has been kept perfectly good 
over 2 years, without sealing. 


Four pounds dried apples, 2 pounds dried pumpkin. Let 
soak 12 hours in water to cover. Add I gallon glucose (or 
grape sugar) ; I quart boiled cider ; I quart golden syrup. 
6 pounds New Orleans sugar, J pound gelatine. A little 
mixed spice to suit the taste. Boil gently I hour, stirring 
all the time. 


One peck plums, \ bushel sweet apples. Cook in sepa- 
rate kettles until quite soft, with just enough water to pre- 
vent sticking to the bottom. When soft, put through a 
colander into the same kettle, and to each pound add | 
pound white sugar. Let cook \ hour. Seal up. 


Currants. DRIED FRUITS. Persimmons. 


Mrs. E. L. Hill, Maysville, Ky. 

One bushel ripe tomatoes, J bushel apples, 5 pounds 
brown sugar, I ounce each allspice, cinnamon, and cloves. 
Let come to a boil. Add the apples peeled and cored. 
Let cook together, watching very carefully, more than 
half a day, then add the sugar. The juice must cook out 
of them, and it takes an entire day to cook properly. An 
hour before taking off, add the spices. 


Put ^ pound sugar to I pound currants in layers in a crock, 
over night. Then heat, skim, boil 15 minntes, spread on 
plates to dry, either in the sun or a moderate oven. Put 
away in covered vessels, or in paper sacks. 


Pit them, and to I pound add ^ pound sugar, and boil 20 
minutes. Spread on dishes to dry. They may be dried 
without sugar, if preferred. Keep in a close sack or jar. 


Peel, divide, sprinkle with sugar, and dry in the sun or 
oven. Put away covered. 


Spread firm, ripe ones on dishes, and dry in a gentle heat 
of oven or sun. 


Put in a crock in alternate layers with nice, brown sugar, 
with sugar at bottom and top. Tie paper over. 



^N making pickles, do not use metal vessels. If 
vinegar has to be boiled, use a porcelain 
kettle or a stone crock. For a few years past 
I have pickled and spiced a good share of my 
. cucumbers when first procured, and sealed 
them up hot in glass jars for winter use, the 
same as fruit. Glass cans are cheap, and it has proved 
economy, in my case, for the reason that I suffered 
severely at the hands of the vinegar seller. One year 
I paid fifty cents per gallon for "pure cider vinegar," 
and one lot of pickles I had to " do up " three different 
times, to keep them from spoiling. But sealed up hot 
they are always ready, just the right flavor, and no fur- 
ther source of anxiety. This need not apply to those 
who are sure of the Simon-pure article of vinegar, 
although it is the least work in the long run. The 
recipes in this chapter have been procured from differ- 
ent ladies who excelled in pickling. 


Mrs. T. E. Sullivan, Chicago. 

This is never failing. Cut them from the vines with scis- 
sors, leaving on a half-inch stem. They must not be 
washed. Use a half barrel or keg, and make a 'brine of soft 
water, strong enough to bear up an egg. Now comes the 
great secret of the success, and that is in the arrangement 


Artichoke. SOUR PICKLES. Cucumber. 

of the cover. See that it fits tightly 2 inches from the top. 
By crowding it down sideways you can fit it nicely. Cut a 
hole about 5" inches square in the middle of the cover. 
After the keg is nearly filled with brine and the cover is fit- 
ted in, you must drop in your cucumbers. Never mind the 
dirt. The brine will soak it off, and it will all settle to the 
bottom. Put in as many as you choose at a time, only be 
sure that the brine is overflowing always, and that insures 
the scum that invariably rises, to be above the cover. Keep 
a plate and weight over the opening in the cover. Before 
putting in fresh cucumbers, dip out the scum from the top, 
and add a cup of salt for each peck, so that the brine may 
be kept at its full strength. Keep in a cool place and do 
not "let them freeze, and you will have good, firm pickles all 
winter. Watch that the brine is kept over the cover all the 
time. If it evaporates, add more. When you notice the 
scum take it off. [When wanted for use, we think the 
easiest way to freshen and pickle is Mrs. Hodge's method, 
on this page.] 


Mrs. Z. B. Glynn, Boston, Mass. 

Boil the artichokes till you can pull the leaves off. Take 
out the choke and cut away the stalk, but be careful that the 
knife does not touch the top. Throw them into salt and 
water. When they have lain an hour take out and drain. 
Then put into glasses or jars, add a little mace and nut- 
meg. Fill up with | vinegar diluted with J spring water 
and cover your jars close. 


Mrs. Hodge. 

When you are ready to lay them down for winter, pour 
boiling water over them and drain well. Then pack in salt. 
When wanted for pickling, place in a jar as many as you 
want to freshen and cover with boiling water. When cool 
drain off and pour over another kettle boiling hot, and 
pour on one kettle more. Then when cool and drained 


Cucumber Mangoes SOUR PICKLES. Cabbage. 

heat vinegar to a scalding point, flavor with red pepper, 
cloves, or anything preferred, and pour over. 

[This is the easiest way we have ever found to pickle 
cucumbers that are in brine. It does away with the trouble 
of having them around a day or two freshening. ED.] 


Get small ones of uniform size. Place in a stone crock. 
Pour on boiling water to cover. Put in a large handful of 
salt. Let stand over night. Drain off in the morning. 
Pour on more boiling water and same quantity of salt. 
Let stand till the next morning. Drain off the water, wash 
the pickles in clear water, dry with a towel. Put in a crock 
and pour on boiling cider vinegar. Then put in small horse- 
radish roots. These pickles will keep in a common stone 
crock all winter. 


Mrs. Albert Willson. 

Take 2 dozen large cucumbers, cut a block square out of 
the side of each one. Scrape out the seed. Lay them in 
weak salt and water for five hours. Make a dressing of 2 
large heads of cabbage, 4 green peppers chopped, 2 ounces 
celery-seed, 2 ounces white mustard seed, I ounce black pep- 
per, i ounce salt, and i cup sugar. Put 2 small onions-sets 
in it (whole), and 2 small string beans in each cucumber and 
finish filling with the dressing. Replace the block and 
tie with a strip of cotton. Put a layer of vine leaves, 
a layer of cucumbers, and a teaspoon of powdered alum 
alternately into a kettle until it is full. Cover with vinegar ; 
scald | of an hour. Lift them out of this vinegar into jars. 
Take a gallon of fresh vinegar, i^ pounds brown sugar, boil 
15 minutes, skim and pour over the pickle. 


Mrs. Albert Willson. 

Take a hard head of white cabbage, slice in thin pieces 


Cauliflower. SOUR PICKLES. Chow Chow. 

with 8 onions and 12 cucumbers cut lengthwise. Sprinkle 
with salt, and hang up in a sack to drain for 24 hours. 
Spread on a table and sprinkle with 3 tablespoons ground 
mustard, 2 of ginger, 2 of black pepper, I of mace, 2 of 
celery-seed, and i of turmeric. Mix well. Put 2 pounds 
sugar in 2 quarts vinegar and let boil. Pour over hot. The 
next day drain off and boil again and pour over. 


Cook the cauliflower till tender, then put it in jars and 
pour over it vinegar and ground mustard-seed, previously 
scalded together. 


Slice fine; pack in jar ; pour over boiling spiced vinegar ; 
use tablespoon brown sugar to one head ; when cold tie 
down ; fit for use in about ten days. 


Select cherries not over ripe. Leave on an inch of stem. 
Put into a jar and cover with cold vinegar. Leave three 
weeks. Then pour off f of the liquor. (This, boiled with a 
pound of sugar to the pint is a very fine syrup, good for 
pudding-sauce, or, diluted with water, is a pleasant drink.) 
Put fresh vinegar over the cherries to replace that poured off. 
Then drain it all off and to each quart add I ounce corian- 
der seed, i blade of mace, a pinch of cayenne, and 4 bruised 
cochineals, all tied loosely in a piece of thin muslin. Boil it, 
and when cold pour it over the cherries. In a month they 
will be ready for use. 


Fill a glass jar f full of large ripe cherries on the stems. 
Fill up with best cold vinegar. Do not cook. 


Mrs. Nellie Roe, Kansas City, Me. 

One large cauliflower, i quart green cucumbers sliced 
lengthwise (or watermelon rind will do), 3 dozen small cucum- 


French. SOUR PICKLES. Nasturtions. 

bers, 2 dozen small onions. Soak cucumbers in brine for 2 or 
3 days, scald the rest in strong salt and water. Add pepper 
and whole cloves, allspice, and stick cinnamon, as you 
choose. Scald the following, stirring constantly, and when 
well mixed pour over your pickles : 2j quarts vinegar, 2\ 
cups brown sugar, \ cup flour, 6 tablespoons ground mus- 
tard. Bottle in wide-mouthed bottles or glass cans. Seal. 


Two large heads of cabbage, i peck large cucumbers, 18 
green peppers, 24 onions, medium-sized, i gallon vinegar, \ 
pound mustard seed, 2 ounces celery seed, i ounce turmeric, 
2 cups brown sugar. Chop the cabbage, cucumbers, 
peppers, and onions not too fine sprinkle with salt, and 
let stand over night. Drain in the morning. Mix them 
together ; pour the vinegar over, and scald. Then add the 
sugar and spices, stir well together, let boil up, and remove. 
Take seeds out of the peppers as far as possible. 


Take young, tender, green muskmelons or nutmegs ; soak 
them in strong brine for a week. Then scrape them, cut out 
a section an inch square, take out the seeds. Soak another 
day, then wash in clear water and wipe dry with a cloth. 
Then fill the cavity with finely-chopped cabbage, horse-rad- 
ish, onion, green tomatoes, cucumbers, radish pods, nastur- 
tion seeds, celery seed, young, tender string beans, cauli- 
flower buds, peppers, mustard, and whole cloves, with some 
stick cinnamon. Before putting in, wet this mixture with 
vinegar. Replace the cut piece, tie up well, pack in crocks, 
fill with cold vinegar, and in about a month they will be 
ready for use. 


They require no seasoning. Gather before they fall apart; 
pick clean, leaving on a \ inch of stem ; drop them into good 
vinegar, and keep them covered. When frost comes so that 
you will have no more seeds to put in, pour off the vinegar 


Mushrooms. SOUR PICKLES. Plum-Tomatoes. 

and use it on the table. You will find it much better than 
pepper-sauce. Put the pickles into a bottle or glass jar just 
large enough to hold them, and fill up with good vinegar. 
If kept covered they will keep until eaten. 


Sprinkle lightly with salt and remove the top skins. 
Scald in weak brine for 5 minutes. Drain, and put into 
spiced vinegar. Cork tight. 


Put sliced onions into ajar in layers with a light sprink- 
ling of salt. To a quart of cider vinegar add 2 cups sugar, 
I teaspoon whole allspice, same of whole cloves, same of 
whole pepper-corns. Scald the vinegar, sugar, and spices 
and pour hot over the onions. In 24 hours pour off, scald 
again and pour over. 


Pour scalding brine (weak) on them every day for 9 days 
new brine every other day ; then throw them in cold 
spiced vinegar, and they will be ready to eat in a few days, 
and good, too. 


Remove seeds from green peppers. Lay in salt water IO 
days. Soak in clear water 24 hours. Pack in a jar and 
scald with vinegar and water, half and half, with a small 
piece of alum, for 3 days in succession. Make a stuffing of 
I pound cabbage, J pound each of horse-radish, ground 
ginger, and ground mustard; I ounce each of mace,- cloves, 
and cinnamon. Fill them, boil strong vinegar and pour 
over hot. 


Fill a glass fruit jar with the tomatoes, and I teaspoon 
each of whole cloves, peppercorns, and allspice, and 2 tea- 
spoons small pieces of stick cinnamon. Fill the jar up with 
boiling hot vinegar, and seal. Do not add spices if pre- 
ferred plain. 


Jackson. SOUR PICKLES. Higby. 


Grandma Owens. 

Take firm, smooth, green tomatoes, slice and sprinkle 
with salt over night. In the morning pour clear water over 
and drain immediately. Be very particular about getting 
the water all out so as not to weaken the vinegar. Then 
pack in jars in layers with white mustard seed, plenty of 
horse-radish cut up fine, small bits of green pepper, allow- 
ing about 6 to each peck of tomatoes. Cover with cold 
vinegar. Tie cloth over. [ I have never lost any pickles 
made in this way, and have put them up every year for a 
long time. ED.] 


Sliced green, they make splendid pickles, if a pint of 
molasses is poured over 2 gallons ; press down with plate, 
and remove white scum as it appears ; brown sugar is pre- 
ferred by some. 

Green Tomatoes. 

Mrs. Judge Sherman. 

One peck green tomatoes sliced thin. Sprinkle with salt 
and let stand over night. Slice 12 onions, put with the 
tomatoes in layers with the following spices : 4 ounces 
white mustard seed, 4 ounces ground mustard, I ounce each 
of cloves, allspice, ginger, pepper, and cinnamon, \ ounce 
turmeric, I tablespoon salt, \ pound brown sugar; boil 2 hours 
in vinegar to cover. 


Hattie A. H., Clinton, Iowa. 

One bushel green tomatoes, chopped fine and packed in 
jars with salt. Let stand 24 hours, then drain well, then 
add 12 green peppers, 2 large heads of cabbage, chopped 
fine ; then scald in vinegar, then drain again ; add 3 large 
spoons of black pepper (ground), 4 of cinnamon, 3 of allspice, 
7 of cloves, i cup of unground mustard ; mix well with 
tomatoes and put in jars. Take 5 pounds brown sugar 
and mix with vinegar enough to cover ; scald the sugar and 
vinegar and pour over while hot. 


Piccalilli. SOUR PICKLES. String Beans. 


Mrs. Elliott Durand, Chicago. 

One peck green tomatoes, 12 green peppers, i head of 
cabbage, J dozen ripe cucumbers, ^ dozen green cucumbers, 
6 large onions, 2 heads of celery, all chopped fine, and 
mixed with i teacup coarse salt. Let stand 12 hours. 
Drain perfectly dry, and scald thoroughly in 2 quarts of 
vinegar. Drain and pack in jars. When cold, pour over 2 
quarts of vinegar to which has been added cup of grated 
horse-radish, i tablespoon of ground mace, i tablespoon 
each of ground cinnamon, allspice, mustard, and cayenne 
pepper \ ounce each celery seed and mustard seed cover 
with plate to keep under the vinegar, and cover closely the 
top with thick cloth. 


Three hundred small cucumbers, 4 large green peppers, 
sliced fine, 2 large heads cauliflower, 3 heads white cabbage 
shredded fine, 2 quarts small onions, I quart or more small 
string beans, cut in inch pieces, i quart small, green toma- 
toes, sliced. Put this all in a pretty strong brine 24 hours. 
Drain 3 hours, then sprinkle in \ pound black and \ pound 
white 'mustard seed, I tablespoon black ground pepper. 
Let the whole come to a boil in just enough vinegar to 
cover, with a little alum put in. Drain, and when cold mix 
a pint of ground mustard as for table use and put in. 
Cover the whole with good cider vinegar. 


Author's Recipe. 

Boil in water a little salt till just a trifle tender. Drain 
very carefully. Put into glass cans, and after filling them 
stand them upside down to be sure and get out all the 
water. Then cover with hot vinegar flavored as you please. 
Seal up hot, and you will have one of the most palatable 
pickles you ever ate in midwinter. They may be steamed 
instead of boiled. It is not strictly necessary to salt them. 

Walnuts. PICKLES. Apples. 


Take white walnuts, fresh and tender ; put them in salt 
and water for 3 days, then put in the sun till they turn 
black. Use the proportion of J pound mustard seed, 2 
ounces pepper, J ounce cloves, ounce mace, ^ ounce nut- 
meg, and a good stalk of horse-radish, and boiled in 4 quarts 
vinegar. Cover the walnuts closely and let them remain 3 
or 4 weeks. Pour off the liquid for catsup, if desired, and 
bottle it, covering the walnuts again with cold vinegar. 


Six lemons put into brine that will bear an egg. Let 
remain 6 days, stirring every day. Then boil 15 minutes in 
2 quarts water (boiling when put in). Remove and put into 
a cloth till cold. Boil up sufficient vinegar to cover the 
lemons, allowing to each quart 2 teaspoons scant cloves, 
same of white pepper, i teaspoon scant mace, I table- 
spoon bruised ginger, same of mustard seed, a few scrap- 
ings of horse-radish root, and a clove of garlic. Pour over 
boiling hot ; tie down securely. They will not be fit for 
use for nearly a year. 



Seven pounds fruit, 3j pounds sugar, I pint vinegar, f 
ounce stick cinnamon, and ^ ounce whole cloves, mixed. 
Remove the blossom end. Steam until tender, and put 
into jars. Boil the vinegar, sugar, and spices 15 minutes, 
pour over the fruit and seal up. 


Seven pounds apples after peeling and coring (they should 
be halved), I ounce stick cinnamon, 3j pounds sugar, I pint 
vjnegar, I teaspoon cloves. Steam the apples until a straw 


Cantaloupe. SWEET PICK LES. CiVon. 

will pierce them. Then put in the boiling vinegar, sugar, and 
spices, and simmer 2 minutes. Put into jars and seal. 


Seven pounds melons after they are peeled and cut in 
shapes. They must be nearly ripe. Lay in weak brine over 
night. Then boil in alum-water (a teaspoon of alum to 2 
quarts water) J hour. Remove, drain, and have boiling hot 
on the stove the following : 3 pounds sugar, I quart vine- 
gar, 2 ounces cinnamon bark, I ounce pounded mace and i-J 
ounces whole cloves. Add the melon and let scald all to- 
gether 15 minutes. Put away in jars. 


Mrs. L. S. Hodge, Chicago. 

Take ripe cucumbers, cut them lengthwise, take out seeds, 
soak in salt and water 24 hours. Then soak in vinegar and 
water 24 hours. Drain. Then make a syrup of I quart 
vinegar, i pound sugar, i ounce cinnamon, and \ ounce 
cloves. Boil till tender. 

Sweet Cucumber Pickles. 

Take ripe cucumbers. Peel, and cut in lengthwise slices ; 
steam till tender ; \ gallon vinegar, 2 pounds sugar, I red 
pepper, I ounce cassia buds. Scald all together and pour 
hot over the pickles in a jar. Seal up. 


Pare the citron and cut it into such shapes as are desired. 
Boil in water with a teaspoon of alum to each J gallon, 
until tender. Then drain well. Boil together for 10 min- 
utes 2 quarts vinegar, 3 pounds sugar, 3 ounces cassia buds. 
Then add the citron and boil 5 minutes longer. Put away 

in jars. 


Pare and cut in fancy shapes. Take weak alum-water 
and pour it over hot. Let stand 24 hours. Then soak 
till well cleansed, and boil in clear water till tender. Make 
a syrup of equal measures vinegar and sugar, some stick 

^___ 353 

Grapes, SWEET PICKLES. Pine-Apples. 

cinnamon and race-ginger. Use the proportions given for 
citron. Boil the rinds in this till clear. Put in a jar, pour 
the syrup over, cover, seal, and put away. 


Take firm, ripe grapes. Pack closely in a jar with grape- 
leaves between the layers, if you can get them. To 4 quarts 
vinegar add 2 pints white sugar, I ounce cinnamon, J ounce 
cassia, \ ounce cloves. Boil vinegar and spices well 
together, let get cold, and pour over the grapes. 


Mrs. R. R. Austin, Vermillion, Dakota. 

Fifteen pounds sliced green tomatoes ; let stand over 
night, with a little salt sprinkled over ; drain ; 5 pounds 
sugar, i quart best vinegar, I ounce cloves, 2 ounces cin- 
namon. Boil 15 or 20 minutes, skim out and boil the syrup 
till thicker, if preferred, but it is not necessary. [The best I 
ever tasted. ED.] 


Mrs. Azuba Mcllvain. 

Ten pounds Seckel pears, 2 pounds sugar, I quart 
vinegar ; \ ounce mace and I ounce cinnamon. Boil vine- 
gar and sugar and pour over the pears, four days in succes- 
sion, with spice to taste. If other pears are used, they will 
require more sugar. 

Pickled Pears. 

Take 3 pounds pears ; peel and cut out the ends, leaving 
stems in ; put into a preserving-kettle with I quart water, 
and boil until they are easily pierced by a fork. Then lay 
out on a dish. Add to the juice i^ pounds sugar, I pint 
vinegar, \ ounce stick cinnamon, \ ounce cloves, same of race- 
ginger. Boil all 5 minutes and skim. Put pears in and boil 
until the syrup thickens. Take out, put in jars, boil syrup 5 
minutes longei, pour over. 


Three pounds sugar, 6 pounds prepared pine-apples, I 


Quinces. SWEET PICKLES. Plum-Tomatoes. 

pint vinegar, \ ounce whole cloves, i ounce small pieces of 
cinnamon. Put the peeled and sliced fruit in a jar in layers 
with the spices. Pour over it the scalded vinegar and sugar. 
Let stand 24 hours. Pour off, boil up for 5 minutes, pour 
over again, and let stand 24 hours more. Then boil fruit 
and syrup together gently \ hour. Seal up. 


Seven pounds fruit, 3^ pounds sugar, i pint vinegar, I 
teaspoon whole cloves, \ ounce cinnamon. Peel, quarter, 
and core the quinces. Boil in water only sufficient to cook 
them for 15 minutes, and boil very gently. Drain, and skim 
carefully into the syrup made of the sugar, vinegar, and spices, 
and already heated to simmering. Let cook gently 5 min- 
utes and seal up. 

[Put the cores and peelings into the water in which the 
quinces were boiled, and make jelly. A few good juicy 
apples cut in small pieces and added will eke out the jelly, 
besides making it firmer.] 


Seven pounds fruit, 3| pounds sugar, i pint vinegar, I 
teaspoon whole cloves, double the quantity of stick cinna- 
mon, broken in small pieces ; 2 blades of mace may be 
added, if liked. Steam the fruit until a straw will pierce it. 
Then remove the tough skin. Boil the vinegar, sugar, and 
spices together for 5 minutes. Put the steamed fruit in jars 
and pour the hot syrup over, and seal. 


Eight pounds fruit, 4 pounds sugar, i pint vinegar, 2 ounces 
stick cinnamon, i ounce cloves. Heat the vinegar, sugar, 
and spices. Steam the plums tender, then lift gently into 
the hot syrup, and simmer 5 minutes. Seal up. 


Seven pounds tomatoes, 3^ pounds sugar, i pint vinegar, 
\ ounce of whole cloves, i ounce stick cinnamon. Steam 
the tomatoes until tender. Boil the vinegar, sugar, and 

_ 355^ 

Raisins. SWEET PICKLES. Rhubarb. 

spices 5 minutes. Lift the tomatoes gently into jars and 
pour the boiling syrup over, and seal. 


Four pounds layer raisins left on the stems, I pound sugar, 
I quart vinegar. Simmer all together ^ hour. Cover in a jar. 


Ten pounds berries, 4 pounds sugar, I pint vinegar, J ounce 
whole cloves, I ounce stick cinnamon. Heat sugar, vinegar, 
spices ; add berries ; simmer 30 minutes ; put into jars and 


Ten pounds berries, 4 pounds sugar, i pint vinegar, | 
ounce cloves, J ounce cinnamon. Heat the vinegar, sugar, 
and spices in a porcelain kettle. Add the berries. Let boil 
gently for 15 minutes. Pour into jars and seal. 
Proceed precisely as with blackberries. 


Boil beets till soft. Peel and cut in fancy shapes. Boil I 
quart vinegar with I quart sugar and I teaspoon ground 
cloves (tied in muslin), and pour over hot. 

[Any preserve can be made into a sweet pickle by adding 
spices and vinegar to the syrup and boiling up and pouring 
over the fruit.] 


Peel, spice, and weigh the rhubarb. Heat it slowly in a 
porcelain kettle without water. When the juice flows freely, 
put the kettle over a direct heat, and boil for J hour. Dip 
out half of the juice in an earthen vessel, and keep it hot. 
To the rhubarb add ^ pound sugar (brown will answer), i 
teaspoon cloves, and 2 of cinnamon to each pound rhubarb. 
Mix thoroughly, add some of the juice if it seems too thick. 
It does not need to be as thick as jam. Simmer 15 minutes ; 
seal up hot. 

356 _ 

Apple. VINEGAR. Corn. 


Let it freeze, and take the ice off the top, as the water 
alone freezes. 


Save all parings and cores of apples when used for cook- 
ing purposes ; put them in a jar ; cover with cold water ; 
add about a pint molasses to 3 or 4 gallons ; tie mosquito 
netting over jar; add more apple parings as you have them, 
and all the cold tea left in teapot. Makes the very best 


Take I bushel of sugar-beets, wash and grate them into a 
cheese or cider-press. Put the juice into a cask, cover the 
bung with netting, and set in the sun. In 2 or 3 weeks you 
will have 5 or 6 gallons of good vinegar. 


Mrs. Z. B. Glynn, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Half ounce cayenne pepper put into i pint vinegar. Let 
steep in a bottle for a month. Then strain off and bottle 
for use. Is excellent seasoning for all kinds of soups and 
sauces, but must be used very sparingly. 


Pound a cup* of celery-seed and put into a bottle, and fill 
up with strong vinegar. Shake once a day ; in 2 weeks strain 

for use. 


Put 6 pounds brown sugar to \ bushel clover bloom. 
Add 4 quarts molasses and 9 gallons boiling water. Let 
cool and add 3 pints hop yeast. Lay a folded sheet over 
the tub and let stand 14 days. Strain and put away. 


Boil i pint corn in 4 quarts rain water till the grains 
burst. Put it all in a crock, add i pint syrup, and water 


Currant. VINEGAR. Rhubarb. 

to make a gallon. Tie double mosquito netting- over and 
keep warm about 4 weeks. Do not cork the jug when you 
put the vinegar away, but tie a cloth over. Put some of the 
" mother" in. 


One quart currant juice strained as for jelly, 3 quarts of 
rain water, i pound of sugar. Keep warm. 


To i quart of clear honey put 8 quarts warm water; mix 
it well together ; when it has passed through the asce- 
tous fermentation, a white vinegar will be formed, in many 
respects better than the ordinary vinegar. 


Scrape 5 tablespoons horse-radish. Add i tablespoon 
cayenne pepper. Mix and pour on i quart vinegar. Let 
tand a week, and use as a relish for cold meats. 


Put the rind of 2 large smooth lemons in a quart bottle. 
Fill with vinegar. It will be flavored sufficient for use in 
about 10 days. 


Two gallons of water' that potatoes have been boiled in< 
i pound brown sugar, a cup of hop yeast. In 3 or 4 weeks, 
you will have most excellent vinegar. Cucumbers cut fresh 
from the vines without salt, will keep in this vinegar. 


Put 2 quarts fresh raspberries in a crock and pour over 
them a quart of vinegar. Let stand 24 hours, strain, and 
pour it over 2 quarts fresh berries. After another 24 hours, 
strain again, and add a pound of loaf sugar to each pint cf 
the vinegar. Set the vessel in a kettle of water and le( it 
boil an hour briskly. Skim it wken the scum rises. Bottle 
it when cold. 


Take 12 large stalks of pie-plant Bruise them, and pour 


Spearmint. VINEGAR. Tomato. 

on 5 gallons water. After standing 24 hours, strain and 
add 9 pounds brown sugar and a small cup of yeast. Keep 
warm a month. Strain it and keep in the cask till sour 

enough to use. 


Gather clean, fresh spearmint, peppermint, or celery seed, 
put in a wide-mouthed bottle enough to nearly fill it loosely. 
Fill with vinegar, cork, and in about 3 weeks pour the 
vinegar off into another bottle and cork well. Serve with 
cold meats. Also good with soup and roasts. 


Two gallons cider vinegar, 2\ pounds brown sugar, \\ 
ounces allspice, \\ ounces celery seed, \\ ounces cloves, \\ 
ounces ground mustard, ij ounces mace, ij ounces pepper, 
ij ounces turmeric, i^ ounces white ginger. Put the spices 
in little loose muslin bags in the jar with the vinegar and 



To i quart sugar put 7 quarts warm water. Add yeast in 
proportion of a pint to 8 gallons. Put it into a close cask 
and keep in a warm place. It will be fit for use in a few 



Gather the tarragon just previous to blossoming. Bruise 
and twist it, and fill up bottles with it. Pour good vinegar 
over to cover it, and let stand a couple of months. It may 
then be poured off and corked up for winter use. Serve 
with meats. 


To 4 quarts rain water add I pint sorghum and 4 quarts 
ripe tomatoes. The tomatoes are good to eat. 

ERE we give a few suggestions which may 
not come amiss. From the subjoined list a 
nice variety of dishes may be selected : 
Panned oysters, boiled ham, fried chicken, 
pressed chicken, pressed veal, veal loaf, 
plain hard-boiled eggs, stuffed eggs, sar- 
dines, sausages, baked beans, Saratoga potatoes, radishes, 
cold slaw, salads of any kind, pickled peaches, pickled 
beans (the white wax beans are nicest, and spice them a 
little), rolled sandwiches, plain sandwiches, jelly, pickles, etc. 
Potted meats that can be procured at grocery stores are 
quite nice. Bottled pickles are rather in favor. Take but- 
ter in a jelly-glass or other covered dish. Take bread in 
a whole loaf rather than in slices, but if slices are preferred 
wrap each two, buttered and laid together, in tissue paper. 
Biscuit are always nice. Ginger cookies are relished more 
than rich cake. If Saratoga potatoes are used, fry only a 
few at a time in hot lard and carry them in fancy papers. 
Take jelly and preserves in glasses. Cakes and pies to suit 
one's taste. Tea may be put into a bottle of cold water, 
and will make a good beverage. Portable lemonade is 
handy, but lemons should always be carried if they can be 
procured, together with all seasonable fruits. Don't forget 
pepper, and salt, and sugar. 

6 dozen sandwiches. 
100 fried oysters. 
2 chickens pressed, 
i pound coffee. 
i gallon ice cream. 
Cake as desired, in little or great variety. 

For 25 Persons. QUANTITIES REQUIRED. For 150 Persons. 

One gallon of cream and 3 loaves of cake will serve 25 
persons. The writer has gotten 50 large dishes of cream by 
actual count from 2\ gallons, besides giving out many extra 
spoonsful to different children. 



4 loaves bread, or 6 dozen biscuit. 
\ pound butter. 

1 pound coffee in 5 quarts water. 

2 ounces tea. 

2 pounds sugar. 

I pint cream and i pint milk mixed. 

1 quart pickles. 

5 pounds ham before it is boiled. 

2 cans fruit, or 

2 quarts cranberries. 


12 dozen biscuit. 

6 loaves white bread. 

6 loaves Graham bread. 
150 doughnuts. 
2 hams. 
4 tongues. 

1 gallon pickles. 
4 pounds coffee. 
\ pound tea. 

10 pounds sugar. 
4 pounds butter. 

2 quarts cream and 
2 quarts milk mixed. 

School. LUNCHES. Traveling. 


Croquettes, Graham bread, orange. 

Bread and butter, fresh tomato, hard-boiled egg, wafers. 

Cheese sandwich, fresh cucumbers, cookies. 

Vegetable salad, bread and butter sandwich, apple turn- 

Minced meat or fish sandwich, cup custard, ginger 

Egg sandwich, Saratogo chips, tarts. 

Cold roast meat, bread and butter, molasses eake. 

Cold ham, bread and butter, pickle, baked apple. 

Corned beef, Graham bread and butter, cup cake, pickled 
pear or peach. 

Biscuit and butter, cottage cheese, cake. 

Fish ball, bread, cold baked beans, pickles, apple 

Rice cutlets, bread and butter, apples. 


It is usually preferable to carry lunch in a pasteboard 
box that may be thrown away. If for more than one 
meal it is better to put each meal by itself in a separate 
box or compartment. 

Bread for sandwiches should be cut thin and wrapped 
separately in paramne paper. 

Wrap meat, cake, cookies and cheese, each alone, in oiled 

Put pickles in covered jelly glass or jars. 

Salad may be carried in a small jar. 

Celery is an appetizing lunch relish. 

Fried chicken, cut in small joints and wrapped carefully, 
is delicious. 

Portable lemonade is good. 

Carry your own drinking cup. 


Yellow Luncheon. LUNCHEONS. Red Luncheon. 


The embroidered center pieces should be those having 
yellow for the prevailing color. In the center of the table 
should be a vase of yellow flowers. At each place may be 
placed a card with the name of the person in heavy gilt let- 
ters On a bread and butter plate at each place put a ball 
of butter, a couple of Saratogo wafers, and a half lemon 
rind filled with very finely-chopped cabbage salad. 


Potato Puree with Whipped Cream. 


Fish Turbot in Individual Shells, and Brown Bread 
with Pickles. 


Creamed Chicken with Mushrooms, served in Ramikin 
dishes. Coffee, Hot Rolls and Jelly with this course. 


Shrimp Salad. 


Trilby Ice Cream and Assorted Cake. 

This is not a difficult menu, as the work can be done 
largely beforehand. The fish and chicken may be made 
ready for the final cooking in the little dishes, and one 
course will cook while the preceding one is being served. 
This insures every dish to be piping hot. 


Deviled crackers. 

Oyster Loaves. Sweet Potato Croquettes. 

Stuffed Tomatoes. Hot Rolls. Chopped Pickles. 

Raspberry Frappe. 


Nasturtium Luncheon. LUNCHEONS. Yellow Dinner. 

Chestnut Salad. Wafers. 

Cherry Pudding. 
Coffee. Iced Grapes. 





Creamed Mushrooms in Ramikin Dishes. 
Nasturtium Sandwiches. Olives. 


Creamed Chicken. Macaroni Croquettes. 

French Fried Potatoes. Hot Rolls. Olives. 

Pickled Peaches. Pineapple Sherbet. 


Tomatoes with Celery Stuffing, served with 
Mayonnaise Dressing. Crackers. 


Ice Cream. White Cake. Yellow Cake. Lemon Jelly. 


Coffee. Mints. 

Salted Almonds and Mints with every course. 
Nasturtiums at each end of table and asters in center. 


Cream of Pea Soup. 

Celery. Bread Sticks. 

Roast Turkey with Chestnut Dressing. 

Potatoes with Rice. 

Baked Corn. Hot Rolls. 

Pickled Peaches. Red Currant Jelly. 

Shrimp Salad. Wafers. Olives. 


Thanksgiving Dinner. DINNERS. Vegeterian Thanksgiving Dinner. 

Bisque Glace. Cake. 
Cheese. Crackers. 
Preserved Ginger. 

Yellow chrysanthemums may be used as table decoration. 


Clear Soup. 

Roast Turkey. Cranberry Sauce. 
Mashed Turnips. Mashed Potatoes. Canned Corn. 

Baked Squash. 

Fish Salad. Cheese Balls. 

Chicken Pie. Celery. Olives. Pickles. 

Fruit. Nuts. 

Pumpkin Pie. Apple Pie. 

Snow Pudding. 



Cream of Celery. 

Olives. Tomatoes. Cucumbers. 

Salted Almonds. Pickled Walnuts. 

Braised Lettuce with Mushroom Sauce. 

Celery Croquettes. 

Stewed Oyster Plant. Rissoles. Sweet Potatoes. 
Lyonnaise Potatoes. Brussels Sprouts with Cream Sauce. 

Lemon Ice. 
French Peas. 

Baked Stuffed Tomatoes with Spaghetti. 

Fried Squash with Corn Fritters. 

Mixed Salad. Toasted Crackers. 

Rice and Apricots. Mixed Fruits. Orange Salad. 

Cheese. Fruits. Nuts. Raisins. 

Cakes. Tea. Coffee. Chocolate. 


Christmas Dinner. DINNERS. New Year's Collat : on. 

Oyster Soup. 
Roast Goose. 

Rutabagas. Boiled Onions. Sweet Potatoes. 
Celery. Olives. Sweet Pickles. 
Roast Beef. Browned Potatoes. 

Russian Salad. Wafers. 

Mince Pie. Custard Pie. Plum Pudding. 

Grapes. Oranges. Nuts. Raisins. 



Spread the table with the very whitest of linen, and of 
the best quality you can afford. Potted plants, vines or 
cut flowers may be used for decoration. Ribbons have 
been in vogue for some time, placed flat on the table with 
bows at the corners, or festooned to the center gas jet. 
The fashion for one season may so change that one would 
be quite out of style to use the same for a second season. 
The following suggestions may serve as helpful reminders 
when preparing for New Year's calls. Remember always 
that an appetizing sandwich is always appreciated more 
than rich pastry, and a good cup of coffee cr chocolate is 
liked by nine hundred and ninety-nine out of every thous- 
and persons, and the same large proportion will honor and 
respect the hostess who abstains wholly from offering alco- 
holic drinks. The quantity imbibed in your house alone 
might not intoxicate, but when yours is multiplied by ten, 
fifteen, twenty or more, the result is very apt to be appall- 
ing. Any of the following dishes are suitable for the 
occasion : Cold roast turkey, boned turkey, cold roast 
chicken, ham, tongue, scalloped oysters, jellied meats, 
salads, pickles, Charlotte Russe, light and dark fruit cake, 
fruits, nuts, ices, coffee, chocolate, lemonade, confec- 


Lenten Breakfast. MENUS. Easter Dinner. 

tionery. Two chickens pressed, I ten pound turkey, 2 
molds of Charlotte Russe will suffice for 25 persons. A 
keen-edged knife will cut a cake of ordinary size into 40 
pieces. Large pieces should be avoided. 


Fresh Dates. 

Fine Hominy with Milk or Cream. 

Baked Eggs. Lyonnaise Potatoes. 

Graham Gems. Coffee. 


Tomato Soup. 

Baked Macaroni with Cheese. 
Hubbard Squash. Potatoes. Lima Beans. 

Lettuce Salad. Crackers. 
Baked Indian Pudding. Tea. 

Lobster Farcie. Potatoes a la Creme. 

Cabbage Salad. Hot Rolls. 
Warm Gingerbread. Tea. Stewed Cranberries. 


Cream Tomato Soup. 

Scalloped Eggs. Brown Bread. 

Roast Tenderloin of Beef. Succotash. 

Asparagus. White Turnips. Tomatoes. 

Cabbage Salad. 

Ambrosia. Nuts. Raisins. Cake. 


This table represents the fuel value and comparative amount of actual 
nutrients in the foods mentioned. 

Beef, round, rather lean. , 
Beef, sirloin, rather fat., 

Mutton, leg , 

Mutton, shoulder 

Mutton, loin (chops) .... 

Smoked ham 

Pork, very fat , 

Flounder , 


Mackerel, rather lean . ., 
Mackerel, very fat. . 
Shad . . 

Salt cod 

Salt Mackerel . . 
Smoked herring 
Canned salmon. 
Oysters ... 
Hens' Eggs 

Cows' milk 

Cows' milk, skimmed.., 
Cheese, whole milk. . ., 
Cheese, skimmed milk. 



Wheat bread 

Rye flour , 


Pease , 


Corn (maize) meal .... 






Five Food Principles. FOODS. Composition of Food. 


The five food principles are water, proteids, fats, carbo- 
hydrates and salts or mineral matter. 

WATER is the medium which floats things through the 

THE PROTEIDS, called also albumenoids, are flesh foods 
which build and restore the body. They are called nitro- 
genous foods. 

THE FATS give off heat and serve indirectly as a source 
of muscular energy, and are called carbonaceous foods. 

THE CARBOHYDRATES, sometimes called work foods, 
furnish fat to tissues and are the main source of muscular 

THE SALTS combine with fluids and solids of foods and 
aid in forming bone, and also aid in the process of diges- 

Water is the most abundant natural product. In the 
human body fully 70 per cent, of its weight is water, and 
all the tissues and secretions and the hair, nails and teeth 
contain a small amount. 

In a human body weighing 1 50 pounds the average 
weight of the component parts is as follows : 



ounds. Ounces. 
17 4 
4 6 
i 6 


Albumen and similar substances 


Bone t 

Cartilage . 

Mineral matter , 

Keratin (hair, nails and a mixture of 
nitrogenous substances) 

Total .... 

The quantity of food required to keep the body in good 


Uses of Food. FOODS. Evidences of Good Health. 

working condition depends upon the temperature, the sea- 
son and climate, work, exercise and occupation, age, sex 
and clothing. 


Food supplies the wants of the body in several ways. It 

1 . Is used to form the tissues and fluids of the body. 

2. Is used to repair the wastes of the tissue. 

3. Is stored in the body for future consumption. 

4. Is consumed as fuel, its potential energy being trans- 
formed into heat or muscular energy or other forms of 
energy required by the body; or 

5. In being consumed protects tissue or other food from 

Ellen H. Richards makes the foregoing statements and 
after several interesting tables goes on to give us: 


How shall we know if we are in our best condition? 

First, we shall not be thinking about it at all. We shall 
not mind about the quality of our food very much. Life 
will hold other pleasures for us. 

Mere motion, action, work, that is, use of muscular 
power, brings a delightful sense of life and force. The 
healthy workman goes to his day's work with vigor in his 
step, the school boy to his desk with eagerness. 

If we find aurselves sluggish and tired in the morning it 
is because something is wrong. The standard of good 
health is for all alike the CONSCIOUSNESS OF POWER. We 
ask, How much poiver of ivork is there in the food we eat? 
how much food do we need for a day's work? We call 
this power ENERGY, and we reckon the force in Calories, 
that is in the mechanical equivalent of heat. This is the 
starting point of all our modern work in dietetics. 


Chafing Dish Cookery. COOKERY. Chafing Dish Co kery. 

The modern standard, then, of good health is energy, 
power to do work; and by work we mean thinking, invent- 
ing, painting, writing, just as much as swinging a sledge 


The modern chafing dish complete consists of stand and 
lamp, the blazer or dish proper, a cutlet dish and the hot 
water pan. The cutlet dish does not come with many of 
them, and in the cheap ones the hot water pan is also left 
out; but any cheap basin will answer the purpose. The 
wick in the lamp must be looked after. The asbestos wick^ 
or the common ball five-stranded lamp wick (cut into 
5-inch lengths, and 12 to 14 of these rolled together) may 
be used with equal satisfaction. Trim the wicks evenly at 
the top and fill the lamp about half full of alcohol. It is 
not necessary to use high proof spirits; wood alcohol will 
answer and comes much cheaper. Keep the wicks quite 
low and do not light them until ready to begin operations. 

As a general rule the cooking is done in the blazer 
over the flame when a quick, intense heat is required, and 
over the hot water to re-warm or cook more slowly. Put 
out the light as soon as the cooking is finished. Heat the 
dishes beforehand and prepare the foods for the chafing 
dish in the kitchen before seating yourself at the table with 
the chafing dish before you. 

Wafers or pieces of toast are the usual accompaniment 
to chafing dish foods. Anything to re-warm or anything 
that will cook quickly can be done in a chafing dish, 
whether fish, flesh, fowl, eggs or vegetables. 





One is often at a loss to know what is to be served when 
confronted with a modern menu card. The following em- 
braces nearly all ordinary dishes from first course to last. 



Consomme de boeuf Clair. . . .Amber or clear soup. 

Potage aux croutons Soup with bread. 

Consomme aux legumes Soup with vegetables. 

Consomme aux haricots verts. Clear soup with French beans. 

Consomme aux nouilles Noodle Soup. 

Potage printanier Spring soup. 

Potage aux queues de boeuf . . Oxtail soup. 
Potage a la puree de volaille . Chicken puree. 
Potage a la fausse tortue .... Mock turtle. 

Potage aux huitres Oyster. 

Puree legumes Vegetable puree. 

Soup a 1'oignon ............ Onion soup. 

Potage puree de pommes 

de terre Potato soup. 

Potage a la puree de haricots. Bean soup. 

Potage a la St! Germain Green pea soup with peas. 

Consomme tortue verte Green turtle soup. 

Bisque de crabes Crab soup. 

Puree de gibier Game soup. 

Puree a la queue de boeuf . . .Oxtail soup. 
Consomme aux pates d'ltalie. Italian paste. 
Consomme a la paysanne .... Peasant soup. 

Consomme a la careme Lenten soup. 

Consomme aux lentilles Lentil soup. 

Consomme gombo Gumbo soup. 

Consomme en tasse Consomme in cups. 



Huitres sur coquille Oysters on half shell. 

Huitres roties Oysters roasted, 


Fish. FRENCH TRANSLATION. Chicken and Game. 

Huitres au gratin Oysters escaloped. 

Huitres a la poulette Oysters fricassee. 

Clovis sur coquille Little Neck clams. 

Clovis frites Fried clams. 

Croquettes de clovis Clam fritters. 



Saumon au bleu Salmon boiled in court bou- 
illon. . 

Saumon grille Salmon broiled. 

Saumon Saute Salmon scalloped. 

Saumon, sauce persil Salmon, parsley sauce. 

Morue a la bechamel Cod, bechamel sauce. 

Morue a la creme Cod with cream sauce. 

Darne d' esturgeon rotie Roast fillet of sturgeon. 

Truite, sauce genevoise Trout, Geneva sauce. 

Maquereaux a la flamande. . .Flemish mackerel. 

Poisson varies Panfish. 

Perche blanche White perch. 

Poisson bleu Bluefish. 

Eperlans frits Smelts, fried, plain. 

Coquille St. Jacques, frites .. Scallops, fried. 

Poisson blanc Whitefish. 

Morue frite au petit sale Codfish, fried with bacon. 

Ablettes Whitebait. 

Oeufs d' alose Shad roe. 

Maquereau espagnol Spanish mackerel. 

Crabes mblles Soft shell crab. 

Homard au naturel Lobster, plain. 

Saumon frais Fresh salmon. 

Filet de sole, frit Fillet of sole, fried plain. 



Jeune poulet, demi Spring chicken, half. 

Jeune poulet, entier Spring chicken, whole. 

Foies de volaille en brochetteChicken's livers en brochette, 
Pigerronnaux au cresson Squabs with watercresses. 



Poule de prairie, entier Grouse, whole. 

Poule de prairie, demi Grouse, half. 

Perdreau, entier Partridge, whole. 

Perdreau, demi Partridge, half. 

Filet de chevreuil, grille Venison steak, broiled. 

Caille Quail. 

Pigeon ramier Wild pigeon. 

Pluvier Plover. 

Chapon, farcie Capon, stuffed. 

Courlis Doe birds. 

Ortolans Reed birds. 

Dinde Turkey. 

Dinde aux marrons Boiled turkey with chestnuts. 



Tendrons d'aqueau aux pointes Braised breasts of lamb and 

d'asperges asparagus. 

Ros bif aux pommes de terre . Roast beef and potatoes. 

Cotolettes de veau Veal cutlets. 

Poitrine de veau aux petit 

pois . . Breast of veal with green peas. 

Pieds de mouton frits Sheep's trotters fried. 

Petit sale aux choux Salt pork and cabbage. 

Noix de bceuf braisee Braised chump of beef. 

Haricot Stewed mutton with kidney 


Cochon de lait Sucking pig. 

Filet de boeuf aux champig- Tenderloin of beef with mush- 

nons rooms. 

Ris deveau Piques et braises. Sweetbreads braised and 

Paupiet tes de bosuf aux 

olives Beef, olives. 

Aloyau de boeuf > . . . Loin of beef. 


Sauce allemande German sauce. 

Sauce a la Bechamel . . . . Bechamel sauce. 


Sauces. FRENCH TRANSLATION. Vegetables. 

Sauce au beurre Fresh butter sauce. 

Sauce au homard Lobster sauce. 

Sauce au pautre homme Poor man's sauce. 

Sauce aux capres Caper sauce. 

Sauce aux crevettes Shrimp sauce. 

Sauce au kari Curry sauce. 

Sauce Hollandaise Dutch Sauce. 

Cabilland sauce aux huitres..Cod oyster sauce. 



Pommes de terre, bouillies. . .Potatoes, boiled. 

Pommes de terre, frites Potatoes, fried. 

Pommes de terre, Saratoga. . .Potatoes, Saratoga. 
Pommes de terre cuites au 

four Potatoes, baked. 

Pommes de terre a la maitre Potatoes stewed with fine 

d'hotel herbs. 

Pommes de terre, a la lyon- 

naise Potatoes, Lyonnaise. 

Patates ou pomms douces, 

frites Potatoes, fried sweet. 

Patates ou pommes hachees 

a la creme Potatoes, hashed with cream 

Patates ou pommes a la 

Parisienne Parisian potatoes. 

Puree de pommes de terre . . . Mashed potatoes. 
Patates ou hachees et frites. .Potatoes, hashed fried. 
Patates ou a la persillade .... Potatoes with parsley. 

Epinards Spinach. 

Haricots verts String beans. 

Beignets de panais Parsnip fritters. 

Croute aux champignon Mushrooms on toast. 

Coquilles de champignon. . . .Mushrooms in shells. 

Topinambours Jerusalem artichokes. 

Carottes a la creme Carrots, cream sauce. 

Courge a la paysanne Squash, country style. 

Petits pois au beurre Peas with butter. 

Tomates farcies . . ... Stuffed tomatoes. 


Vegetables. FRENCH TRANSLATION. Bread. 

Choux fleurs a la creme Cauliflower with cream dress- 

Macaroni au gratin Macaroni baked with cheese. 

Spaghetti, a la napolitaine. . .Spaghetti, Neapolitan. 

Croquettes de riz Rice croquettes. 

Asperges nouvelles New asparagus. 

Haricots verts francais New French peas. 

Haricots verts nouveaux New green peas. 

Salsifis Egg plant. 

Aubergine Oyster plant. 


Fetits pains au beurre ....... French rolls and butter. 

Petits pains au lait Milk rolls. 

Souffle aux reufs Egg puffs. 

Pain de niais ou de Graham .. Graham or corn bread. 

Pain grille Dry toast. 

Pain grille a 1'eau Dipped toast. 

Pain grille au lait Milk toast. 

Pain grille a la creme Cream toast. 

Gaufres Waffles. 

Pain prun de Boston Boston brown bread. 





OU have noticed the monotony of existence, 
of course. With your husband the round of 
life is by days. With you it is three times 
as short, or by meals. Having- to prepare 
food three times a day, indefinitely, you find 
that there are only narrow lines of eatables 
which can be relied on implicitly. However 
fancifully you may cook certain things, there are certain 
other articles which can be simply gotten up, and which will 
give better satisfaction. You will find that, for a steady jog 
over the course of life, yourself and husband will rely largely 
on good bread, butter, coffee, potatoes, beef, and mutton. 
These, with the fruits which come along already cooked, 
make up a constant bill of fare which puts strength in the 
limbs and, I think I may say, nobility in the heart. Now, 
if I can give any little hint about these cardinal elements of 
vitality which will hurry on your own conclusions, then any 
excuse for having opened my mouth at all will be sufficient. 
Now, about bread. The old-fashioned way of making 
"sponge" is the best. If your motker or your grandmother 
can tell you how to make the bag of corn-meal stuff and 
then the more fleeting jar of wet, sour, and uncomfortable 
mixture, you will have light bread. The compressed yeast 
of the grocer never yields the same results. Again, if you 
live in the city, the " Vienna bread " will give you a good 
deal for your money. The true u Vienna bake " has cracks 
in the roll, where the gas has escaped in heating. This 
bread averages better than you or any other person with a 
small oven can bake. It never palls on the taste. If you 
* 4 6 


Butter TO A YOUNG WIFE. Coffee. 

have but two in the family, it is cheaper than home-made 
bakings of equal freshness. 

Butter, since the introduction of grease into its manufac- 
ture, has become a problem. You cannot be sure that you 
are getting what you pay for, except during June. In June, 
butter is grass-sweet, and cannot be mistaken. If your grocer 
has butter at twenty, twenty-three, and twenty-eight cents, 
pay him twenty-eight cents. When it comes June, ob- 
serve whether or not the first-class butter is grass-sweet. 
If not, your grocer is a rascal, and you must make a change 
at all hazards. If the grocer be honest he buys honestly. 
His best butter will have little or no grease in it. I am 
inclined to think this particular grease brings on the fearful 
winter cholera which has made its appearance simultane- 
ously with the invention of oleomargarine. " Butter" set in 
a north window, exposed to the outside air, will often turn 
deathly white if there be grease in it, and by " grease " I, 
of course, mean the rendering fat of the slaughter-houses. 
Let your grocer understand that you resent grease in your 
butter ; he will then make an effort to save you from that 
trial. Never hesitate in paying the highest price. The 
grocer deals with many who want "first-class" butter at a 
second-class price. They do not wish to be told they are 
not buying the best. Let him know that you are not a 
hypocrite in this matter. Good butter is the cheapest for 
all purposes, principally on account of your health. 

A good cup of coffee is a "square meal" in itself. I can 
tell you just how to get it. Buy the best grades. If you 
choose roasted, have the grocer grind it before your eyes. 
Buy only one pound. Keep it in a tin canister. You need 
two-thirds of a pound of Java and one-third of a pound of 
Mocha. Go to the tinner's with a common, large coffee-pot. 
This ought to cost 35 cents. Have the tinner make an in- 
side can something like a " plug-hat," with a rim. On the 
inside of the pot, a little below the top, set out four tin 
shoulders to catch the rim of the inside can as it is set 
down into the pot. The bottom of the inside can should 
almost touch the bottom of the pot. This ought to cost 
about 60 cents more. Now, this inside can should hold the 
grounds and water for four cups of coffee. To make the 
coffee, use a "top-full" and a little more of coffee, and pour 
water to fill up the inside can. Then hang the can in about 
three inches of water in the big pot. This will cook the 
coffee as glue or oatmeal should be cooked. The aroma 


Mashed Potatoes. TO A YOUNG WIFE. Good Meat. 

will be in the coffee, instead of up stairs in the parlor or 
bedroom. If your husband has to hurry to business in the 
morning, get an oil-stove without any "extras," two wicks, 
and the coffee will cook in twenty minutes. That is about 
all an oil-stove is good for to hurry up a coal stove. The 
coffee is done when the grounds have sunk. Put absolutely 
nothing in it save cream and sugar. This coffee will make 
your husband love you. -It is a love-philter of the strongest 
nature. He will famish when he goes elsewhere for a meal. 

Your potatoes should be of the same size, peeled and 
cooked in cold water to start with. When they are fairly 
done, drain them excellently well, and keep the cover off 
them carefully. Do not let the steam strike in. Mash and 
mash and mash. Potatoes will stand a great lot of salt, and 
butter is thrown away on them, I am afraid. You can try 
that, however ; what I am after is a dish of dry, mashed 
potatoes, as flaky as the snow in a blizzard. Some people's 
potatoes are as slushy as hop yeast. Bah ! There are 
housewives who never have wet mashed potatoes, and I have 
given you their exact mode. If yours continue sloppy, 
simplify the proceeding ; do not slice ; be careful about the 
steam, and mash and mash. 

If you live in the city, beef is your constant trouble. It 
is beef, beef, beef, until you sicken at the sound and turn 
paler still at the thing itself. Your reliance here must be 
on the Lord and in the butcher. It is the butcher's inter- 
est to sell you all his bad beef first, and you will find him 
singularly true to his interests. It is a good idea to change 
butchers once a month. Buy, however, at the center of the 
city, if possible. The nearer the limits the poorer the meat, 
as a rule. Good meat costs but it is all eatable and digest- 
ible. I have found it the safest rule to buy the fattest. The 
marbled appearance sometimes comes from the sudden fat- 
tening on swill of a tough old cow. A good porter-house 
steak is as long as a large platter, and is grateful to the taste, 
tail, fat, and all. This, broiled on a big bed of coals, turned 
often, and dressed with melted butter, pepper, salt, slices of 
lemon and bits of parsely tops, is the best eating in the 
world. It makes one hungry to think of it ! Never fry 
meat in lard. But you can neither get nor afford this big 
porter-house regularly. Do the best you can with your own 
butcher. His meat is not fit. to eat. Tell him so. He 
knows it. But it is up to the demand. That is what he is 
after. When you go down town you get where they have 


Poultry TO A YOUNG WIFE. Medicine. 

to have better meat. Never buy mutton far from the center 
of the city, under any circumstances. Have your husband 
go into a shop where the sides hang. You want a young 
wether with three inches of fat on the outside. You want 
no bucks. The buck is high over the shoulders a regular 
hump. No real wether ever grows high there. You don't 
want any ewe, either. Cut from the ribs about as many as 
you can eat a hungry man can eat two or three. The 
butcher will clip off an inch of the fat. You will have a time 
of broiling it, for it will burn like oil. But, on the table, it 
is the healthiest meat in the world. It comes close to being 
the best tasting. The bad popular idea of mutton comes 
from the fact that the lean bucks all go towards the limits 
of the city to be sold. After a meal of gilt-edged broiled 
mutton, your husband will think this is quite a good world 
to get along in. 

As for yourself you thrive best on poultry. Have it often. 
You are, probably, not a bad judge of a chicken. Twist 
the wing. See that the butcher has not already twisted it 
before you! Never, my dear friend, trust your stomach with 
the digestion of pork. It is a meat unfit for female food. 
Use lard about as much as you use calomel. Cake is not 
so dyspeptic as pies. I think the butter makes the difference. 
Avoid frying for weeks at a time ; make your own experi- 
ments in this matter. Our fresh water fish are the very 
best. In little lakes they get bad in July. In cold lakes they 
keep good longer. Keep honey, dried peaches, and prunes 
on hand to regulate your bowels. Some people can eat 
neither milk nor cheese, nor eggs (except in March). Ex- 
periment with them. People with the piles must not eat 
tomatoes at all. Cider is a magnificent thing for bad livers, 
catarrh, and other troubles which come from or cause bad 
action of the bowels. You see I mix medicine with meals ; 
it cuts down doctors' bills. 

It may strike you that I have laid out a costly schedule. 
You must, therefore, be more economical elsewhere. I 
have calculated on shaving off a little from physic and tonic 
in order to put it on the porter-house and mutton chops. 
Physic and tonic come high. Think how much longer your 
husband will live on first-class food ! Waste of such ma- 
terials can have no fitting apology. JOHN McGovERN. 



NDER the head of "The Table," I include 
the setting of the table, the garnishing or 
decorating the dishes, the etiquet of the 
table, and carving. Dishes must be good 
and well cooked, of course. To have them 
tastefully arranged and gracefully served is 
not less important. Nothing displays the 
housewife's taste more. When the food is rich it gives it an 
added charm. When plain it will atone for the lack. No 
one is insensible to its influence. Many housekeepers sadly 
neglect this branch of their art, for to serve the food well 
is an art, and no unimportant one, either. It will pay you 
to study it. Excel in it, if you can. 


These colored plates have been prepared to illustrate the 
manner of garnishing dishes. Any housewife can set her 
table artistically by simply adopting the suggestions made 
here and in the chapter on Garnishing pages 117 and 118. 


Cake with Ornamental Frosting. Bake a handsome loaf 
cake and frost rather thinly with plain white icing. Let get 
dry before using the ornamentation. Make a cone out of 
some stiff writing paper, and fasten together with paste or 
white of egg. Mark on the dry icing with a lead pencil any 
design desired for vine, wreath, or flowers. For the orna- 
mental frosting, use about a pound of fine icing sugar to the 
whites of three eggs. Put half the sugar with the eggs in a 
bowl and beat vigorously with a small wooden paddle. Then 
add half a teaspoon cream of tartar and half the remaining 
sugar and beat still longer. Beat away, and add a very 
little sugar at a time until of the right consistency to flo\v 
through the cone. Fill the cone three-fourths full and fold 



the end down and cut off the point to form the size of hole 
required. Now guide the cone with the left hand and press 
the icing out by putting the right thumb on the folded part 
of the cone. Follow the lines, making light or heavy, as ex- 
perience-will soon teach you. Leave room on the top for 
some flowers. A Bride's Cake should be placed on a lace 

Fruit. This is a simple arrangement of apples and pears 
with green leaves interspersed. 

Epergne. A vase of flowers is at the top. The fruit-dish 
proper is filled with grapes, bananas, and oranges. 

Salad Garnished. This may represent any salad, either 
vegetable, fish, or chicken. Arrange green leaves of parsley, 
celery tops, or curled lettuce as prettily as may be, across the 
top. Capers may be used effectively. 

Lobster Garnished. The lobster (boiled) may be placed 
upon a bed of crisp lettuce, with a garnish of halves of cold, 
hard-boiled eggs, as seen in the cut. 


Mackerel. Slices of lemon are placed on the boiled 
mackerel, and parsley used as a further garnish. 

Small Fish. Parsley, curled lettuce, or fringed celery are 
placed as seen in the cut. 

Roast Haunch of Mutton. Any sprigs of green that are 
at hand may be used to ornament the dish as represented. 

Baked FisJi. Lemons are cut in halves and the rind 
notched like saw-teeth as seen in the cut, and placed alter- 
nately with sprigs of green. 

Porter-House Steak. Thin slices of lemon are placed on 
the steak, and sprigs of green around it. 

Slices of Cold Meat. Slices of lemon and sprigs of green 
are placed as seen in the cut. 


Roast Leg of Pork. Sprigs of green are placed on the 
platter close to the roast. (Slices of lemon might be added 
to this.) 

Fowl. There are sprigs of parsley at either end, and little 
dots of cranberry sauce around the edge. 

Roast Pig. Mr. Piggy has a baked apple in his mouth, 
while his tail and legs rest on sprigs of green. 


Plate III. COLORED PLATES. Set Table. 

Roast Turkey. Fried link sausages alternated with green 
celery tops are placed entirely around the turkey. 

Fillet of Veal. Slices of lemon and sprigs of green are 
placed around the fillet as shown in the cut. 

Forequarter of Lamb. Curled lettuce or other green 
garnish may be used for this roast. 


If soup be served as a first course, the cut may be con- 
sidered as representing the table as made ready for the next 

Flowers add to the appearance of any table, and are 
always in good taste. When the caster is used, the flowers 
may be in two bouquets at the ends of the table. A new 
custom now adopted by many families is to dispense with 
the caster. This gives room on the table for a center-piece 
of flowers either in a vase or glass. The pretty little glass 
vinegar jug with the equally pretty pepper and salt bottles 
now to be found in any crockery store serve the purpose of 
a caster. In the cut, I have retained the caster, as the ma- 
jority of housekeepers might be unwilling to discard it. 
The pepper and salt bottles are also represented, although 
the peppers are not necessary if the caster is used. Those 
who prefer individual salt-cellars, will, of course, use them. 

The knife and fork are sometimes placed side by side 
horizontally, sometimes the fork at the left and the knife at 
right angles to it just beyond the plate, and sometimes as 
seen in the cut. With so many different tastes, there can be 
no absolute rule. 

Goblets may be grouped together on a sideboard, on a 
side table, in a tray at one end of the table, or one put at 
each place, as seen in the picture. 

Napkins are folded in all varieties of shapes. On the 
whole, the simple square fold, I think, is preferable to all 
others, in which case lay one at each place. In the picture, 
they show to better advantage in the goblets. 

In cold weather, the plates are heated and put in a pile at 
the carver's place. 

In families where no servant is kept, it is perfectly proper 
for a guest to assist, in waiting upon any dish sufficiently 
near. One may help to the butter, another to the cran- 
berry or other sauce, and another to the vegetable that is to 
be served in a separate dish. Two kinds of vegetables are 
quite enough for the host to wait upon, especially when a 

384 _____ 

Set Table. COLORED PLATES. Dinner Etiquet. 

turkey is to be carved, for he must also help to the dressing 
and the gravy. 

When this course is finished, remove the plates, knives and 
forks, platter, and vegetable dishes. Brush the table-cloth 
with a crumb brush. 

If the dessert be pie or pudding, it should be brought on 
in the dish in which it was baked and placed with plates 
before the host or hostess, either of whom may serve it. 
If pie, let the one who serves it put a fork upon each 
plate. If it be pudding requiring a spoon, the spoon-holder 
may be passed to each one. For cake and fruit, put a plate 
with knife and fork at each place and pass the dessert 


The best dinners, and those that give most pleasure and 
satisfaction both to guests and hostess, are not necessarily 
the most expensive or ceremonious. First of all, in issuing 
invitations, be sure that your guests are similar in taste and 
in the same social scale. Then, a cordial welcome ; a cheery 
dining room ; with bright conversation and a delicate atten- 
tion to each guest ; with dishes well cooked and daintily 
served, will insure a charming meal, and you will be pro- 
nounced a Royal hostess. 


Great tact should be exercised in selecting guests for a 
dinner party. Those moving in the same social circle and 
of known congeniality should be brought together. 

Avoid bringing in contact those who are not on friendly 
terms with one another. 

Persons of literary tastes should be invited with artists 
and musicians. Religiously-inclined persons would not be 
agreeably entertained by those inclined to theatricals or 

Gentlemen should not be invited to a mixed company 
without their wives. And ladies should not be invited with- 
out their husbands if other ladies and their husbands are in- 

Invitations should be sent by messenger, and not mailed, 
unless to persons out of town. 


Irvitations. DINNER ETIQUET. " Dinner is Ready." 


Among a variety of forms, we give one of Invitation, one 
of Acceptance, and one of Regret : 

Mr. and Mrs. Guy Livingstone 

request the pleasure of 
Mr. and Mrs. Roy Hamilton's 

company at dinner ', 
On Friday, Jan. Second, 1883, 

At Six o'clock. 
5030 Washington Boulevard. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hamilton write an Acceptance as follows : 

Mr. and Mrs. Roy Hamilton accept with pleasure the invitation of Mr. and 
<frs. Livingstone to dinner on January Second, at six o'clock. 

Or, if circumstances require it, send Regrets, as follows : 

Mr. and Mrs. Hamilton regret that a previous engagement will prevent them 
from accepting the kind invitation of Mr. and Mrs. Livingstone for January 

In a note of acceptance it is well to name the day and the 
hour, to avoid any possible mistake. 

If the dinner is very ceremonious, the invitations should 
be sent out from one to two weeks in advance. If not very 
formal, from two days to a week are regarded as sufficient 

An answer should be returned at once, that the hostess 
may make her arrangements accordingly. 

Guests should arrive about fifteen minutes before the 
hour named for the dinner. A delay beyond the hour is un- 
pardonable. A hostess ought never to wait beyond fifteen 
minutes for a tardy guest. When the guests are all assem- 
bled, after removing their wraps, the hostess will inform each 
gentlemen whom he is to escort to the table. 


Let dinner be announced quietly by the attendant to the 
hostess, who nods to the host and he leads the way with the 
lady assigned to him. This may be the eldest lady present, 
or a lady for whom the dinner is given, or a bride. The 
other guests follow, the ladies on the right arm of their es- 
corts, followed by the hostess with the most distinguished 

386 ^ 

The Table DINNER ETIQU.ET. The Dinner. 

gentleman, or the one whom she wishes to honor, placing 
him at her right hand, she being opposite the host. The 
guests all remain standing until she seats herself. The 
ladies are assisted to seats by their escorts, who immediately 
seat themselves. The ladies sit at the right of their escorts. 
The host and hostess may sit at opposite sides or at oppo- 
site ends,* as seems most convenient. 

If guests who are unacquainted find themselves side by 
side at the dinner table, it is perfectly proper for them to 
engage in conversation. It is not etiquet for husbands or 
brothers to escort their own wives or sisters. 


The table-cloth should be white and spotless, and of as 
" fine linen" as the means of the hostess will justify. Let the 
napkins be large, of fine texture, and unstarched. Under 
the table-cloth should be placed a thick spread to deaden 
the sound. Cotton flannel or baize may be used. An epergne 
of fruit and flowers, or a center-piece of flowers, is always 
in good taste. A tiny bouquet in bouquet-holder, or tied 
neatly with a ribbon, placed at the plate of each lady guest, 
and a button-hole bouquet for each gentleman, are marks 
of delicate attention, besides being aids in the decoration of 
the table. 


If raw oysters enter into the bill of fare, they must be 
the first course. If they are omitted, the soup is the first. 

Soup as a first course is sometimes placed at each plate 
before the meal is announced. If it is so served, the soup- 
plates should be well heated. It seems desirable for some 
reasons to serve it in this manner. Especially with an un- 
trained servant, danger of spilling is avoided, which is worth 
considering in a company of richly-dressed ladies. If served 
at the table, it is proper for either host or hostess to offici- 
ate. The tureen and pile of plates are placed in front and 
but a single ladle-full dipped into each plate, passed to an at- 
tendant who serves first the lady of honor then all the other 
ladies, followed by the gentleman ^f honor and the other 
gentlemen. The plate must be handed at the left on a 
salver (but water should always be poured at the right). 
All should take soup, even if they eat but little. As soon 
as each one has finished, the plate should be removed. The 
hostess must eat (or appear to eat) until each guest has 
finished. When all are through and the tureen is removed, 

< 387 

Th Ttbl. DINNER ETIQUET." Hints to the Invited. 

the next course is brought on. If it is fish, do not serve 
more than one vegetable with it., Bread is. passed with each 
course after soup. 

Next follows the roast of meat or fowls. It is in good 
taste for a sirloin with proper accompaniments of vegetables, 
pickles, jelly, etc., to constitute the substantial part of the 
meal without any fowls. Or, if preferred, a nice turkey 
with the usual accompaniments may be served instead, to 
be followed by the pastry. Jelly is not served in sauce- 
dishes, but is put upon the dinner-plate, either by the host 
or by each gentleman for himself and the lady at his side. 
Do not help too abundantly. It is in very bad taste. Do 
not urge a second supply of the same dish. 

If finger-bowls are used, one should be placed at the left 
of each plate. It should contain luke-warm water and a 
slice of lemon, or a geranium leaf, or any slight flavoring of 
rose, verbena, or anything else. Colored finger-bowls are 
prettier than white. They may be put in place before the 
guests are seated, or brought on with the dessert. 

After the substantial part of the meal is removed, it is 
optional whether or not to change the table linen. 

The dishes pertaining to each course must all be removed, 
and others substituted for the next course. 

Dessert-cloths and napkins can be procured, and are ex- 
ceedingly pretty and in good taste. 

The pudding and pastry is next served. Coffee may be 
served with this, or at the last. When coffee is served, the 
cream and sugar as desired should be put into the cups 
first, and the hostess should always pour it. 

Fruit comes after the pastry, and confectionery and ices 
follow. Fruit-cloths and napkins are used optionally. They 
are always colored. 

When the meal is finished, the hostess rises and the 
others follow her example. The gentlemen usually repair 
to the smoking-room, while the ladies proceed directly to 
the parlors, preceded by the eldest, for a social chat. It is 
proper to depart in an hour after the dinner is over. 


Wear gloves to the table, and remove them when seated. 

A gentlemen must see that the lady whom he escorted is 
helped to whatever she wishes, but should not offer to help 
others who have escorts. 

Eat raw oysters with a fork. 

388 __ 

Hinte. DINNER ETIQUET. Hints. 

Eat soup from the side of a spoon, and silently. Do not 
tip the plate for the last spoonful. 

Eat fish with a fork. 

Do not mix your food on the plate. 

Eat cheese with a fork. Macaroni also. 

Eat game and fowl with a fork. Cut the meat from the 
bones with a knife, but do not carry a bone to the mouth 
at a dinner party. 

Do not use your own knife and fork for purposes for which 
other knives and forks are provided. 

Do not use the edge of the table-cloth for a napkin. 

Do not eat noisily. 

Do not soil the table-cloth by setting a dripping cup of 
tea or coffee on it. 

Drink tea or coffee from the cup and not from the 

Do not soil the cloth by laying the knife and fork on it, 
instead of on the plate. 

Do not partake too freely of any delicacy. 

Do not speak in boisterous tones at the table. 

Do not use a handkerchief if it can possibly be avoided. 
If obliged to cough, turn the head and hide the mouth with 
the napkin. 

Do not speak of disagreeable subjects or loathsome ob- 
jects at the table. 

Do not stir the tea or coffee noisily, or so as to spill it. 

Do not, by word or manner, take exceptions to any arti- 
cle of food set before you. If anything disagreeable is found 
in your food, put it aside quietly and without remark. 

When a dish is particularly inviting, it may be spoken of 
in praise to the hostess. 

Eat slowly. 

Pay no attention to accidents* 

Do not lean the elbows on the table, or tip the chair. 

To use the finger-bowl, dip the fingers in lightly and wipe 
them on the napkin. 
' Never pick the teeth at the table. 

Do not fold the napkin when done with it at a dinner 

When taking leave after the close of the dinner, thank 
the hostess for the enjoyment conferred upon you. 


Sunday. BILLS OF FARE. Monday. 


" No useless dish our table crowds ; 

Harmoniously ranged and consonantly just, 
As in a concert instruments resound, 
Our ordered dishes in their courses chime. " 

I offer here a few suggestions as helps to the practical 
housewife in her everyday cooking. If large lunch, dinner, 
or tea parties are given in the city, a caterer may be em- 
ployed. If given in the country, the articles obtainable at 
the time of year must enter into the bill of fare. 




Oatmeal Mush. Codfish Balls. Saratoga Potatoes. Waffles. 
Maple Syrup. Coffee. 


Roast Beef with Yorkshire Pudding. 

Potatoes, Celery, Canned Vegetables, and Pickles. 

Blanc-Mange. Apple Pie. Coffee. 


Thin Bread and Butter. Cold Baked Beans. Sauce. 
Cake. Tea. 



Cracked Wheat and Milk. Ragout of Cold Roast Beef. 

Baked Eggs. Baked Potatoes. Coffee or Chocolate. 


Boiled Dinner. Suet Pudding. 


Mush and Milk. Buttered Toast. Cheese. Sauce. 
Cake. Tea. 


Tuesday. BILLS OF FARE. Thursday. 



Fried Mush. Maple Syrup. Corned Beef Hash. 
Hot Rolls. Coffee. 


Roast Pork. Fried Apples. Boiled Potatoes. Tomatoes. 

Lemon Pie. 


Potato Salad. Cold Roast Pork. Milk Toast. 
Jelly Cake. Jam. Tea. 



Oatmeal Mush. Codfish Stew. Baked Potatoes. Muffins. 
Coffee or Chocolate. 


Boiled Mutton. Boiled Rice. Mashed Potatoes. Turnips. 

Baked Indian Pudding. 
(Leave enough Potatoes for Breakfast.) 


Cold Mutton, garnished with Lemon. Russian Salad, 
Hot Biscuit. Lemon Butter. Gingerbread. Tea. 



Rice Croquettes. Broiled Beefsteak. Lyonnaise Potatoes. 
Laplanders. Coffee or Chocolate. 


Calves' Liver Larded. Potatoes. Cold Slaw. Corn. 
Mince Pie. Cheese. 


Chipped Beef. Sweet Pickles. Buttered Toast. 
Preserves and Cake. Tea. 


Saturday. BILLS OF FARE. Another Wwk. 



Hominy. Egg Omelet. Saratoga Potatoes. Graham Gems. 
Doughnuts. Coffee or Chocolate. 


Fish Baked, Boiled, or Fried. Potatoes. Cauliflower. 
Tomatoes. Rice Pudding. 


Sardines with slices of Lemon. Banana or other Fritters. 

Bread and Butter. Floating Island. 

Spogge Cake. Tea. 



Macaroni. Mutton Chops. Potatoes a la creme. 
Griddle Cakes. Coffee or Chocolate. 


Oysters or Fowls. Seasonable Vegetables. Berry Pie. 


Boston Baked Beans and Brown Bread. Lettuce. 

Welsh Rarebit. Cranberry Sauce. 

Cake. Tea. 


ist. Veal Cutlets. Johnny Cake. 
2nd. Liver and Bacon. Wheat Cakes. 
3rd. Scrambled eggs. Graham Muffins. 
4th. Tenderloins. Corn-Meal Rolls. 
5th. Salt Mackerel. Bread Pancakes. 
6th. Ham and Eggs. Popovers. 
7th. Fried Chicken. Corn Cakes. 

1st. Roast Turkey. Pumpkin Pie. 
2nd. Boiled Ham. Roll Pudding. 

392 _ _. 

Suggestions. CHILDREN'S PARTY. Suggestions. 

3rd. Veal Pot-Pie. Cranberry Pie. 

4th. Beef a la mode. Queen of Puddings. 

5th. Parsnip Stew. Pie-Plant Pie. 

6th. Fish. Boiled Indian Pudding. 

7th, Beef Soup with Vegetables. Snow Balls. 


Rolled Sandwiches, Panned Oysters, Biscuits. 

Cream Puffs, Orange Tarts, Jelly Tarts, 
Small Pickles, Vanities, Varieties, Lady Fingers, 

Nun's Sighs, Mother's Love-Knots, Whistles, 
Rissoles, Pyramid Paste, Jelly Roll, Birthday Cake, 

Canary Cake, Eugenia Cake, Frosted Patty-Pans, 
Variety Cake, Kisses, Comfits, Jelly in Molds, 

Frosted Fruits, Raisins, Popcorn Balls, 
Fruits, Nuts, Confectionery, Sherbets, Water Ices, 
Ice Cream in Molds, Lemonade, Chocolate. 

Also make a pyramid cake of four loaves, baked in a 
two-quart, three-pint, and a pint basin and a muffin-ring, 
all put together and heavily frosted. 

Give each little guest a tiny lace bag of confectionery tied 
with a ribbon. Either make the bag square, or in the 
shape of a stocking. If you have no lace, use mosquito 
netting, and tie it with bright worsted. 

Festoons of popcorn are pleasing, and a tiny bouquet for 
each one is just the thing. The bouquet should be placed 
by the plate at table. 


Remarks. CANDY- MAKING. Excelsior. 


It is now quite the thing to make candy at home. The 
home-made is much more wholesome for the little folks 
than the cheap, highly-colored confectionery retailed so 
largely. Candy-making is a pleasant pastime for children, 
and they will become quite expert at it in a surprisingly 
short time. 

In boiling sugar for candy it is recommended to keep the 
top of the vessel or basin partly covered, after it commences 
to boil. The steam which rises and is forced back by the 
cover prevents the formation of crystals. Any kitchen 
sauce-pan will answer for making candy. In my own family, 
we usually take a bright tin 3-pint basin for sugar candies. 

For molasses candy, that is generally made in larger 
quantities, a deep kettle is the best. 

To prevent graining, add a little acid of any sort, 4 or 5 
drops of lemon juice, or a teaspoon cream of tartar, or vin- 
egar. But if too much acid is used, it will also grain it, 
neither can it be boiled to "caramel." 

To pull candy, rub some fresh butter or lard on the 
hands to prevent sticking. If forming into sticks, it is bet- 
ter to flour the hands slightly. Be careful not to use enough 
flour to taste in the candy. 


Mabel Bower, St. Joseph, Mo. 

One pound C sugar, or pulverized sugar, I cup water. 
Stir on the stove till dissolved. Then let cook until a little 
dropped in cold water will snap. When done it will boil in 
little bubbles. Do not stir it at all. When ready, turn out 
on buttered plates or tins, but do not scrape the dish. Give 
the scrapings to the children. Set the candy over a pail of 
cold water or in a cool place, so it can be handled in about 
5 minutes. The edges will cool first. Turn them into the 
center and take up in your hands as soon as cool enough to 
hold. Keep the fingers smooth with fresh lard or butter. 
Pull quickly, and with the fingers not with the hands. 
When it is white and begins to get brittle, stretch on a 
mixing-board and cut in lengths. If any essence is de- 
sired, put in as it is cooling. Vanilla is best. If it turns to 
sugar before you can pull it, cook it over again, adding water 


Christmas. CANDY-MAKING. Caramels. 

to it Vinegar spoils it. Lemon juice is good, but gives it 
a yellow tinge. If you wish a creamy candy, cook until it 
threads in water ; then add a teaspoon vanilla and pull well. 
Set in a cool place for a day or two. It will melt in your 


Two cups granulated sugar boiled in ^ cup water ; add J 
teaspoon powdered gum arabic dissolved in two tablespoons 
vinegar. Let boil rapidly over a hot fire. Do not stir. 
Dip some up in a teaspoon and hold the spoon in a glass 
of cold water. If it is brittle and will snap ofif, pour out of 
the kettle immediately onto a greased platter. Do not put 
the scrapings in. In 5 minutes it will be cool enough to 
pull and work into twists or braids. 


Miss Carrie G. Smith, Chicago. 

One pint molasses, I cup sugar. Boil and stir every min- 
ute. When partly cooked, put in ^ teaspoon butter. When 
it hardens in cold water, it is done. Put in \ teaspoon 
cream of tartar, with the butter, and just before you turn it 
out, put in a scant teaspoon of soda. Walnut, hickory-nut, 
or hazel-nut meats may be added to this candy. 


One quart molasses and I tablespoon of butter. Boil to- 
gether till it will snap in water. Stir in a pinch of soda to 
whiten it. Pour on buttered dishes and when cool enough 
to handle pull until white. 


One pound maple sugar. Melt in a cup of sweet milk 
and i tablespoon butter. Cook till almost brittle in cold 
water. Turn on to a buttered plate. Mark in squares, 
when cool enough. 


Aunt Ann Owens. 

One coffee-cup rich cream, i coffee-cup brown sugar, 
I coffee cup molasses. Piece of butter the size of an egg. 
Boil 20 minutes then add 7 even tablespoons grated choco- 
late and boil till done. Pour on a buttered flat dish and 
mark into squares as soon as cool enough. 


Chocolate. CANDY-MAKING, Cwoanut 

Chocolate Caramels. 

Leslie Bower, St. Joe, Mo. 

One pound C sugar, 2 squares chocolate, I teaspoon 
butter, I cup water. Cook until it snaps in water, then turn 
on greased tins or patty-pans, in thin cakes. 


Half cake chocolate grated, 2 cups brown sugar, \ cup 
milk. Put the chocolate in a plate on a kettle of hot water 
to melt. Mix the sugar with it. Put the milk in a 3-pint 
or other convenient vessel to boil, watch it carefully to pre- 
vent burning. As soon as it boils pour in the mixture and 
let cook 12 minutes, stirring all the time. Pour into buttered 
tins or plates to cool, and mark into squares as it hardens. 


One pint granulated sugar, J cup water, I scant teaspoon 
butter, | cup milk, I teaspoon vanilla, 3 squares chocolate. 
Boil the sugar, milk, water, and butter for 20 minutes. Add 
the vanilla last. Remove from the stove and stir pretty 
constantly until cool enough to handle. Grate the chocolate 
and put in a dish over a kettle of hot water to melt. Form 
the candy into little balls the size of a thimble. When cold, 
roll them in the melted chocolate. Put on a greased plate 
or paper to harden. 


One cup sugar, I cup molasses, I cup milk ; butter size of 
an egg, boil 25 minutes, but do not stir only to keep from 
burning ; just before taking up, add a pinch of soda and 2 
grated squares of chocolate. Try in water, and when brittle, 
it is done ; then turn into a buttered pan and when the 
candy is cool mark it off into squares. 


Three cups white sugar, scant half cup water, \ teaspoon 
cream of tartar, Boil 10 minutes, then add I cup grated 
fresh cocoanut (or desiccated if you can not get the fresh). 
Beat well together and drop on white paper by the spoonful. 


Two cups white sugar, cup water, I teaspoon vinegar, 
I teaspoon cream of tartar, I tablespoon butter. Boil 20 

396 __ 

Almond. CANDY-MAKING. Peanut. 

minutes in 3 pint basin or other small vessel, stirring care- 
fully to prevent burning. Then pull. 


Put 4 tablespoons butter into a saucepan. When it is 
melted add I pound of sugar. Let boil 20 minutes, then 
stir in 2 ounces of blanched almonds that have been divided 
and dried in a slow heat. Let boil together until it crackles 
in cold water. 


Mrs. E. E. Bower, St Joseph, Mo. 

One large cocoanut. Pare off the brown skin and slice 
the meat thin ; 2 pounds C sugar dissolved in a cup of water. 
When the syrup is hot, pour in the meat and cook until the 
syrup will snap in cold water. Then turn on a deep pie- 
tin to cool. Don't put in the scrapings, as it grains. 


Two cups sugar, I cup boiling water, J cup butter, \ cup 
vinegar. Flavor with lemon. When cooked sufficiently, 
pour it on buttered plates to cool. 


Two cups sugar, | cup vinegar, I teaspoon butter, I tea- 
spoon lemon extract. After it commences to boil let boil 15 
minutes, and pour out on 2 greased plates. When partly 
cool, pull till white. 


Take I quart granulated sugar, I pint water, 2 tablespoons 
vinegar ; boil, but do not stir it ; you can tell when it is 
done by trying in cold water. Pull it as if it were molasses 
candy ; have a dish near by with some vanilla in, and work 
in enough to flavor it as you pull ; put it in a cold room, and 
the next day you will have delicious candy. 


Four cups brown sugar, 2 cups butter, 2 tablespoons water, 
same of vinegar, a pinch of soda. Boil \ hour. Drop a 
little in water. If crisp, it is done. 


Two cups sugar, 2\ cups New Orleans molasses, I cup 
water. Butter size of an egg. Boil until it hardens in 


Anabel's CANDY-MAKING. Macaroons. 

water. Add i\ teaspoons soda while on the stove and 3 
quarts roasted peanuts, halved. 


Anabel Toncray, Tollesboro, Kentucky. 

Three cups sugar, ij cups sweet milk. Boil until it will 
harden in cold water. Then pour on greased plates and 
cut in sticks. It will cook in about 30 minutes. 


A delicious fruit candy is made by adding chopped raisins 
and figs to a syrup made by stewing 2 pounds sugar with 
the juice of 2 lemons, or, if lemons are not at hand, with a 
cup of vinegar flavored with essence of lemon. Dried cher- 
ries and any firm preserves may be used instead of raisins 
or figs. 


Two cups grated cocoanut, I cup sugar, 2 tablespoons 
flour, the whites of 3 eggs beaten stiff. Mix and bake on a 
buttered paper in a quick oven. 


One cup hickory-nut meats, pounded to a paste, I cup 
sugar, i\ eggs, 2 tablespoons flour. Bake on a greased 
paper ; put very little in a place. 


One pound powdered sugar, 4 eggs, whipped very light 
and long; juice of 3 lemons and peel of I ; I heaping cup 
prepared flour; teaspoon nutmeg. Butter your hands 
lightly ; take up small lumps of the mixture ; make into 
balls about as large as a walnut, and lay them upon a sheet 
of buttered paper, more than two inches apart. Bake in a 
brisk oven. 


Whites of 5 eggs beaten to a stiff froth ; add I pound pul- 
verized sugar, and I teaspoon lemon extract. Drop on 
white paper and bake about 20 minutes in a moderate oven. 


Make a strong tea of the herb and dissolve the sugar in it 
and proceed as in other candies. Strain the tea through a 
fine muslin before adding the sugar. 

398 _ 

Rsh. CARVING. Turkey. 


Take a cup of sugar, put in a basin with just water to dis- 
solve it, and Haifa teaspoon of butter. Boil until it com- 
mences to brown in the center, then pour over the freshly 
popped corn, stir, press into balls as hot as can be handled. 
Rub the hands lightly with butter. 

The seat of a carver should be higher than the other seats 
at the table. He must himself determine the height most 
convenient for his own use. The platter must be within easy 
reach. A knife, well sharpened and easy to handle, is an ab- 
solute necessity. With these requisites and a careful atten- 
tion to details, a novice may become an expert after a few 
trials. The person at the head of the table should never, 
under any circumstances, use his own individual knife and 
fork in helping others. 


In cutting, be careful not to break the flakes. A fish 
trowel is almost indispensable in serving the larger varieties. 
Carry the trowel under the meat over the back-bone, so that 
the meat may be raised from the bone. The choicest part 
is next to the head, and deteriorates, towards the tail. The 
part next to the bone in large fish is not desirable. Divide 
the fish both crosswise and lengthwise in pieces to suit the 
number to be served. The roe is esteemed a delicacy, and if 
on the ^platter, a morsel must be served to each person. 


In order to serve both the light and dark meat, cut off 
the wing, leg, and second joint nearest you. Then slice 


Roast of Beef. 


Haunch of Mutton. 

down in very thin slices. A good carver will find slices of 
breast for a large number of people, while a bad one will 
serve comparatively few with choice pieces. Cut from 

either side, removing the opposite wing and leg, if necessary. 
Everyone should be helped to the dressing with the meat. 


Cut cross wise off the top in smooth, thin slices, 
each person with some of the dressing and fat. 



With a well-sharpened knife, cut across the grain in thin 
slices, clear to the bone. Those who prefer it well done, will 
be served from near the outside; while those wishing it rare, 
will be served from the inside. 

If the bone has been removed by the butcher, and the 
roast rolled, it will look almost precisely like the fillet of veal 
in the cut, and must be sliced horizontally in thin slices. 


Make a deep cut to the bone across the knuckle end of the 
joint. Then turn the platter a trifle, put the point of the 


Roast Pig 


How to Cut a Cake. 

knife midway of the cut just made, and cut straight and 
deep toward the opposite end of the haunch. It should then 
be carved in even slices along the whole length on the right 
and left. 


Slice down to the bone in even slices not too thin as 
indicated by the scores in the rind. Commence at the cen- 
ter and serve from either side. 


Separate a shoulder from the carcass on one side, and then 
separate the leg similarly. The ribs are considered choice. 
Divide them conveniently, and serve one to each person, 
with plenty of the stuffing. The leg is not so rich as the 
ribs, and may be preferred by some. Pieces may also be cut 
from the joints. 


First make a round hole in the center, an inch in diameter, 
with a tin tube or a sharp-pointed knife. Then cut through 
to the edge and serve in thin slices. 





ET the kitchen utensils used for preparing dishes 
for invalids be scrupulously clean. If this is 
neglected, a disagreeable flavor may be im- 
parted, which will disgust the patient, and 
lead to a refusal to take any nourishment what- 
ever. Never cook a large quantity of any one 
thing. A variety is necessary to tempt the 
appetite. I knew of one case in which some soup was car- 
ried to the bedside of a sick lady iii a two-quart tin-basin. 
The lady was fastidious, and, of course, that meal was 
spoiled. Gruel served in a glass is more appetizing than if 
served in a cup or basin. 

Always have some dainty dish in readiness. If a patient 
is required to wait for food, he loses the desire to eat. 

Have a clean napkin spread on a tray, and let the service 
be as bright as possible. If a patient cannot eat what is 
offered, do not leave it by him in hopes that he may eat 
it, but take it right away and after a while bring it again ; or, 
perhaps, make some little change in the arrangement of it. 
Do not serve beef tea or broth with any fat on the top. 
After either is made, let it cool, when the fat may be re- 
moved entirely. 

Be very particular about the quality of the food placed 
before an invalid. Milk or soup that is beginning to sour, 
a stale egg, or underdone vegetables, should never be 
brought into a sick room. 

Do not spill the contents of the cup into the saucer. 
When I have been weak and sick, I have had my break- 
fast entirely spoiled by a cup of coffee brought to me partly 
spilled into the saucer. 

Provide plenty of clean napkins and towels for use. These 
are necessary to protect both the bedding and the clothing 
of the patient. 


Apple Water. INVALID COOKERY. Mulled Buttermilk. 


Roast 4 nice, smooth, tart apples carefully, preserving all 
the juice. Put them into a pitcher and pour on a quart of 
boiling water. Let cool, and it is a refreshing drink for an 
invalid. May be sweetened or flavored if liked. 


One tumbler tamarinds, I pint cold water. Turn the 
water over the tamarinds, and let stand an hour ; strain be- 
fore using. Currant jelly or cranberry jelly can be used 


Toast 2 slices of stale bread, on both sides, a rich brown ; 
cut in pieces, and pour on a pint of boiling water. Physicians 
may order wine or other stimulant added for an invalid. 


Bake some crab-apples thoroughly. Put in a glass, 
sweeten, and pour water over to cover them. 


Simmer a tablespoon of hops in a pint of water. When it 
savors strongly of the hops, strain and add white sugar, a 
teaspoon at a time, to suit the taste. 


Pour boiling water over pieces of bread, toasted very 
brown. Strain for use, and add cream and sugar. 


One pound ground flax-seed and 2 lemons, boiled together 
in 4 quarts water. Sweeten to taste after it cools. Especi- 
ally good for persons with weak lungs. 


One cup milk sweetened, 2 tablespoons brandy stirred 
in. Give it with ice. Grate nutmeg over the top. 


Make a thickening of I tablespoon flour and cold butter- 
milk, and stir into a pint of boiling buttermilk. Stir con- 
stantly after putting it on the stove. Add a little allspice, 
and sweeten to the taste, Pour over pieces of toast, 


Alum Whey. INVALID COOKERY. Lime-Water and Mlik. 


Half ounce powdered alum. Mix with i pint sweet milk. 
Strain and add nutmeg and sugar. 


Boil a pint of fresh buttermilk. Add a pinch of salt, a 
teaspoon lump sugar, and nutmeg, if liked. Pour off, and 
sweeten to taste. 


One quart milk, almost boiling, 2 tablespoons prepared 
rennet, or a piece of rennet which has been soaked in water. 
Sugar to taste. Stir the rennet into-the hot milk ; let stand 
until cool, and strain. 


Boil I pint milk, add J cup of acid wine ; let boil up. 
Then set aside till the curd settles. Pour off, and sweeten 
the whey with loaf sugar to taste. 


Beat a fresh egg very light, add a little sugar, and stir 
into a tumbler of milk. 


Beat the white of i fresh egg, juice of I lemon and a tea- 
spoon sugar into a glass of water. A pleasant and nourish- 
ing drink in low fevers, dysentery, inflammation of stomach, 
pneumonia, etc. 


Three tablespoons whole flaxseed to I quart boiling water ; 
let stand until very thick ; then strain over the juice of I 
lemon and powdered gum arabic ; sweeten to taste. 


Put ^ gallon milk in ajar and tie down with writing paper. 
Let stand in a moderate oven 8 or 10 hours. It will then be 
like cream, and is good for consumptives and invalids 


One wine-glass lime water, mixed with i goblet milk. 
Can be retained in the stomach when it rejects everything 
else. It may be taken as often as desired. 


Roasted Potatoes INVALID COOKERY. Indian Meal Gruel. 


Select large potatoes, and roast them in hot ashes. When 
done, press firmly in a cloth with the hand ; then take the 
inside out on a plate and season lightly with butter. 


Use the breast, and broil over hot coals, or on a wire- 
broiler, on both sides. Season lightly with butter, pepper, 
and salt. Serve on a dainty plate, with a dainty piece of 
toast and jelly. 


Mix 3 tablespoons arrowroot with water or milk until per- 
fectly smooth ; boil the peel of I lemon in a pint of water 
until reduced one-half ; take out the peel and pour in the 
dissolved arrowroot ; sweeten it, and boil 5 minutes. 


Cut a large chicken into very small pieces, break the 
bones, put into a stone jar, water-tight ; set the jar into a 
kettle of boiling water and boil 3 hours ; strain off the liquid 
and put in a cold place. Season with loaf sugar, salt, pepper, 
mace, and lemon-juice. 


Rice, ^ pound ; loaf sugar, J pound ; water sufficient to 
cover it, spice or lemon peel. Boil the rice until dissolved ; 
strain and season ; set away until cold. 


One cup sago, I quart water or milk, rind of lemon, nut- 
meg. Wash the sago well, and soak for 3 hours ; boil in 
the same water or milk until transparent. 


Wash a cup of tapioca through several waters, soak all 
night, and boil until transparent ; add sugar and lemon- 
iuice while boiling, and put away to cool when done. 


Mix half a cup of Indian meal with a very little water, 
stir until perfectly smooth ; to 3 cups of boiling water, 
salted, add the meal, stirring it in slowly ; let it boil J hour ; 
it can be retained on the stomach when almost everything 
else is rejected. 


Boiled Flour Gruel. INVALID COOKERY. Dried Beef Breth. 


Tie a cup of flour in a cotton cloth and boil three hours. 
Then take it out and when cold remove the soft outside part 
and grate the inner part when wanted for use. Thicken 
milk with it as for common porridge, and season with sugar 
and salt. It is a most excellent and agreeable food for 
teething children with tendency to bowel complaint. And 
it is equally good for invalids. 


Half pint milk and J pint water ; heat to boiling and stir 
in i teaspoon flour mixed with i tablespoon cold water. 
Let cook 5 minutes. Salt slightly. In cases of diarrhea, 
season with pepper and nutmeg. 

Milk Porridge. 

Mix J cup flour with i cup water to a smooth paste. Add 
to it i pint boiling milk. Let cook about 10 minutes in a 
double boiler. Salt and flavor as liked. 


One pound lean beef, cut very small, put into a wide- 
mouthed bottle, corked closely ; set the bottle into a kettle 
of water, and keep it boiling for 2 hours ; strain the liquid 
and season. Chicken can be used the same way. 

One pound lean beef cut fine, put into I pint cold water ; 
add 6 drops muriatic acid. Mix thoroughly, let stand I 
hour, strain and press until all the liquid is extracted. 


Chop lean fresh -beef very fine. Season with pepper and 
salt, and spread on slices of buttered bread, either white or 


Boil the first and second joints in a quart of water till 
tender. Season lightly with salt and pepper. 


Slice dried beef very thin and cover with boiling water. 
Set back on the stove, closely covered, for \ hour. Season 
with small lump of butter and pinch of pepper. Serve with 
crackers or bread cut in dice. 


Mutton Broth. INVALID COOKERY. For Weak Stomachs. 


Boil I pound lean mutton or lamb in I quart unsalted water. 
When very tender, take out, strain the water ; add a table- 
spoon rice previously soaked in a little warm water. Dim- 
mer J hour. Stir often, season to taste ; add 4 tablespoons 
milk ; simmer again, and serve hot with cream crackers. 


To | cup good cream add 2 cups boiling water. Serve 
with bits of toast, and salt lightly. 


Put I quart milk in a saucepan on the stove. When it 
comes to a boil, season with butter, salt, and pepper, and 
drop into it J pound, or less, of oyster crackers, or broken 
crackers. Let stand half a minute, take right up and serve 
hot. Good for breakfast or tea either for well or sick. 


Mrs. J. R. Jackson. 

Pour enough boiling water on 3 soda crackers to saturate 
them ; add I teaspoon butter, a pinch of pepper and salt. 
To this add 2 soft-boiled eggs, and serve hot. 


Boil a cup of new milk. Beat the white of an egg to a 
stiff froth, and scald in the milk ; then stir the beaten yolk 
with i tablespoon sugar. Let boil up and pour it over a 
slice of sponge cake, after flavoring with \ teaspoon of any 
essence liked. 


Take thin pieces of light bread, or a couple of crackers, 
in a bowl. Put in a small lump of butter, grate some nut- 
meg, or use cinnamon, if preferred. Pour over boiling 
water. Sweeten to taste. Add spirits, if required. 


Pour \ cup water over a slice of nice toast. Sprinkle 
lightly with nutmeg and sugar. Then add 4 tablespoons 
cider. Wine may be used, if preferred. 

Take corn and roast it the same as coffee. Grind it in a 

__ _ 407 

Tomato Custard. THE NURSERY. Nursing- Bottles. 

coffee-mill and make into a mush, gruel, or thin cakes- 
baked and give either warm or cold with whatever sea- 
soning the stomach will bear. Boiled in milk, it is excel- 
lent for summer complaints. 


Mrs. J. R. Jackson. 

Strain I pint stewed tomatoes through a sieve ; add 
4 beaten eggs, i pint new milk, I cup sugar, I tablespoon 
flour. Bake in small tins. 

Tie I cup flour in a piece of muslin ; put into cold water 
and boil 3 hours. Turn out and dry in the sun, or in a 
moderate oven. Grate a tablespoon to a cup of boiling 
milk and water, half and half. Make the flour smooth with 
a little cold milk before stirring in. Salt a little. 



Always test the temperature of the water by dipping the 
elbow in it. A dear old Irishwoman was in my room one 
day when I was about to wash my first baby. She thought 
the water was too hot, and it proved so to be. Then she 
told me of this never-failing test. Many a tender babe has 
been almost burned by a bath in water that would feel only 
comfortably warm to the hand of the nurse so accustomed to 
heat that an added degree would be scarcely perceptible. 


When milk has been set aside for the baby, use the upper 
third. The curd or cheesy part falls to the bottom. The 
upper is more easily digested. 


Let me persuade mothers to discard the tubes that come 
with nursing-bottles. They are a fruitful source of infantile 
troubles. Many a baby has gone to its grave through their 
use. No matter how particularly they are cleansed, parti- 
cles of sour milk will adhere to some parts of the rubber. 
Our best physicians are now advising against them. This 


The Baby. THE NURSERY. Rocking the Baby. 

is so serious a matter that it cannot be argued too strongly 
A rubber nipple placed over the mouth of the bottle is very 
convenient and comparatively safe. It should be kept in 
cold water when not in use, and the bottle should be filled 
with water. 


Buy five cents' worth of shot and put into the bottle with 
a little water and shake it well. Every bit of sour milk or 
curd will come off readily. Pour out the shot, rinse the 
bottle, and keep the shot in a dish on the stove-shelf or near 
the stove to dry, and it is ready for use the next time. This 
is the easiest way possible to clean a bottle. 


After an infant has slept for a couple of hours or more, 
turn it over on the other side, and it will sleep just about as 
long again. 


I wish to urge upon every young mother the plan of 
putting babies to bed without rocking them. If there were 
but one child in the family, and it were known to a certainty 
that it would be the last of that line, there might be suffi- 
cient excuse to devote one's time to rocking it to sleep. 
But when the first steps aside for the second, and the second 
is followed by the third, and so on, the mother's time is too 
valuable to spend two or three hours a day in forming a 
habit which will be but an injury to the little one afterwards. 
If it has been put to sleep at the breast during the period of 
nursing, then let the plan be formed when it is weaned. 
Feed it, and when it is time for its nap fondle and kiss it as 
much as you like, but lay it down, cover it up, turn and 
leave it. It will sob and cry, and perhaps sit bolt upright or 
slide out of bed, but put it back, if for twenty times. It will 
not take very many of these persistencies until the habit of 
going to sleep alone and quietly will be formed, and all 
parties to the proceeding will pronounce themselves the 
better for it. Pray do not think your child an exception. 
Children are very much alike, after all. Of course, it takes 
longer to conquer some than it does others, and strong wills 
are very perceptible, even in babies of a few months old. 
Our aim is not to break the will, only to bend it in a direction 
to benefit itself. 


And now a word to mothers those of you who do your 


Mothers. THE NURSERY. Save Yourself. 

own work. Women who keep servants may skip this chap- 
ter. Save yourself. Save yourself. 


In the first place, sit all you can. Sit down to prepare 
the vegetables for dinner. Sit down to wash the dishes. 
Sit down to scour the knives and rub up the silver. Sit 
down to take up the ashes. Sit down to the ironing-board 
and smooth the plain pieces. And here, before I forget it, 
let me say, get your steel knives plated and save yourself 
about six hours' time each month. Once plated, they will 
keep bright, with ordinary washing and wiping, three or 
four years. Nothing will spot them. Vinegar or acid of any 
kind has no effect. It is called Stannil Plating. The cost 
is one dollar per dozen knives. It is an- investment that 
pays a very large interest. 

When you wash your dishes being sure they are well 
washed pour hot water over them, and turn them upside 
down on a cloth laid on the table, in a basket, or, better 
still, get a dish-drainer, cover them up with a cloth or news- 
paper, and go about your other work. They will be clean 
and dry when you are ready to put them away. 

Now, about ironing. If your husband's night-shirt is 
smoothed in front and folded artistically, who is to know 
whether the back has been ironed or not ? I '11 venture to 
say that he will not, unless you tell him. The same with 
your own night-dresses ; and the children's drawers ! Little 
romps, they soil them in less time than it takes to do them 
up. Let the gathers go. Iron the bottoms of the legs 
smoothly, and that is enough. You can iron six or eight 
pairs in this way, while, otherwise, you would be working at 
two pairs. 

Learn to slight where it will do to slight. Some gar- 
ments must not be slighted in the least. Aprons and dresses 
should be done the very best that one knows how. 

Sheets may be folded smoothly and have a weight put 
upon them ; or, take one at a time, and lay it under the 
ironing-sheet and iron over it for awhile. Then fold and 
put away, and take another, until all are done. 

It is not absolutely necessary to iron skirts, except for 
twelve or fifteen inches above the bottom. 

Bear in mind, these are hints to those only, who need 
them. But there is enough in life that has to be done, with- 

Earache. THE NURSERY. Croup. 

out vexing our souls and wearing out our bodies over work 
that is not essential either to the happiness or well-being of 
our fellows. 


Turn the little sufferer on the side, and from a height of a 
foot or more pour into the affected ear a small stream of 
water just as hot as you dare use. It will cause a moment- 
ary screaming, but the pain will cease. I have tried this 
with a child two years old, who was suffering intensely from 
earache, and the entire face and head seemed inflamed. It 
was not fifteen minutes before he fell asleep, and that was 
the last of the earache. 


I am satisfied that the practice of inserting cotton 
in an affected ear for any cause is a very pernicious one. 
A well-known army surgeon in a western city suffered much 
while in the army from earache, and kept putting in cotton to 
exclude the air. He finally became deaf and suffered from 
various nervous ailments for years. A friend, also a physi- 
cian, finally examined his ear, and took out over half a finger 
length of thick wads of cotton. His deafness disappeared, 
and his nervous system was restored to health. This case 
is perfectly authentic. A high medical authority said that 
nothing smaller than the elbow should be put in the ear. 


Excite a vigorous motion of the jaws by chewing some- 
thing either gum or paper. This is said to be effectual. It 
is certainly worth trying. 


Children frequently get beans, grains of corn, buttons, or 

other substances, up their noses. In such a case, have the 

child open its mouth, apply your mouth to it, and blow 

rather hard. The obstacle will be expelled from the nostril. 


As soon as the wheezing is heard, apply the coldest water 
you can get to the neck and chest. Pound up some ice in a 
napkin and feed the child a little at a time with a teaspoon. 
Keep the cold compress on the throat and chest, and if per- 
sisted in for a short time relief will be almost certain to 
follow. At any rate, even if a physician is sent for, use these 
precautions, and nine times out of ten the disease will be 

Whooping-Cough. REMEDIES. Refreshing Warfi. 

checked at once. The chief difficulty in croup is in letting 
it get full headway. There is not an instant to lose. 


Ged. Butler, Waukegan, 111. 

Olive oil, 2 ounces; Jamaica rum, 2 ounces; brown sugar, 2 
ounces; laudanum, I drachm. Melt the sugar in a little water 
and add the other ingredients. Give a teaspoon after every 

After the third week of whooping-cough, put I ounce 
strongest liquid ammonia in a gallon of boiling water in an 
open pan. Keep up the steam by putting in a red hot brick. 
Place in the center of the room where the patient is. This 
will frequently terminate the malady in 3 or 4 days. Try 
it each night until relieved. 

Make a couple of little calico bags loose enough to al- 
low free use of the fingers. Tie them around the wrists 
with draw-strings. Keep them on night and day, and re- 
place with another pair when soiled. A couple of days will 
often suffice to effect a cure. 


Mrs. S. C. A. White. 

Wash the head in a solution of carbolic acid in water. 
Any druggist will tell you the proportion to use. In a 
week's time wash again in order to destroy the animal life 
as it hatches. This is equally good for swine, if similarly 



Two ounces each of lavender, mint, rosemary, rue, sage, 
and wormwood. Put into a vessel and pour over it 3 or 4 
quarts good vinegar. Cover closely, and keep in a warm 
place 4 days. Then strain, and add I ounce powdered 
camphor gum. Bottle, and cork tightly. Get nurses and 
others employed about a sick-room to use it as a wash. 
Good in infectious diseases. 

4 I2 

Sponge Bath. REMEDIES. Discoloration. 


Dr. J. E. Gilman, Chicago. 

One cup water, i cup alcohol, i tablespoon salt, I ounce 
aromatic spirits of ammonia. Very agreeable and stimulat- 


A couple of drops in a swallow of water, and an occasional 
use of a smelling-bottle of it, will afford great relief. 


Boiling spoils herbs. Put them on the stove in cold water, 
and steep slowly. 


Put dried sage into a hot shovel, and it will take away 
any disagreeable smell in a sick-room or sleeping-room. 


In case of small-pox, or any contagious disease, cut up 
an onion and put it in the sick-room, and replace it every 
hour with a fresh one. 


H. C. Strong, Chicago. 

Put a piece of saltpeter the size of a pea in a glass of water 
on a shelf in the room needing it. A most valuable anti- 


Immerse the part in as hot water as can be borne until 
the pain and inflammation are relieved. Even in cases where 
amputation seems necessary from the terribly lacerated con- 
dition of a cut or bruised hand, it may be saved by keeping 
it in a basin of hot water for a few hours. Keep the water 
hot, and do not give up until the inflammation has subsided. 


One drachm oil of wormwood. Mix with i gill alcohol. 
Apply to sprain or bruise, and keep a cloth wet with it on 
the injured part. Will cure in a very short time. 


To prevent discoloration of the skin after a hurt, moisten 
a little dry starch with cold water and put upon the injured 
part. Do it as soon as possible after the injury. It is a far 
pleasanter application than raw beef, and just as effectual. 

Chapped Hands. REMEDIES. Cough. 


Mrs. M. A. Woodworth. 

One ounce glycerine, 2 drachms spermaceti, 2 ounces olive 
oil. Mix by heating. Mutton tallow may be used instead 
of spermaceti, in which case stir until cool to prevent the 
glycerine from settling to the bottom. 

Three drachms camphor gum, 3 drachms white beeswax, 
3 drachms spermaceti, 2 ounces olive oil. Put in a vessel on 
the stove and let melt slowly. Anoint the hands before 
retiring, and put on a pair of old gloves. If the hands are 
chapped, use oatmeal instead of soap for washing them, and 
rub on dry oatmeal to absorb the moisture. 


Mrs. J. E. Chace, Mishawaka, Ind. 

One quart snow water, or pure rain water, I tablespoon 
salt, i tablespoon fine crushed sugar (pure), I teaspoon white 
vitriol. To prepare the vitriol, lay a white paper on the 
back part of the stove, and put the vitriol on it. Do not let 
it brown, but let it bubble up as long as it will, and let it 
remain till it is perfectly dry. Then pulverize it and mix 
the ingredients all together. Use as a wash. 


Mrs. E. E. Bower. 

Sugar of lead, 5 grains ; sulphate of zinc, 5 grains ; rose 
water, 2 ounces ; morphine, I grain. 


If the eyes are weak and it is troubleso'me to thread a 
needle, it may be helped by holding the needle over some- 
thing white and then threading it. 


Juice of 2 lemons in a glass of hot water, sweetened, and 
soda sufficient to cause a fermentation. Drink immediately 
after stirring in the soda and take it before retiring. 

Take a package of dried mullein, steep in a pint of water 
till reduced about half. Strain and add I pound loaf sugar. 
Dose for an adult a tablespoon after each meal and before 


Diphtheria. REMEDIES. Cholera, 


Mrs. M. W. Callahan, Tangipahoa, La. 

Smoke in a common clean pipe equal quantities of ground 
coffee and rich pine saw-dust. My husband finds almost in- 
stant relief when his throat and lungs are sore. Swallow 
all the smoke you can. 


Mrs. L. S. H. 

One pint best vinegar. Break into it an egg and leave in, 
shell and all, over night. In the morning it will all be eaten 
except the white skin which must be taken out. Then add 
i pound loaf sugar, and for an adult, take a tablespoon three 
times a day. This is a most excellent remedy for a cough 
in any stage. 


J. M. Ball, Normal, 111. 

Half ounce chlorate potash dissolved in water add 3 
ounces tincture of iron. One teaspoon of the mixture to 
a wine-glass of water. Gargle with it, and after the third 
application it will be cured. 


Mrs. R. H. James, Otsego, Wis. 

One teaspoon refined borax and one teaspoon pure 
glycerine put into a cup, and half fill the cup with hot water. 
When cool, use as a gargle. Very excellent in scarlet fever. 


Mrs. Wm. F. Carroll, Chicago. 

To i quart blackberry juice add I pound white sugar, I 
tablespoon each of cloves, allspice, cinnamon, and nutmeg. 
Boil all together 15 minutes. Bottle while hot, cork and 
seal. Put up in small bottles so that fermentation will not 
set in while using. 


Mrs. E. E. Bower, St. Joseph, Mo. 

Laudanum, I ounce ; spirits camphor, i ounce ; essence 
peppermint, I ounce ; Hoffman's anodyne, i ounce ; tinc- 
ture cayenne pepper, i drachm ; tincture ginger, \ ounce. 
Mix all together. For cramps, ^ teaspoonful every half 
hoar until relieved. For cholera morbus, I teaspoonful 
every half hour until relieved ; some cases may need more. 
In cholera, a tablespoonful may be given along with strong 

Liver Bitters. REMEDIES. Corns 

, doses of catnip tea. For cold, uneasy pain in the stomach, 
10 drops is usually enough. One or two drops will relieve 
colic in babies almost instantly. Always take it in at least 
five times as much water, well sweetened. In cramps, use 
hot water. When traveling, a few drops in the water you 
drink will prevent any bad effects from change of climate. 
Be sure and have the druggist make it full strength. 


Mrs. E. E. Bower. 

Hops, 2 ounces ; Buchu leaves, 2 ounces ; dandelion root, 
2 ounces ; mandrake root, i ounce ; rhubarb root, I ounce; 
juniper berries, 2 ounces; alcohol, I pint. Putin a stone jar, 
turn on 4 quarts hot water, cover and let it stand on the 
stove 24 hours. Do not boil, but evaporate to about 2 
quarts Strain, and, when cool, add the alchohol ; and, 
after mixing it well, ''everlastingly shake it." Bottle tight. 
Those who prefer can add loaf sugar, I pound, made into 
simple syrup. Ordinary dose, I tablespoonful ; though, of 
course, one's judgment must be used. For chills, the day 
the chill comes, take 3 spoonfuls within an hour. At other 
times, take just before eating and going to bed. 

Paint the bunion over with iodine. 


Get some lumps of fresh lime and make a foot-tub full of 
strong whitewash mixture, and immerse the feet in it as hot 
as may be borne. This remedy is to cure that disagreeable 
itching that troubles one after having frozen the feet. This 
itching will come on night after night and season after sea- 
son. The relief will be instantaneous. Let them remain 
half an hour in the whitewash. They will be shriveled up, 
but free from pain. Rub them briskly and great rolls of 
dead cuticle will peel off. Anoint with mutton tallow, put 
on some cotton stockings, and go to bed. Repeat the ap- 
plication if necessary, but it will require but two or three to 
effect a cure. 


Oil of spike rubbed on twice a day will often effect a cure 
in a few days. 


Sir Humphrey Davy's Recipe. 

Two drachms potash and I drachm salt of sorrel. Mix 


Warts. REMEDIES. Mustard Poultice. 

into a fine powder. Put on enough to cover the corn for 
four successive nights, binding it on with a cloth. 

Corns can often be cured by paring them down and 
rubbing on a little strong vinegar or acetic acid every night. 
Each morning, rub them over with lard or olive oil. 

The latest cure for soft corns is this : Wash and dry the 
foot thoroughly, and put on a sprinkling of dry sulphur night 
and morning for several weeks, and a cure is assured. 


Apply oil of cinnamon to the wart for three successive 
days, and it will disappear very shortly. 


Get from a Homoeopathic pharmacy a small vial of causti- 
cum. Give half a dozen pellets three times a day for three 
weeks and the warts will disappear. 

[This I could not credit had I not tried it in my own 
family. The child's hands were literally covered with these 
excrescences, and more were coming all the time. But this 
remedy effected a cure in less than a month. ED.] 


Mrs. S. C. A. White, Maywood, 111. 

Apply nitric acid with a pointed quill toothpick. When 
it dries, pick it off and apply again until the mole is entirely 
removed. It leaves a slight white spot, which grows dimmer 
with age. 


Mrs. J. J. Bower, Erie, Pa. 

Make a poultice of raw onions and change every six hours. 
I have cured many cases with this. Never knew it to fail if 
kept on. Ha-ve always drawn out the poison in from twelve 
to thirty-six hours. 


If poison of almost any kind has been swallowed it may be 
rendered harmless by swallowing immediately half a pint of 
sweet oil. 


Apply olive oil and relief instantly follows. 


To make a mustard poultice that will draw and not blister, 
mix the mustard with white of egg. 


Linseed Poultice. REMEDIES. Sleeplessness. 


Make a flannel bag 8 by 12 inches, leaving one end 
open. Leave an end of flannel projecting over the opening, 
so it can be folded over and basted when the poultice is 
put in. Fasten a tape at each corner, to use in keeping the 
bag in position. Get another piece of flannel twice as long 
as the bag is wide and the same width as the length of the 
bag. Mix crushed flax seed with boiling water rather soft, 
and pour it into the bag, already heated before the fire. 
Fasten the end over by basting, and wrap the strip of flan- 
nel (well-heated) around the bag and fasten it in place 
with string or safety-pins. A layer of cotton-batting may 
be put outside also. Thus a boiling hot poultice may be 
used. The layers of flannel allow a gradual passing of the 
heat to the skin. The increase of the heat is so gradual 
through the flannel conductors that there is no painful 


G. W. C., Cleveland, O. 

One pound pressed hemlock bark. Break in pieces and 
put into a 3-quart tin-pail. Pour over it 2 quarts boiling 
soft water, and simmer slowly. When reduced to 3 pints 
set it aside to cool ar.d pour off the clear liquid for use. Wet 
the whole scalp thoroughly four or five times a day, rubbing 
gently with the finger-ends. When the scalp gets healthier 
and stronger use more friction. One package will generally 
be all that is required to tone up the scalp. It will not only 
prevent the hair from falling out, but will bring a new 
growth of hair if there are any hair bulbs at all. 


Take half a pound of fresh hops and put into a small pil- 
low-case, and use for a pillow. My husband suffered in- 
tensely from sleeplessness for many months, the effects of 
sunstroke, and the first relief he experienced was from the 
use of a hop pillow. For a night or two his sleep was very 
hard and he awoke tired. But it caused him to sleep for 
six or eight months. After that as his sleep began to be 
disturbed again, he ate a dish of fried onions just before 
retiring about every second night, and that worked well 
for a few weeks. One remedy seems to exhaust itself, and 
if let alone for a time can be resorted to again. A high 


Hops To Heat. REMEDIES. Citric Acid. 

London authority recommends a eup of hot beef tea, made 
from half a teaspoon of Leibig's extract. It allays brain 


If necessary to use hops on a sick person, make two bags 
and fill with them, and heat in a steamer over hot water. 
This saves many a burnt hand and bad stain. Keep one 
heating while the other is in use. 


Dr. Alma S. Bennett, Elk Point, Dakota. 

One drachm sal ammoniac, 4 ounces camphor water. Take 
a teaspoon once in five minutes until relieved. This has 
proved a great boon to a large number of sufferers. 


Lemon, eaten freely, without the peel, and without sugar, 
has proved very beneficial in neuralgia. But very little 
sugar, if any, must be used. 


Procure a little plantago from a Homoeopathic pharmacy 
and take a dose every ten minutes if instantaneous relief 
does not follow. 

To stop a tooth cavity from bleeding, fill the cavity with 
Plaster of Paris made into a soft putty with water. 


Dampen some bi-carbonate of soda or common saleratus 
with water, and apply to the whole burnt surface. Cover 
with a cloth and keep it moistened. This is effectual in 
every case. 


Take a heaping tablespoon of bran, put it into a goblet of 
water and let stand till well soaked. Then drink it entire. 
Do this every morning. 


Two tablespoons Glauber salts, i teaspoon bi-carb. soda, 
J teaspoon common salt. Put I teaspoon of the mixture in 
a goblet of boiling hot water, and drink every morning, for 
constipation, the liver and the blood. Have the salts pul- 
verized as fine as possible. 

Piles. REMEDIES. Hydrophobia. 


Take a heaping teaspoon of milk of sulphur before retiring. 
Also wash the parts with a strong borax water, injecting if 
possible, and lay on a soft linen cloth well saturated with 
the solution. Repeat once or twice or until a cure is effected. 
It has cured very aggravated cases within the knowledge of 
the author. 


It is claimed by good authority that milk, eggs, and toma- 
toes must be omitted in the diet of those suffering with piles. 
In which case, no medicine will be necessary. 


For any female weakness or bearing down, the greatest 
relief may be afforded by an injection in the vagina, of water 
as hot as can be borne. This is a far better remedy than any 
manipulation can afford. 


Put one or more basins of water under the bed of the 
patient, and renew every day. A change for the better will 
be observed in a very short time. Another suggestion is to 
have a strong healthy pers-^ i occupy the bed with the pa- 
tient for a few nights. This will help to reduce the sweat- 


Twenty minutes in the smoke of wool or woolen cloth will 
take the pain out of the worst case of inflammation arising 
from any wound. All danger from lock-jaw will be removed 
if this remedy is resorted to. 

A gentleman writes to a Pittsburgh paper that he was 
completely cured by handling doves. He procured a number 
and would stroke and play with them daily, and the result 
was a cure for Iv'm, but death to the doves. This distressing 
malady is so obstinate that one afflicted with it will resort 
to almost anything suggested. 


Jane Grey Swisshelm. 

Take 3 ounces of the root of elecampane, stew it in a pint 
of new milk and give it, milk and all, in the morning while 
the stomach is empty ; have him fast six hours after taking 


Small-Pox. REMEDIES. Care of Beds. 

it ; repeat the dose 3 times in 3 successive mornings, and 
the cure is complete. Several persons have written to say 
that it had been tried, on my recommendation, and with suc- 
cess. One man who had 2 children, and, I think, 20 hogs 
and cows bitten by a dog furiously rabid, had administered 
it to all, and 6 months after wrote to say that none of them 
had any symptoms of hydrophobia. Elecampane is generally 
known as a powerful medicinal plant, and as it has been 
successful, and doctors are powerless before this disease, I 
hope it will be promply tried, and if it fails I should like to 
know it. 


A missionary in Syria, Mr. R. P. Legrand, says he has 
known 60 cures in 60 cases by use of the following: Take 3 
handsful of the leaves of datura stramonium (jimpson weed), 
boil in I quart water until reduced half. Drink it all as soon 
as possible after the bite. A violent madness will ensue, 
but of short duration. This is followed by profuse perspira- 
tion, and in 24 hours the patient is cured. Cauterization 
might be resorted to also at the outset. 

Sulphate of zinc, i grain ; foxglove (digitalis), I grain ; 
sugar, ^ teaspoon. Mix with 2 tablespoons water. When 
thoroughly mixed add 4 ounces water. Take a teaspoon 
every hour. Either disease, it is claimed, will disappear in 
twelve hours. Give a child a smaller dose. This cure has 
been the rounds of the press from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
and thousands of cures ascribed to it. 

Make a poultice of sulphur and fresh butter and apply. 


The place where we spend about one-third of our time 
should have due attention, that our sleep may be sweet and 
refreshing. I believe, from extensive observation, that there 
is no part of housework so neglected by the average house- 
keeper as the care of beds. Let us be charitable, and say 
it is mainly for want of knowledge on the subject. 

There are various ways to construct a good and healthful 
bed without the use of feathers. A moss or hair mattress 


Hair Mattress. CARE OF BEDS. Feathers. 

over a good set of springs, with a home-made cotton com- 
forter above, is probably the best bed one can have. But 
hair is so expensive that comparatively few families use it, 
besides it is not always pure and clean. However, a hair 
mattress can be renovated at home. The cover can be 
taken off and washed ; the hair washed, scalded, and dried, 
and then picked apart loosely again, put back in the cover, 
and tacked as before. This is far better than to send it 
away to be renovated. 

A husk mattress will answer the purpose of moss or hair 
very well, provided you have good springs. Whatever the 
bed may be, I consider the home-made comforter as indis- 
pensable. None but the very best of cotton should be used, 
so it will not pack and get solid. Six or seven pounds is 
sufficient. For winter use, they should be made of wool. 
The covering may be of the very lightest quality of bed- 
ticking what is called straw-ticking. A thin unbleached 
muslin, when tied or knotted with some bright color, is pretty 
and serviceable. It should be made about the size of the mat- 
tress. This is the very best contrivance to protect the 
heavier and more stationary mattresses, as it can easily 
be thrown out upon the line to air and sun once a week, 
and it can be washed once or twice a year. Most people 
entertain the erroneous idea that comforters must be taken 
apart to be washed. If the best of cotton is used, washing 
will not hurt them ; the inside needs to be cleansed even 
more than the outside. 

A cheaper bed, and one that is equally as comfortable as 
a hair mattress, may be made as follows : Fill a common 
bed-tick with split husks, wheat or oat-straw ; above it place 
the home-made mattress or comforter above described. 
Split husks are very durable. Oat-straw is soft and comfort- 
able, and convenient to shake up and air thoroughly every 
morning, and can, with a trifling expense, be replenished 
once or twice a year, or, indeed, at any time after the bed 
has been occupied by a sick person. Constant use is a 
serious objection to mattresses. I wonder they are so 
commonly used when they are so heavy and inconvenient to 
move about and difficult to renovate Surely, they would 
not be if the importance of sunning and renovating beds 
were better understood. 

Concerning feather beds, I am compelled to say that they 
scarcely possess a solitary virtue, not one redeeming quality 
to justify their use. As a rule, elderly people are prejudiced 

422 * ^_^ 

Wool Mattress. CARE OF BEDS. Small Bedrooms. 

in their favor, and imagine nothing else can make them 
comfortable. Doubtless, in most instances, a thick home- 
made wool mattress over a soft oat-straw or split-husk bed, 
with a good set of pliable springs, would be equally as com- 
fortable. It is justly claimed that feather beds are soft and 
warm warm because they do not so rapidly conduct the 
animal heat from our bodies ; but we do not want present 
comfort at the expense of future health. The comfort they 
afford is more than over-balanced by the injury they do us. 
They invariably increase any tendency to nervousness, and 
aggravate pulmonary disorder. They cause a general sense 
of oppression and lassitude. They weaken and impair our 
every vital function. They make us more susceptible to 
colds and to all changes of the weather. They retain the 
dampness of perspiration and thus develop the germs of 
disease. Besides this, there is more or less dead animal 
matter belonging to the feathers which is constantly under- 
going decomposition, and the odor therefrom is very 
offensive and unwholesome. 

Hence, if they are to be used at all, the greatest care 
should be taken to prevent them from becoming completely 
saturated with their own impurities, to say nothing of what 
they receive from the human body. 

The skin is a respiratory organ ; it both inhales and ex- 
hales. It contains about two and a half million pores, which 
are constantly at work giving off waste matter, and also 
absorbing the elements about them. It is authentically 
stated that at least eight ounces of excrementitious matter 
is conducted through these pores during the average time 
of sleep eight hours. 

The bed upon which we lie and the covers of the same 
serve as a receptacle for these foul emanations. The per- 
spiration loaded with waste matter deposits its impurities 
and leaves them there to be reabsorbed by the skin unless 
they are dissipated by air and sunlight. It is difficult to 
get impurities out and pure air in through the close ticking. 

Few beds get sufficient hot summer sun and wind to 
purify them. The general idea that a bed can be kept pure 
by exposure to the air twenty-five or thirty minutes, or even 
an hour, each morning, in a close, dark bedroom, together 
with one day's sunning during house-cleaning time (which 
comes once or twice a year) is absolutely ridiculous. Im- 
agine the impurity of such a bed ! 

It is a great mistake to plan a house with small bedrooms. 


Sunlighf. CARE OF BEDS. Comforters. 

They should always be large, and have a sunny outlook, if 
possible. We can often utilize the sunlight as It streams in 
through a large window and save carrying beds, bedding, 
and pillows down stairs. Remember that sunlight means 
life to people as well as to plants. I wish I could impress 
every reader of this chapter with the importance of airing 
the top mattress (or home-made comforter) and all the bed- 
ding in the real sunlight once a week, or once in two weeks 
at least. A day should be taken as regularly for this as for 
the family washing, and the housekeeper should so under- 
stand her duty. 

The bed and windows should be thrown open each morn- 
ing, and left so at least two hours. 

How important it is that this moment's work should be 
done before leaving the sleeping-room. 

There is but one way to keep a bed in a wholesome con- 
dition, and that is by sufficient contact with pure air, sun- 
light, and water. It is just as important that our beds be 
physiological as that our food be wholesome. 

It would be better to abandon the feather pillow, also, 
although they are less injurious than beds of the same, as 
the head is not so entirely covered from the outer air. Good 
pillows may be made of the inside of corn husks finely split ; 
or the moss or hair that upholsters use (if the latter has been 
subjected to a cleansing process as before described). A 
pad made of extra good cotton and covered with cheese- 
cloth, placed over husk pillows and tacked at the corners, 
makes them softer and prevents the rustling. This can be 
washed and renewed occasionally. For children especially, 
it is far better to substitute something for feathers. 

The quantity and quality of the bed covering is just as 
important as the proper construction of the bed. It should 
be as light as possible to insure warmth. Like the bed, the 
covering should be of such material as will absorb dampness 
and impurities as little as possible. Comforters made of 
cotton batting (and often the poorest quality) so generally 
used in this country are very objectionable. They are com- 
pact and heavy. Their use requires too much weight for* 
sufficient warmth. They render respiration less free, and 
retard circulation. * A sense of languor and weariness fre- 
quently follows their use. A light, puffy, wool comforter is 
superior to anything else for warmth. It requires about 
three and a half pounds for each comforter. The wool can 
be purchased of wool-dealers in the spring, or of some near 


Wool Batting. CARE OF BEDS. Ventilation. 

farmer. It must be thoroughly washed twice, in good suds, 
rinsed well, dried and taken to the woolen mills. See the 
superintendent and order your batting to be made without 
oil, in order to prevent the disagreeable odor of the grease 
used in woolen mills. Explain your request, and demand 
that they grant it. Comforters made of wool wash very 
nicely, even better than the best grade of cotton. The pro- 
cess for washing them most successfully is very simple. 
Soak them half an hour in a tub of warm rain water, in 
which a small piece of soap has been dissolved Then stir 
and punch them ten or fifteen minutes with a smooth stick. 
This is a better way than rubbing on the washboard. Do 
not wring, but drain them thoroughly by laying them on 
sticks placed across the top of the tub. Rinse twice, letting 
them soak in each clear water fifteen minutes, at least ; drain 
and dry, and I assure you they will look well, and be pure 
and clean. When they are about two-thirds dry, take hold 
of the lower edges as they hang upon the line, and shake 
them thoroughly. This tends to make them light and puffy. 
Quilts may be washed in the same way. This manner of 
washing bedclothes is simple and easy and there is no ex- 
cuse for its being neglected. I am sorry to say a clean, 
sweet bed is an exception the world over. 

Every garment worn during the day should be removed 
at night. The night-gown should also have a fair chance 
for airing during the day. The habit some people have of 
folding the gown and placing it under the pillow in the morn- 
ing should be discontinued. Canton flannel gowns are best 
for winter. Every one can afford them. Make them plain, 
and the washing and ironing will be a light task. The body 
and limbs should be entirely free from ligatures and com- 
pressions of all kinds, during sleep. The circulation and 
respiration should be perfectly free. 

Ventilation is another important item. It is an error to 
suppose that fresh air is essential only during the warm sea- 
son of the year. It is just as necessary to our well being, 
physically and mentally, in winter as in summer. However, 
the volume of fresh air required in cold weather is not so 
great on account of its being more highly oxygenated, but 
we need it in due proportion. Impure air vitiates the blood, 
and is just as detrimental to health as bad food. It actually 
poisons us slowly, seriously, fearfully, and fatally. The 
carbonic acid in an ill-ventilated room does not do its fatal 
work very speedily, but it does it surely. 


Dry Beds. CARE OF BEDS. Death in the Bedroom. 

A very convenient and effectual way to ventilate a room 
is to raise one window as high as you desire and lower the 
top sash of another, on the opposite side of the room if pos- 
sible. If there be but one window in the room open it at 
top and bottom. Notwithstanding the necessity of pure air, 
it is not well to sleep in a draught. The use of a screen, or 
a soft curtain allowed to fall loosely over the open window, 
is a good protection. 

It is necessary to health that the beds be kept perfectly 
dry. Many hard colds, and, indeed, many deaths, result 
from sleeping in damp beds. People with weak lungs quickly 
feel the effects of them. 

Often in traveling it has been my lot to occupy the 
" spare bed," which I have always examined. It is easy 
to diagnose the dampness, but to tell what the result of 
sleeping therein may foe is far more difficult. More than 
once I have. been compelled to call for an extra comforter, 
hoping to get one that had been in use and was free from 
dampness. I would wrap it about me before retiring, and 
thus protect myself to some extent from the cold, musty 
covers of the " spare bed." I think we are justified in closely 
questioning the bed we are to occupy. After a bed has been 
unused for a few weeks, or even a few days, during the 
damp season of the year, the bedding should be removed 
and thoroughly dried by the fire before being slept in. 

There is one more point to which I wish to call your at- 
tention, and that is the habit some people have of leaving 
the unemptied night vessel in the room a portion of the day. 
The vapors that arise from urine after it has stood a short 
time in the open air are absolutely poisonous and disease- 
breeding. The night vessel is used on retiring and in more 
than half the sleeping rooms they are not provided with 
a cover, and all night long the noxious gases are allowed to 
escape for the occupant of the room to take into his system 
at every breath. Hundreds of people die yearly of con- 
sumption whose premature death is caused by breathing 
poisonous emanations from the night vessel. Children 
ought never to be allowed to sleep in bedding that has been 
saturated with urine and simply dried without washing. 

Surely, unless great care is exercised, there is sickness 
and death in the bedroom. ELIZA H. STAIR. 

Do not put them into the hot sunshine ; the odor is bad. 


Comforter Shams. CARE OF LAMPS. Trimming Lamps. 

Shake them well and put them in an airy place in the shade, 
where they will get plenty of light and the wind can blow 
over them. Turn them during the day. 


Mrs. Orlena S. Matteson, Chicago. 

Fold a breadth of prints or muslin as long as the width 
of the comforter over the end next the face, fastening the 
edges with safety-pins or a running baste. When soiled it 
is easily taken off and washed.- 


If good kerosene is properly used, there is no more danger 
from it than in the use of " the light of other days ' the 
old-fashioned tallow candle. But the daily chronicles of 
horrible accidents from carlessness in its use should serve as 
a warning to all. A few hints on lamps and the care of 
them may not come amiss. 

Never fill a lamp that is lighted. 

Do not use kerosene as a fire-kindler. 

Glass lamps should not be used to carry around the house. 

Do not fill lamps quite full. If they are filled full and 
brought into a warm room the heat will expand the oil and 
cause it to run over. Allow a little space, so as to avoid this 
apparent leaking of the lamp. 

Attend to lamps in the early part of the day. Rather 
put off almost any other part of the housework than this. 

Give lamp-burners a thorough washing in strong hot suds 
when they become clogged up. 

Do not fill a lamp near a fire. After filling, wipe off very 
clean with a cloth kept for that purpose. 

The oil accumulating in the cup under the wick in a stu- 
dent lamp should "be poured out once a week. 

Do not allow lamp-cloths that are saturated with oil to 
accumulate and lie around in close contact for any great 
length of time. They are liable to cause spontaneous com- 
bustion. Better to burn them every few weeks. 


Take off the chimney, raise the cap of the burner, and 
turn up the wick a very little. To secure the best light and 
fewest breakages of chimneys, cut the wick straight across, 

_ 427 

Wash-Day. THE LAUNDRY. " Biue Monday.' 

parallel with the top of the burner. Do not round the cor- 
ners. Use a pair of sharp scissors. 



To do washing the easiest and best, it is conceded by all 
that the clothes should be put to soak over night. On 
Monday it takes all of the forenoon in most families to put 
things to rights and to get something cooked. Besides, it 
is not pleasant to change one's dress (either mistress or girl) 
on Sunday evening and work at the soiled clothes for an hour. 
It either involves staying home from church, or working 
late after one does get home, to say nothing of the " Sab- 
bath Day" view of it, or any unpleasant feature of the 

There are many new soaps now manufactured that give 
excellent satisfaction, requiring no boiling of the clothes. 
To persons who use such, let me recommend to put the 
clothes to soak in a warm suds after dinner Monday. After 
supper, wring them through the wringer and put into clean 

On Tuesday morning the washing is a quick job, it being 
necessary only to rub lightly and rinse thoroughly. 

Sprinkle and fold the clothes Tuesday evening, and iron 
Wednesday forenoon. If that does not finish, leave the rest 
for Thursday forenoon. 

This gives time for the other housework, and saves one 
from that intensely tired feeling which is sure to follow a 
Monday's washing and Tuesday's ironing at all hazards. 

So let " Blue Monday" be a thing of the past, and rejoice 
for the light that is given enabling the accomplishment 
of so-called household drudgery with comparative ease. 

To those who prefer to boil their clothes, I give two dif- 
ferent recipes for washing preparations, both of which I 
know to be just what they are represented to be. The 
second one I have used for several years past. It does no 
better service than the fluid, which I also used for some 
time, but I like a soap rather better than a fluid. A preju- 
dice exists in many housekeepers against boiling clothes in 
the dirt. But if you will throw your prejudice to the winds, 


Washing Fluid. THE LAUNDRY. Magic Soap. 

and try this way for one month, you will never go back to 
the old way. The question is asked : Does it rot the 
clothes? Emphatically, it does not. It rather saves them. 
More clothes are worn out on the washboard than on the 
back. As my family increased in size, I adopted this method 
with the Magic washing soap. I put them to soak over 
night in two tubs the fine ones together and the coarse to- 
gether and sometimes, if I had a large bed washing, put 
the sheets and pillow-cases in a third tub. I use the soap 
according to directions a cup to a pail of water. Cover all 
closely. In the morning I rub lightly on a board out of the 
water they are soaking in, and put on to boil. Rinse and 
hang out. I do this, in order to have cleaner suds for my 
large washings of calico clothes. In doing this, you do not 
have to wait to heat water, and can easily get one boiler full 
done before breakfast. They look whiter, and wash so 
much easier than the old way, that it is a very great labor- 
saver. To make sure of having the water warm, you may 
turn a kettle of hot water over the clothes after they are 
well put to soak. Everyone knows the whitening powers of 
borax. I have done a washing in this way, and finished 
at noon, when it would have taken a washerwoman all day, 
the old way, if she had worked constantly and faithfully. 


Mrs. M. F. Walker, Chicago. 

Take I pound potash (it comes in cans), I ounce salts 
of tartar, and I ounce liquid ammonia. Put the salts of 
tartar and potash in a gallon of water on the stove, in any 
convenient kettle. It will dissolve very soon. Then set it 
off, let cool, and add the ammonia. Cork tightly in a jug. 
Soak the soiled clothes over night. In the morning make a 
strong suds of cold water, add a cup of the fluid to TO or 12 
gallons, put in clothes to nearly fill the boiler, let heat grad- 
ually and boil 10 minutes. Take out, rub lightly, rinse, blue, 
and hang out. Use less fluid with rain water. 

The second recipe is called 


To 5 gallons water (if hard cleanse it), add 5 pounds com- 
mon bar soap, cut up into small pieces and dissolve over a 
moderate fire, then add 12 ounces borax and 16 ounces sal 
soda ; stir frequently while dissolving, and when thoroughly 
incorporated pour into a convenient vessel to cool ; stir 


Blueing. THE LAUNDRY. Enamel. 

frequently while cooling, and it is done. Should you 
wish to use good soft soap, from 10 to 15 pounds will 
be required, according to the thickness of the soap, with 
from 2\ to 3j gallons of water ; the thicker the soap the less, 
but more water ; the thinner the soap the more of it, but 
less water, with 12 ounces each borax and sal soda ; in the 
case of soft soap, dissolve the borax and sal soda first in 
water and then add the soap. To use, heat as much soft 
water as will just cover the white clothing; a little more 
than blood warm. To each pail of water add I cup of the 
Magic soap ; dissolve well ; moisten the dirty streaks of 
your clothes, rub on a little soap, and spread them in your 
tub, push down under the water and spread a thick cloth 
over your tub to keep in the warmth as much as possible ; 
in about 5 minutes catch the clothes by one edge, raise them 
up and down once or twice, then turn them over entirely ; 
repeat the same operation two or three times ; soak from 20 
to 30 minutes, as you please ; in the meantime have your 
boiling suds ready, by adding J a cup of soap to each pail 

01 water needed ; now wring your clothes moderately from 
the soaking water, overhaul them,- rub some soap on the 
dirty streaks, or places, if any remain ; roll them up and 
put them to boil or simmer, stirring and turning occasionally 
for 15 minutes (no longer, remember), rinse in 2 waters, and 
hang up to dry ; no bleaching or washboards are needed. 
The above method of washing positively will not injure the 
clothes. Now use your boiling suds for washing your 
colored clothes and save by it. Be sure your soap, borax, 
and sal soda are thoroughly dissolved. 


Take best Prussian blue, pulverized, I ounce ; oxalic acid, 
also pulverized, J ounce ; soft water, i quart ; mix. The 
acid dissolves the blue and holds it evenly in the water. 
One or 2 tablespoons of it to a tub of water, according to 
the size of the wash. This is far preferable to the blueing 
sold in stores, and is much cheaper. 

To prevent common blueing from spotting the clothes, 
dissolve the blueing in warm water and have the blueing 
water a little warm. 

Melt together, with a gentle heat, I ounce white wax and 

2 ounces spermaceti. Prepare your boiled starch in the 

13Q . 

Starch. THE LAUNDRY. Shirts, 

usual way, put into each pint a piece of British Enamel the 
size of a large pea. It will give your clothes a beautiful 



Allow a teaspoon of starch for each shirt. Use only 
enough water to wet the bosom, wristbands, and neckband 
well. Dip in, squeeze out, roll up, and iron in fifteen minutes, 
or let it lie longer if desired. 


Dissolve 2 tablespoons raw starch in a little cold water. 
Pour on boiling water till of the consistence of paste. 
Cook several minutes. Many laundresses make their starch 
early and leave it to cook slowly on the back of the 
stove for 2 hours or more. Others just merely cook it 
through. Put in a piece of enamel according to directions, 
or a few shavings from a sperm candle. In the absence of 
these use a tablespoon of kerosene to 2 quarts of starch. 
If the clothes are dry, make the starch quite thin. Bear in 
mind that the hotter it is, the better the garment will iron 
and the stififer it will be. Dip the bosom in and rub the 
starch through and through with the fingers. Pat it hard 
with the hand and be sure that every thread is wet with it. 
Treat the neckband and wristbands the same way. Let 
dry thoroughly. Then take a teaspoon of raw starch in a 
quart of cold water. When well dissolved, dip the starched 
parts in quickly, squeeze out, lay smoothly, and roll up hard. 
They may be ironed in an hour or two. Some shirt-ironers 
dip in clear cold water, and some, again, in clear hot water, 
and all with equally good results. This can only_be deter- 
mined by experimenting. 


First iron the back, then the shoulder-pieces, then the 
neckband. Be very sure to iron the band on both sides 
equally smooth, that it may not irritate the neck of the 
wearer. Next, iron the sleeves. Then lay the wristbands 
out flat, rub with a clean white cloth, slightly dampened, 
and iron smoothly on both sides, finishing with the right 
side. Next, iron the front. If you take a flat-iron that is 
just the right heat for the bosom, iron that before you do the 
plain front. Stretch the bosom on the shirt-board. Be 
very particular to pull it crosswise as- well as lengthwise, to 
prevent wrinkles at the neck. Rub with a cloth to get off 


Holders. THE LAUNDRY. Hints. 

hits of starch that may stick to it. Iron carefully with a 
moderately-heated iron. 

If little blisters appear, dip the finger in water and dampen 
clear through. It will then come out on being ironed over, 
provided the starch has been rubbed entirely through. If it 
has not, then the blister will remain and there is no remedy 
for it. If a smirch or spot from a rusty or greasy iron ap- 
pears on a polished bosom, do not give up and throw the 
garment into the wash, but immerse the bosom quickly in 
hot water, squeeze dry, stretch on the board, rub over with 
a clean dry cloth, and iron again. But first take the iron 
and rub well in salt on a brown paper especially the point 
and edges and then with a little beeswax, wiping with a 
dry cloth. A polishing-iron should be wrapped in fine paper 
and put away carefully after each ironing. 


First roll the wristbands around so they will shape them- 
selves to the wrist. It is much nicer than to leave them open 
and flat. Then lay the shirt on the table, bosom side down. 
Fold a pleat the whole length of the back, where the open- 
ing is in the back, in order to make the back and front the 
same width. Then fold one sleeve over from the shoulder, 
lap that side of the shirt the whole length from the edge 
of the bosom over towards the back. Do the other sleeve 
and side the same way. Iron the folds to make it look 
more neatly. Then double the bottom of the shirt up to 
the neck, folding just below the bosom, and with the bosom 
outside. Iron the fold, and it is done. A quick drying by- 
the fire will make the bosom stiffen 


Old stocking-legs or knit underwear put together evenly, 
as many thicknesses as you wish, make the nicest holders 
possible, covered with calico. Run them through diagonally 
from corner to corner, and sew a loop on. Have several of 
them hung on a convenient nail near the stove. Their 
help is legion. 


To preserve wash-tubs, do not put water inside the tub 
when the washing is done, but turn it bottom side up and 
cover the bottom with water. It will be found that it pre- 
vents the staves spreading apart at the top. 

To clean the rollers of a wringer, rub with kerosene oil. 

Flannels. THE LAUNDRY Calico. 

To make a clothes-line pliable, boil an hour or two 
before you use it. Let it dry in a warm room, and do not 
let it kink. 

As soon as the ironing is done for the day the flat-irons 
should be taken off the stove. To leave them on without 
using takes the temper out of them. 

To clean smoothing-irons, Mrs. L. V. Humble, Clinton, 
Louisiana, says : While hot, rub them on green cedar. 


Flannels may be washed either in warm or cold water. 
Soap may be used on them as on other clothes. Rinse in 
water, the same temperature as the wash-water. Put 
through the wringer and hang up. It is better to take them 
from the line before they are quite dry, and roll up for iron- 
ing. In case they become entirely dry, roll them up in 
dampened cloths instead of sprinkling the flannels directly. 
With these cautions heeded, flannels need not be shrunken 
in washing. 


Dissolve one-half bar of soap in water. Then add I table- 
spoon borax and 2 of ammonia. Add the mixture to a suffi- 
cient quantity of water (already softened with I tablespoon 
borax) to cover 2 blankets. Let the blankets remain in the 
suds i hour, without rubbing. Rinse thoroughly and hang 
up, without wringing. The absence of rubbing and wring- 
ing prevents the hardness and shrinking of the old process. 


Soak the towels in a pail of cold water containing i tea- 
spoon sugar of lead 10 minutes. To make the colors look 
clear and bright, use pulverized borax in the wash-water, 
very little soap, and no soda. 


Put an ounce of sugar of lead into a pail ot water, and 
soak the garment for 2 hours. Let dry, then wash and iron. 


Fill a pail with old, dry hay ; put scalding water on it 
and let it stand until the water is colored ; then wash the 
linen in it, and it will look as nice as new. 


Mrs. Simmons. 

If you have dark calico to wash that you fear will fade or 


Woolen Pants. THE LAUNDRY. Flour Starch. 

the colors run, put it in a pail and pour boiling" water on. 
Let stand till cool enough to wring out. Then wash like 
any other. It is better to wash such a garment before it 
gets very badly soiled, or the hot water might set the dirt. 


Mrs. M. W. Callahan. 

When woolen pants are washed, hang without wringing ; 
when dry, fold as they are folded when new, and wring a 
towel out of water and place over the pants and iron with, a 
hot iron. When the towel is dry the pants will be smooth. 


Mrs. J. E. White, Peoria, 111. 

In washing stockings which require care, pass them 
through the wringer a second time wrapped in a towel. They 
will then be so dry that the colors will not run. 


Put a teaspoon of soda in warm water and wash with soap 
like any other garment. 


Wash in clear, tepid water, in which a tablespoon of pow- 
dered borax has been dissolved (to half a tub of water). 
Use but little soap ; rinse in tepid water into which has 
been stirred enough boiled starch to stiffen a very little. 
Dry in the shade. Roll up, while a little damp, for ironing. 


Use glue instead of starch for stiffening black dresses. It 
makes them shine like new and leaves no white spots as 
starch does. Or common flour starch colored with cold 
coffee answers very nicely. 


For dark prints or percales, mix 2 tablespoons raw starch 
with cold water, smoothly. Stir into a pint of clear, hot 
coffee, that has been strained. Boil about 10 minutes, add 
a bit of enamel or a teaspoon of kerosene. 


Stir 3 tablespoons flour made smooth in a little cold water, 
into i quart of boiling water. Keep stirring until it boils. 


Removing Tar. THE LAUNDRY. Iron Rust. 

and then for 5 minutes longer. Strain through a coarse 
strainer or crash towel. 


Rub the spot with melted lard ; then wash with soap and 
water. Applies to hands or clothing. 


Pour boiling water through the stains, and repeat several 
times before putting in soap-suds. If this does not remove 
them, dip in javelle-water. 


Dissolve I pound sal soda and \ pound chloride of lime 
in 2 quarts boiling water. Let cool and add 2 quarts cold 
water. Soft water should be used. 


Put half a teaspoon of hartshorn to half a teaspoon of 
alcohol ; wet a bit of woolen cloth or soft sponge in it and 
rub and soak the spot with it, and the grease, if freshly 
dropped, will disappear. If the spot is of long standing, 
it may require several applications. In woolen or cotton, 
the spot may be rubbed when the liquid is applied and also 
in black silk, though not hard. But with light or colored 
silk, wet the spot with the cloth or sponge with which the 
hartshorn is put on, patting it lightly. Rubbing silk, par- 
ticularly colored silk, is apt to leave a whitish spot, almost 
as disagreeable as the grease spot. 

Dissolve a heaping tablespoon of chloride of lime in a 
pail of water. Dip in the goods and spread out to dry 
in the hot sun without wringing. When dry, repeat the 
process. This will take out the worst case of mildew and 
many other stains. The lime must be well dissolved. 
Cloth may also be bleached beautifully by hanging on a 
line when the sun shines and snow is on the ground. Snow 
bleaches more rapidly than grass. 


.Lemon juice and salt mixed together and put on iron 
rust will take it out. Keep it in the sun. If one applica- 
tion does not do it, try another. A solution of oxalic acid 
in water will also remove iron rust. 


Ink Stains. THE LAUNDRY. Laces. 


Mrs. A. R. Strange, Bowling Green, Kentucky, says : 
Dip the garment in apple vinegar and rub bi-carbonate of 
soda over it. 

Have the articles well cleansed, then dip in a very 
strong blueing water. Hang up to dry without wringing. 
When nearly dry, press on the side intended for the wrong 
side, and you will be astonished at the renovation that has 
taken place. 


Brush and wipe off thoroughly with a cloth ; lay flat 
on a table and sponge with hot coffee strained through 
muslin. Sponge it on the side intended for the right side ; 
then pin to a sheet stretched on the carpet until it dries. 
Do not touch with an iron. 

Rub clear ammonia on silk that is discolored from per- 
spiration. It will also restore the color of goods, particularly 
black, when the color has been destroyed by lemon juice. 


In putting away white clothes in the fall, have the starch 
washed out and make them very blue. This will keep them 
from getting yellow. 


Take a clean piece of flannel, and with some heated bran 
rub the fur well, when it will be quite renewed. The bran 
should be heated in a moderate oven, for a hot oven will 
scorch and brown the fur. Oatmeal with no husks is prefer- 
able to bran. Dried flour will also answer. 


May Owens. 

If you want to color white lace mitts cream, wash the 
mitts with toilet soap, put them into a cup of cold coffee and 
let them stay about half a day. Do not iron them, but put 
them on your hands and wear till they are dry. 


Mrs. N. W. Hammond, Clear Lake, Iowa. 

Spread on a clean cloth a mixture of dry magnesia and 
baking powder. Lay the lace flat on it. Cover with the 


Laws. THE LAUNDRY Hard Soap. 

mixture. Roll up for a few days. Then take a dry, soft 
nail or tooth-brush and brush well, especially the soiled 
spots. Shake out and the result will be more than you 
anticipate. White Shetland shawls may be " dry " rubbed 
in flour and cleaned beautifully. 


Miss Hattie E. Crump, Lake Mills, Wis. 

Wash the lace in gasoline, rubbing in the hands as much 
as the delicacy of the fabric will allow. It needs no rinsing 
as the gasoline evaporates very quickly. Do not press. 
Too much care cannot be exercised in the use of gasoline. 
Its explosive qualities are so very great. Do not use it after 
night, or near a stove. 


Starch in hot starch and pull in shape on a soft white 
flannel. When nearly dry, rub over with a warm iron not 
hot and lay in a paper in the sun or warm oven. Then 
shape the edge with the ringers. 


One cup coffee and I tablespoon ammonia. Wash in it, 
dip in skim milk, and pin it out on a pillow until dry. 


H. C. Strong, Chicago. 

Add sulphate of lime to the usual ingredients. The pro- 
portions of the sulphate vary according to the quality of 
soap to be produced. About | pound is sufficient for I ton 
of best soap, whereas, in common or highly-liquored soap 6 
or 8 pounds of it may be used to advantage. If 25 pounds 
of soap are made, put in a teaspoon of sulphate. Soap made 
with this addition becomes hardened, keeps dry, and is not 
liable to shrink while in water. Its durability is increased 
and it does not wear or waste away before its cleansing 
properties are brought into action. 


Pour 4 gallons boiling water over 6 pounds of sal soda and 
3 pounds unslaked lime. Stir well and let settle until per- 
fectly clear. It is better to let it stand all night, as it takes 
some time for the sediment to settle. When clear, strain the 
water, put 6 pounds of fat with it and boil for 2 hours, stirring 
it most of the time. If it does not seem thin enough, put 


Hard Soap. THE LAUNDRY. White Soap. 

another gallon of water on the grounds, stir and drain off, 
and add as is wanted to the boiling mixture. Its thickness 
can be tried by occasionally putting a little on a plate to 
cool. Stir in a handful of salt just before taking off the 
fire. Have a tub ready soaked to prevent the soap from 
sticking, pour it in and let it stand until solid, and you will 
have 40 pounds nice white soap. 

Hard Soap. 

Five gallons rain water, 5 pounds soda ash, 3 pounds 
grease, 2\ pounds unslaked lime. Boil 3 or 4 hours until the 
grease dissolves. 


Shave fine half a bar of common washing soap. Dis- 
solve in I quart of boiling water. Add 2 tablespoons each 
of turpentine and alcohol. It is a great aid in house clean^. 
ing will remove grease or dirt easily. 


Mrs. Henry Ward Beecher. 

Ox-gall soap is an excellent article to use in cleansing 
woolens, silks, or fine prints liable to fade. To make it, take 
i pint of gall, cut into it 2 pounds of common bar soap 
very fine, and add I quart boiling soft water. Boil slowly, 
stirring occasionally until well mixed, then pour into a flat 
vessel, and when cold cut into pieces to dry. When using, 
make a suds of it, but do not rub it on the article to be 


Slice 6 pounds nice yellow bar soap fine. Put into a brass 
or tin kettle with \ gallon alcohol and heat gradually over a 
slow fire, stirring till all is dissolved. Then add I ounce 
sassafras essence and stir until well mixed. Pou-r into pans 
I \ inches deep, let get cold, and cut into square bars 


Castile soap, J pound, white bar soap, ij pounds, beef's 
gall, i pint, spirits of turpentine, \ gill, rain water, I pint. 
Shave the soap fine, put ingredients all together and boil 5 
minutes after the soap is dissolved. Stir all the time. 
Scent with oil of rose or any other preferred. 

Five pounds hard soap, i quart lye, \ ounce pearl-ash, 


Soft Soap. THE LAUNDRY Renovating Carpets. 

all dissolved on the stove, then add \ pint spirits turpentine, 
i gill spirits hartshorn. Stir well. 


One pound tallow, I pound sal soda, 7 ounces rosin, 
4 ounces stone lime, I ounce palm oil, I quart soft water. 
Put soda, lime and water together and let boil, stirring well. 
Then let settle, and pour off the lye. In another kettle 
melt the tallow, rosin and palm oil. When all the ingredi- 
ents are hot, mix well together. 


Mix 10 pounds potash in 10 gallons warm soft water over 
night. In the morning boil it, adding 6 pounds grease. 
Put all in a barrel and add 1 5 gallons soft water. 


Put the ashes in a barrel or hopper. Pour water on 
every day and keep pouring back and let it drain through 
again, or boil it down until it is strong enough to eat a 
feather. Then put in the grease until the lye will not take 
any more. Boil together till thick enough. 


Put I pound of cleansed grease to each gallon of lye 
strong enough to bear up an egg. Set in the sun and stir 
each day until it is good fair soap. 


Mrs. E. E. Bower. 

One pint deodorized benzine, I ounce alcohol, I ounce 
spirits ammonia. Shake well when using. Will take out 
grease of all kinds from all fabrics without injury to color. 
Apply with a sponge and rub well. When dry, rub over 
with a slightly warm iron. It is good for renewing all black 
goods. It leaves the hands soft and white. 


Directions for making one gallon. Take I pound or bar 
of borax soap, shave in fine pieces. Dissolve in I gallon of 
boiling water. After thoroughly dissolved, remove from 
stove. Let stand in cool place for 5 minutes, then add 
sulphuric ether, i ounce ; glycerine, I ounce ; alcohol, I 
ounce ; aqua ammonia, No. 4 F., 6 ounces. Do not add the 


DYES. Black. 

last near the fire, as they are inflammable. Use same as 
common soap. Also good for cleaning paint. 


The articles to be colored must be cleansed entirely from 
grease before coloring. It is better to wet them in clear 
water before dyeing. Strain the dye before using. 


Five ounces annato in a bag, three pails of strong soap 
suds or weak lye. Dip the cloth in suds previously pre- 
pared. Then put into the dye and boil until it takes the 
strength of the dye. 


For a dress with overskirt, 3 ounces extract logwood, ij 
ounces blue vitriol. Dissolve the vitriol in water and the 
logwood in another water. Wet the goods thoroughly in 
warm water before putting into the vitriol-water. Put a 
piece of copperas the size of a walnut into the logwood dye, 
and when the dye is hot, put in the goods, stirring and air- 
ing it for about ^ hour, then dry it. Then wash immedi- 
diately in hot soap suds in several waters, so that it will not 
crock. In the last water put a little salt. Wring it dry, roll 
up and let remain several hours before pressing. 


Mrs. Ann Turner, Mt. Carmel, Ky. 

One pound logwood, \ pound blue vitriol, I dime's worth 
of fustic. Each in a sack in a separate vessel, and boil 20 
minutes. Scald your goods in the vitriol-water, and then 
air them. Put the logwood mixture with the fustic, and boil 
30 minutes. Put in your goods. Keep well stirred until 
you obtain the color desired. Then scald with weak lye. 



The proportion for each pound of goods is 2 ounces ex- 
tract logwood, i ounce blue vitriol, \ ounce sugar of lead. 
Dissolve the vitriol in one water and the logwood in another. 
Wet the goods thoroughly in warm water before putting 
into the vitriol-water. Put the sugar of lead in the logwood- 
water, and when hot take the goods from the vitriol-water 


Blue. DYES. Canary. 

and put into the dye. Stir them about in the dye for \ 
hour. Then take out, put into a tub, and pour over enough 
hot, strong salt-water to cover. Let stand until cold, hang 
up let dry and rinse in clear warm water. Will never 
crock nor fade. 


Oxalic acid, ij ounces, in i quart rain water over night ; 
Prussian blue, 2 ounces, in I quart rain water over night. 
Then put together in as much more warm soft water as you 
want for 4 pounds of rags. Put the rags in for 20 minutes. 
They need not boil. 


First dye a blue ; then dip into a weak black dye. 

Miss Sallie A. Turner, Elizaville, Ky. 

To IO pounds goods take 2 pounds catechu, 8 ounces bi- 
chromate of potash, and 4 level tablespoons of alum. 
Process : Dissolve the catechu and alum in cold water over 
night. In the morning scald the goods 2 hours in this dye. 
Dissolve potash in warm water. Lift the goods from the 
catechu dye and scald goods in the potash dye till of the 
desired color. Rinse in clear warm water. Dry in the 
shade. Use brass or copper vessels. Iron will not answer, 
but porcelain will do. 

For 10 pounds goods take I pound catechu, 4 ounces blue 
vitriol, 4 ounces bichromate of potash ; dissolve each in sep- 
arate water ; heat the goods one hour in the catechu-water ; 
wring out ; dip and wring out of the hot vitriol-water ; leave 
them 15 minutes in the potash-water; dry and wash them. 


Three ounces of good indigo, ground and sifted, i pound 
oil of vitriol, mixed, gradually. Let stand i hour. For pale 
blue, take a little composition in boiling hot water. Very 
nice for little children's stockings. 

For 5 pounds of goods take J pound sugar of lead ; dis- 
solve it in hot water ; \ pound bichromate of potash dis- 
solved in cold water in a wooden pail. Dip the goods first in 

Green. DYES. Red. 

the lead-water and then in the potash, continuing- until the 
color suits. 


Five pounds fustic, 10 pounds of goods. Put the fustic 
into water and almost boil for 12 hours. Then remove the 
chips and put in the yarn or goods and boil i hour. Take 
it out and add 2 'pounds of alum. Dip again for J hour. 
Take out the goods and stir into the dye I tablespoon com- 
position and let it boil, stirring it well together. Then dip 
till the color suits. 


Dip rags in a blue dye, then in the yellow. Wring out 
and shake before drying. 


Two and a half pounds of camwood, one pound of fustic. 
Boil in a brass kettle half an hour. Boil five pounds of 
goods one hour ; cool, and add I ounce of blue vitrol and 
two quarts of copperas water to the dye and boil five 
minutes ; then let cool and put in your goods till the color 


Prepare a strong lime-water the stronger the deeper 
the color. Pour off the water and boil. While boiling, 
dip the goods previously colored yellow into it. Will not 


Ten cents' worth of cudbear tied in a bag, I pail of water. 
Heat scalding hot. Dip the cloth into warm suds, and then 
into the dye for 15 or 20 minutes. Dry, then wash in clean 
soap and water, and rinse. 


Mrs. Hollett. 

Three ounces solution tin, 4 ounces powdered cochineal. 
Boil the latter in water enough to cover the goods for about 
6 minutes, then add the tin. Put in goods and boil \ hour. 
Rinse in cold water, and dry in the shade. 


Cochineal, I J ounces ; cream of tartar, 2 ounces ; muriate 
of tin, 2 ounces. Yarn or cloth, I pound. Put the cochi- 
neal into water sufficient for the goods, and set over the fire. 
When warm add the cream of tartar. When scalding hot, 

442 ^ 

Wine Color. DYES. Yellow. 

put in the tin. Boil the goods in the dye \ hour. Rinse in 
warm water. Color in brass. If the muriate of tin cannot 
be procured, use muriatic acid and pour on pieces of tin and 
let it remain over night. The muriate of tin will be formed 
and can be used in the morning. 


One pound of yarn or cloth, 8 ounces madder, 3 ounces 
alum, I ounce cream of tartar. Five gallons soft water. 
Let it boil with the alum and cream of tartar. Put in the 

foods and boil 2 hours. Take out, air, rinse in clear water, 
our the liquor away and prepare the same quantity of 
water as before. Put in the madder broken fine. Heat the 
water. Enter the goods. Stir constantly I hour ; then let 
it boil 5 minutes. Take out, rinse in cold water ; then wash 
through three suds. 


For 2 pounds woolen goods, i pound camwood, boiled 
15 minutes in water sufficient to cover goods. Put goods in; 
boil i hour air them. Then add a little blue vitrol or cop- 
peras, and dip the goods until the shade is as desired. 


Six pounds of goods in water, to wet through. Nine 
ounces sugar of lead dissolved in the same quantity of 
water. Six ounces bichromate of potash in the same 
quantity of water. Keep separate. Dip the goods first 
into the sugar of lead water, then into the potash-water, 
then into the sugar of lead water again. Dry. Rinse in 
cold water and dry again. 


For 4 pounds of goods, take i pound sumac in water that 
will cover the goods. Soak over night, wring out, rinse in 
soft water. Take 2 ounces muriate of tin in clear, soft water, 
put the clothes in for 15 minutes. Put 3 pounds bur- wood 
in cold soft water in a boiler on the stove, and nearly boil 
it ; then let cool, add the cloth and boil i hour. Take out 
the cloth, add i ounce oil of vitriol to the water, return the 
cloth and boil 15 minutes. Rinse in cold water. 


UR book would not be complete without a 
department for odds and ends, this 
that, and the other, etc. We give a few 
very valuable recipes for many different 
purposes. They have all been compiled 
with great care, and are highly recom- 


Pure, soft water, I pint ; pulverized castile soap, 2 ounces ; 
emulsion of bitter almonds, 3 ounces ; rosewater, 4 ounces ; 
orange-flower water, 4 ounces ; tincture of benzoin, i 
drachm ; borax, ^ drachm. Add 5 grains bi-chloride of mer- 
cury to every 8 ounces of the mixture. Apply to the face 
with a cotton or linen cloth. 


Oil of almonds, 4 ounces ; white wax, 2 drachms ; sper- 
maceti, 2 drachms. Melt, and add rosewater, 4 ounces ; 
orange-flower water, I ounce. Used to soften the skin ; 
apply with a soft rag. 


Mix together 2 ounces lemon juice (or ^ drachm powdered 
borax) and I drachm sugar. Let stand in a glass bottle a 
few days. Rub on the face occasionally. 


One can have the hands in soap suds with soft soap with- 
out injury to the skin, if the hands are dipped in vinegar or 
lemon juice immediately after. Indian meal and vinegar or 
lemon juice used on hands when roughened by cold or labor 
will heal and soften them. Rub the hands in this ; then 
wash off thoroughly and rub in glycerine. Those who suf- 
fer from chapped hands in the winter will find this comfort- 


Six drachms of camphor gum, ^ ounce of white wax, i\ 
ounces of spermaceti, 3 tablespoons of olive oil. Melt 


Scent Powder. THE TOILET. Hair Crimping. 


One ounce each of coriander, orris root, rose leaves, and 
aromatic calamus, 2 ounces of lavender flowers, | drachm of 
rhodium wood, 5 grains of musk ; mix, and reduce to pow- 
der. This scent is as if all fragrant flowers were pressed 


One pint of alcohol. Add 30 drops of oil of lemon and 
30 of burgamot. Shake well ; then add | gill of water. 
Bottle for use. 


Dissolve 2 ounces of borax in 3 pints boiling water. 
Before it is cold -add I teaspoon spirits of camphor. A 
tablespoon of this with an equal amount oi tepid water will 
cleanse the teeth from all impurities. It is also a very excel- 
lent wash for the hair. 


Mrs. M. M. Curtis, Seattle, Washington Ty. 

Willow charcoal mixed with honey is excellent for whiten- 
ing the teeth. The charcoal can be procured of any drug- 
gist, all prepared in bottles. It is very finely pulverized. 


Eat bits of charcoal. If you cannot procure it, take an 
old broom handle, and burn it until it is charred. 


Put ^ ounce salts of tartar in I pint soft water. Wash the 
hair and scalp thoroughly. 


One pint rum St. Croix is best ; i ounce pulverized 
borax, I drachm tincture of cantharides. Wash the hair, 
rubbing well into the scalp, two or three times a week. 


Eight ounces alcohol, 16 ounces water, I ounce ammonia, 
i ounce cologne. Rub on the head until the liquid evapo- 
rates. No rinsing necessary. 


To make the hair stay in crimp, take gum tragacanth and 
add to it just enough water to dissolve it. When dissolved, 


Hair Brushes. MISCELLANEOUS. Cha.^oal. 

add enough alcohol to make rather thin. Let this stand all 
night, and then bottle it to prevent the alcohol from evapor- 
ating. This put on the hair at night after it is done up in 
paper or pins will make it stay in crimp the hottest day, and 
is harmless. 


A few drops of hartshorn in a little water will clean a 
hair brush better than anything else, and will do no harm. 
If very dirty, rub a little soap on. Alter cleaning, rinse in 
clear water, and hang up by the window to dry. Do not let 
the bristles rest on any hard substance while wet. Tie a 
string round the handle and hang up. 

Tack a piece of silk on a small frame. Dissolve some 
isinglass in water. When well incorporated, apply with a 
brush to the silk, let it dry, repeat it, and when dry, cover it 
with a strong tincture of balsam of Peru. 

To prevent honey from candying, after being taken from 
the comb put it into a kettle and over the fire ; boil it gently 
and as the scum rises skim it off until it becomes clear, when 
it can be turned into the vessel you wish to keep it in, where 
it will keep clear and fresh without candying. 


Put the comb into a bag made of coarse strainer-cloth. 
Crowd it down full. Put into a kettle and cover well with 
water. Put a weight on if necessary to keep it under water. 
Turn it occasionally. When the water heats, the comb will 
melt, and as it boils the wax will come through the sack and 
rise to the top of the water. As it rises it should be dipped 
off into a vessel of cold water. Keep adding water suffi- 
cient to keep the bag covered. Press it once in a while, and 
when no more will rise it is all out of the comb, and is cooled 
on the surface of the cold water. 

Smoked ham, well packed in pulverized charcoal, will keep 
for years. Butter, put into clean pots and well surrounded 
with charcoal, will keep good for 12 months. This is the 
antiseptic quality of charcoal. Each atom has the capacity 
of absorbing a thousand times its own bulk of deleterious 
gases, and thus keeps what it surrounds in perfect purity. 


Apples DIGESTION. Milk. 


ARTICLES OF FOOD. How Prepared. Hrs. Min. 

Apples, sweet, mellow Raw i 30 

Apples, sour, mellow Raw 2 oo 

Apples, sour, hard Raw 2 50 

Barley Boiled 2 oo 

Beans, pod Boiled 2 30 

Beef, fresh Boiled 3 30 

Beef, lean, rare Roasted 3 oo 

Beefsteak Broiled 3 oo 

Beef. Fried 4 oo 

Beets Boiled 3 45 

Brains Boiled I 45 

Bread, corn Baked 3 15 

Bread, fresh wheat '. . Baked 3 30 

Butter Melted . 3 30 

Cabbage, vinegar Raw 2 oo 

Cabbage Raw 2 30 

Cabbage Boiled 4 oo 

Cake, sponge Baked 2 30 

Catfish, fresh Fried 3 30 

Cheese, old Raw 3 30 

Chicken Fricasseed 2 45 

Chicken Boiled 4 oo 

Chicken Roasted 4 oo 

Codfish, cured Boiled 2 oo 

Custard Baked 2 45 

Ducks Roasted 4 oo 

Dumplings, apple Boiled 3 oo 

Eggs Raw i 30 

Eggs Roasted 2 15 

Eggs Soft-boiled 3 oo 

Eggs Hard-boiled ... 3 30 

Eggs Fried 3 30 

Gelatine Boiled 2 30 

Green corn Boiled 3 45 

Goose Roasted 2 30 

Hash, meat, vegetable . . . . . Warmed 2 30 

Heart Fried 4 oo 

Johnny cake Baked ......... 3 oo 

Lamb Broiled 2 30 

Liver, beef. Broiled 2 oo 

Milk Boiled 2 oo 

Milk Raw 2 15 


Mutton. DIGESTION. Venison. 


ARTICLES OF FOOD. How Prepared. Hrs. Min. 

Mutton, fresh Roasted 3 15 

Mutton Broiled 3 oo 

Mutton Boiled 3 oo 

Onions Boiled 3 oo 

Oysters Raw 2 55 

Oysters Roasted 3 15 

Oysters Stewed 3 30 

Parsnips Boiled 2 30 

Pigs feet, soused Boiled i oo 

Pig, suckling Roasted 2 30 

Pork, fresh Stewed 3 oo 

Pork, fat and lean Roasted 5 15 

Pork Broiled 3 15 

Pork steak Broiled 3 15 

Potatoes Boiled 3 30 

Potatoes Roasted 2 30 

Rice Boiled , i oo 

Sago.... Boiled ,. i 45 

Salmon, salted Boiled 4 oo 

Salmon, fresh Boiled ........ i 45 

Sausage Broiled ........ 3 20 

Sausage Fried 4 oo 

Soup, bean Boiled , 3 oo 

Soup, mutton ... Boiled 3 30 

Soup, oyster Boiled 3 30 

Soup, beef, vegetable Boiled 4 oo 

Spinach Boiled 2 30 

Suet, beef. ... Boiled 5 30 

Tomatoes Stewed 2 30 

Tripe, soused . Boiled I oo 

Trout, fresh . Boiled I 30 

Trout, fresh Fried I 30 

Turkey, domestic Boiled 2 25 

Turkey, wild Roasted 2 18 

Turnips, flat Boiled 3 30 

Veal Broiled 4 oo 

Veal Fried 4 30 

Venison, steak Broiled i 35 


The following are very difficult to digest, and should be 

avoided by persons having weak digestive organs ; and by 

448 ' ^ 

Beefsteak Pie. DIGESTION. Food in Season. 

those who are strong, they should be used sparingly. The 
most of the following take from 4 to 54 hours to digest : 

Beefsteak pie. m Nuts. 

Cheese. Pork. 

Currants. Puff paste. 

Dumplings. Radishes. 

Eels. Raw spirits. 

Fried dishes. Red herrings. 

Hard-boiled eggs. Rinds of fruit. 

Hashes and stews. Salt beef. 

Husks of fruit. Sausage. 

Melted butter. Shell-fish. 

New Bread. Unripe fruits. 

New Potatoes. Veal. 


Apples, all the year round. Cheapest in the fall. 
Artichokes, in September. 
Asparagus, May and June. 

Beans, string, June to October ; Lima, July till winter. 
Beef at all seasons. 
Beets, June and throughout the year. 
Buckwheat cakes, late fall and winter. 
Butternuts, from October throughout the year. 
Cabbage, May and throughout the year. 
Carrots, all summer and fall. 
Cauliflower, June till following spring. 
Celery, August till April. 
Cheese, any time. 

Cherries, during the summer months. 
Chestnuts, after a severe, frost. 
Clams, May to September. 
Corn, green, June to September. 
Crabs, better in cold weather. 
Cranberries, September to April. 
Cucumbers, June to November. 
Currants, June to August (ripe in July). 
Damsons, July to November. 

Ducks, June and July ; wild ducks, in spring and fall. 
Eels, April to November. 
Eggs, best in spring, but always in season. 
Elderberries, August and September. 
Fish, at all times; some kinds always in season. 


Geese. FOOD IN SEASON. Woodcock. 

Geese, October to December. 
Gooseberries, June to September. 
Grapes, September till cold weather. 
Herbs, gather just as they begin to bloom. 
Horse-radish, at all times. 
Lemons, cheapest in winter. 
Lobsters, spring, summer, and autumn. 
Mushrooms, August and September. 
Mutton, at any time ; Lamb, June to August. 
Onions, at all seasons. 
Oranges, cheapest in winter months. 
Oysters, September to May. 
Partridges, September to January. 
Peas, green, June and July. 
Peaches, August to November. 
Pears, August to October. 
Pie-plant, April to September. 
Pigeons, September and October. 
Pork, in cold weather. 

Potatoes, the year round ; sweet, August to December. 
Prairie fowls, August to October. 
Prunes, fresh, December to May. 
Pumpkins, September to January. 
Quinces, October to December. 
Rabbits, September till February. 
Radishes, April to November. 
Rail-birds, September and October. 
Raspberries, June to September. 
Salmon, March to September. 
Shad, latter part of February to June. 
Smelts, October to April. 
Snipe, last of March and April and October. 
Spinach, early spring till late fall. 
Squash, summer, June to August. 
Squash, winter, August till spring. 
Strawberries, June and July. 
Tomatoes, June till fall. 

Trout, brook, March to August ; lake, October to March. 
Turkeys, any time. Best in cold weather. 
Veal, any time except in very hot weather. 
Venison, buck, August to November ; doe, in winter. 
Watermelons, July to October. 
Woodcock, July to November. 


Floors MISCELLANEOUS. Furniture Polish. 


Make a bucket of smooth flour paste. Stir in i pound 
yellow ochre. Apply to the floor with a white-wash brush. 
Let it dry. Then give it a coat of boiled linseed oil. 


Three pints oil, I pint dryer, 3 pounds white lead, 5 
pounds yellow ochre ; add a little turpentine. 


Allow 5 ounces shellac to a quart of alcohol. Use as 
soon as dissolved. After a floor is painted or stained (and 
dried), apply the shellac with a brush ; let dry and apply 
again. Two or three applications, which are very easily 
made, will brighten up a room wonderfully, and it will re- 
quire nothing but wiping with a damp cloth to keep it 
bright for many months. Any woman can do both the 
painting and applying the coats of shellac. 


One-half ounce prepared chalk, 2 ounces alcohol, 2 ounces 
aqua ammonia. Apply with cotton flannel, and rub with 
chamois-skin. Wash silver in very hot, clear water, and 
wipe dry with a soft towel, and you will have no need for 
silver soap, or any other preparation. 


C. D. Hicks, Racine, Wis. 

One pint alcohol, I ounce oxalic acid, 2 papers Mt. Eagle 
Tripoli, I star candle. Shave the candle into the other mix- 
ture, and let stand until dissolved. Then it is ready for use. 
Shake before using. Apply the mixture, and when dry rub 
off with a woolen cloth. The same mixture without the 
candle excellent for cleaning glass. 


Raw linseed oil, 4 ounces ; balsam of fir, 2 drachms ; 
acetic ether, 2 drachms. Dissolve the balsam in 4 ounces 
alcohol ; then mix all together. To use, shake well and ap- 
ply with a soft cloth. But very little is needed on the cloth. 

One ounce kerosene, I ounce shellac, \ ounce linseed oil, 
\ ounce turpentine. Keep corked, shake, and apply with a 
soft sponge. 

Cellar. CLEANING HOUSE. Attic. 


The melancholy days that come, 

The saddest of the year, 
When scrubbing-brushes, mops, and brooms 

Are flying far and near, 
When carpets, curtains, rugs, and beds 

Are streched on fence and line, 
And everything is upside down 

O, sad, unhappy time. 

At this cheerful time of year, a few hints to the newly 
initiated may prove helpful. They are not written for the 
veterans in the service, although such may possibly be bene- 
fited somewhat by glancing at them. It is a good plan to 
regulate and renovate all bureau-drawers and closets before 
the general siege. Then have the washing and ironing fin- 
ished and put away. Wash up everything that is soiled. 
Bake enough bread, cookies, and cake to last several days. 
Boil a large ham, if possible, and bake a big pot of beans. 
These, with preserved fruits, will make a good meal with 
hot tea or coffee. 

The general rule to begin at the garret and finish with 
the cellar is a good one in the main. But sometimes, with 
a large house and insufficient help, the cellar gets but 
an indifferent cleaning if left till all hands are tired out. 
It is, in reality, the most important part of the whole house. 
There can be no health, with foul, disease-breeding gases 
escaping into the living rooms above, to be breathed into 
the system. Malarial diseases are often traced to a cellar 
of decayed vegetables. Typhus und typhoid fevers, cutting 
down whole families, can be traced directly to the fearful 
emanations from a filthy cellar. 

After removing all rubbish from each nook and corner, 
and giving it a thorough airing, give it a good coat of 
white-wash, yellowed with copperas. Wash the windows 
and steps. 

Next, go to the upper story and begin in good earnest 
the cleaning and putting things to rights after an accumu- 
lated disorder of six months or a year. Even with constant 
watchcare, things will get out of place, and house-renovat- 
ing is just as sure to be a necessity, as is the cleaning neces- 
sary to health. 

First and foremost, let in the air. Give things a system- 
atic sorting over, putting articles of a kind together in boxes 


Walls. CLEANING HOUSE. Windows. 

or sacks, and labeling them. Sweep the ceiling and walls 
down. Wash the windows and the floor. Wipe up dry. 
If there are any signs of moths, make sure that there is no 
fire or light in the room, and sprinkle benzine plentifully 
around the cracks and crevices. Have but little in the dish 
you use. Exercise great caution in its use. It will be death 
to the moths. The odor is disagreeable, but of short dura- 
tion. Wash the steps down, and you are ready for the 

A good step-ladder is one of the indispensables in every 
house. Be careful, however, and see that it stands securely 
before ascending it. I have a lady acquaintance who fell 
from one that stood insecurely, and has been made almost 
helpless for life, from the effects of the fall. 

Before beginning the general cleaning, take everything 
from the walls. Dust and wipe off and put into the closets, 
which are already cleaned. Shut the doors. Take one 
room at a time. Move everything out ; take up the carpet. 
Have it folded and carried right out into the yard and spread 
upon the grass, or hung on the line. After it is beaten well 
on the wrong side with whips or canes, sweep it very partic- 
ularly on the right side, with a good, firm broom. Do not 
sweep against the pile in velvet or Brussels. Use the prep- 
aration for " Renovating Carpets and Rugs, " on page 438, 
for removing grease-spots. It will brighten a very badly- 
soiled carpet. 

Sweep the bare floor, and get the dirt up before opening 
the windows. If sawdust can be gotten, dampen it and 
sprinkle the floor with it. Wash hard-finished walls, and 
wipe dry. Paper walls should be wiped off with a broom 
wrapped in old flannel. Change the cloth for a clean one 
when it gets soiled. Of course, a wall-brush with an exten- 
sion handle is the best of anything for this purpose, but the 
broom is a good substitute. 

Next, wash the windows ; then the woodwork. Put 
ammonia in each pail of water to soften it, and half the 
labor is saved. Change the water often. Use strong suds 
for the floor, and change the water often. Wash but a 
square yard at a time and wipe it dry. 

Take the next room the same way. By the time that is 
cleaned, the first one will be ready for the carpet to go down. 
Sprinkle salt entirely around the room under the edge of the 
carpet. It is a very sure preventive of moths. If kalsomin- 
ing has to be done, of course the labor of house-cleaning 


Carpets. CLEANING HOUSE. Tin-Ware. 

is greatly increased. A good recipe will be found for kal- 
somine in this chapter, which, if closely followed, will give 
excellent results. For those who prefer white-wash, I give 
also the famous "White House" recipe. 

It is poor economy to try to put down a carpet alone. The 
better it is put down, the better it will wear. I think it 
pays to hire a man who makes carpet-laying his business, 
They furnish their own tacks, which alone is quite an item, 
and it is much more satisfactory when done. Laying a 
heavy carpet is a piece of work that no woman ought ever 
to attempt. Many persons still use straw under their car- 
pets, and it is certainly clean and sweet. In cities and 
towns it is more customary to use the regular carpet-lining 
paper, which is heavy and durable. For stairs be sure and 
use either padding or lining, and have the carpet a yard ex- 
tra in length to allow you to change its position occasionally, 
and so save the wear where the edges of the steps come. 

Replacing the furniture in the room is comparatively easy. 
The pieces should be well dusted and polished. If not con- 
venient to polish the same day, it can be done any other 
day. A good recipe for polish will be found in this chapter. 
For cleaning marble I have found sapolio to be very good. 

Broken marble may be mended by the use of the crockery 
cement given further on in this chapter. I knew of a broken 
tomb-stone being mended with this simple preparation that 
has stood the wind and weather of many years. 

Dining-room floors are better uncarpeted in families hav- 
ing young children. In fact, they are better in summer, in 
any family. Have the floor stained or painted, and it is al- 
ways easy to keep it clean and sweet. If carpeted, have a 
crumb-cloth that can be taken up and shaken at will, and 
thus protect the main carpet. 

When the kitchen is reached by the attacking party, 
gather up all of the lamp-burners and put into strong soda- 
water and boil up in some convenient vessel. Into a boiler, 
put all of the baking-tins, dripping-pans, waffle-irons, gem- 
irons, etc., and boil them 15 or 20 minutes in suds or soda- 
water. If you use either of the washing preparations given 
in the " Laundry" chapter, put some of it in the water. The 
fluid is excellent for this purpose. Don't scour your life 
away on tinware. Wash clean, wipe dry, and let that 

While the tins and pans are cleaning themselves in the 
boiler, get the pantry ready to place them back. Use 


Sink. CLEANING HOUSE. White-Wash. 

enameled cloth for shelves, instead of paper. It costs but 
little, and is so easily cleaned that it pays a good interest 
on the investment. Clean the walls either by washing, 
kalsomining, or white-washing. 

See that the sinks and drains are thoroughly disinfected. 
Copperas is the cheapest, and one of the very best for this 
purpose. Make a solution of it in water and sprinkle in 
the places needing it, besides putting a small vessel con- 
taining it in the same places. 

When the stoves are put away, rub each length of pipe 
with kerosene, wrap a paper around it and number it ; so 
that it can be put up in the fall according to the numbering. 
The kerosene will keep it from rusting. 

Be sure and clean the soot out of the stove-pipe holes in 
the chimneys before they are covered for the summer. 

Have the doors and windows screened after the cleaning 
is done. Put mats and scrapers at the doors. 

If it is a possible thing, do your cleaning on bright, sunny 
days. Polish the grates about the last thing, using recipe 
given farther on. 

Look bed-steads over in March. Apply Persian insect 
powder, or the poison mentioned in the latter part of this 
chapter. Even after the general house-cleaning, they 
should be looked after once a week. Bed-bugs can never 
get the mastery if fought in this manner. 

When winter clothes are put away for the summer, ex- 
amine carefully, shake well, and wrap each article in paper 
and tie up securely. I always put my furs and fur-trimmed 
cloak in an old linen pillow-case and baste it up, being sure 
there are no holes through which the moth-miller can crawl 
to lay her eggs. Blankets can be wrapped in old sheets or 
large papers. 

Put ^ bushel lime in a vessel, pour on boiling water to 
slake it, and cover it during the slaking process. Strain 
through a strainer, and add a peck of salt that is dissolved 
in warm water ; then add 3 pounds ground rice boiled to a 
thin paste and stirred in while boiling hot ; ^ pound pow- 
dered Spanish whiting, and I pound clear glue, which has 
been dissolved. Put this kettle of whitewash into a larger 
one filled with hot water. Add 5 gallons hot water to the 
mixture, stir well, and let stand a few days, covered from 
the dirt. Apply it hot. A pint will do a square yard of the 


Kalsomine. RENOVATING. Carpets. 

outside of a house. It is as good as paint for the outside or 
inside, and will keep brilliant for years. Will answer for 
wood, brick, or stone. It may be tinted for walls, if liked. 
Chrome, added, makes a pretty yellow wash. Finely-pulver- 
ized common clay well mixed with Spanish brown makes a 
reddish stone color. Spanish brown alone, added, makes a 
deep pink. The above recipe is the famous one used on the 
White House in Washington. 


One-fourth pound light-colored glue ; 5 pounds Paris 
white. Soak glue over night in a quart of warm water. 
Next day, add a pint of water and set in a vessel of boiling 
water, and stir till the ^-ue is well dissolved. Put the Paris 
white into a large bucket, pour on hot water, and stir until it 
is creamy. Add the prepared glue, mix thoroughly, and 
apply with a white-wash brush. Every time the brush is 
put into the pail the kalsomine should be stirred from the 
bottom. If a reddish or pink tint is wanted, add Spanish 
brown, till of the desired shade. This will be sufficient for 
a room 18 feet square. 


Paste the floor of the room over with newspapers. Over 
this, paste wall paper ,f a pattern to look like carpet or oil- 
cloth. Put down as smoothly as possible, match it nicely 
where the widths come together. Use good flour paste. 
Then size and varnish it. Dark glue and common furniture 
varnish may be used. Place a rug here and there, and your 
room is carpeted. 


Stair carpets should always have a slip of paper, or a 
padding made of cheap cotton batting, tacked in a cheap 
muslin put under them, at and over the edge of every 
stair, which is the part where they wear first. The strips 
should be within an inch or two as long as the carpet is 
wide and about four or five inches in breadth. A piece of 
old carpet answers better than paper if you have it. This 
plan will keep a stair carpet in good condition for a much 
longer time than without it. 


Mrs. Clarissa O. Keeler, Baltimore, Maryland. 

A stair carpet lined with new cotton will almost never 


Stains. RENOVATING. Grates. 

wear out. It saves the strain, especially if moved occasion- 
ally so that the wear does not come all the time in the 
same place. 


Take pieces of cloth and paste over the holes with a 
paste made of gum tragacanth and water. 


Use coarse wet salt for sweeping both matting and car- 
peting. It keeps the dust down and brightens the carpet. 


Dampen sawdust with water, and sprinkle ammonia on 
it and use on a carpet. It will brighten it very much. 


Can be removed from a carpet by freely pouring milk on 
the place, and leaving it to soak in for a time, then rub it so 
as to remove all ink, and scoop up remaining milk with a 
spoon ; repeat the process with more milk, if necessary ; 
then wash it off completely with clean cold water, and wipe 
it dry with cloths. If this is done when the ink is wet, the 
milk takes all stain out of woolen material instantly ; but 
when it has dried, a little time is required. 

Another method : As soon as the ink is spilled, put on 
salt, and cover well. Remove as fast as it becomes colored, 
and put on fresh. Continue this till the salt is white, sweep 
well, and no trace of ink will remain. Corn meal used 
similarly on coal oil spots on carpets, will remove every 
particle, even if a large quantity has been spilled. 


To remove grease from carpets, see recipe, page 438. 

Grease may be removed from a white floor by making a 
common hasty pudding of corn-meal and laying it on the 
spot until cold. 

To remove grease from wall paper pulverize a common 
clay pipe, mix it with water into a stiff paste, laying it on 
very carefully, letting it remain over night. Then lightly 
brush it off. 


Asphaltum, 2\ pounds ; melt and add boiled oil, I pound ; 
spirits of turpentine, 3 quarts. Mix. Apply when cold 
with a rag or brush. Very inflammable. Be cautious. 


Furniture Polish. MISCELLANEOUS. Paste, 


Take a soft cloth an old knit under-garment is good, 
dampen it with kerosene and wipe the oil-cloth every day 
or two. Do not use water. Or, wash in skim milk and water. 
Rub with linseed oil every few weeks. Take but little, rub 
in well, and polish with an old silk cloth. 


Fred S. Johnstone, Chicago. 

Dissolve i ounce gum arabic in water. Add I ounce gum 
tragacanth, I ounce benzoin, ounce 'wintergreen oil, I 
quart alcohol, I pint raw oil (linseed). Let stand about 24 
hour:^. Always shake before using. If desired thinner, use 
alcohol. Rub on with a soft cloth, and wipe off immedi- 
ately with a dry one. This is very important. 


Equal parts of borax and white sugar will drive away 
roaches or Croton bugs. 

Put salt under the edges of carpets when tacked down. 


Mrs. R. W Louis, Chicago. 

Six ounces corrosive sublimate, 6 ounces camphor gum, i 
pt. spirits turpentine; shake well, mix; let stand a day. Shake 
before using. 


To mend broken china, glass, marble, or common crock- 
ery, mix fresh-slaked lime with white of egg until it 
becomes a sticky paste. Apply to the edges, and in 3 days 
it will be firm. 


Best white glue, 16 ounces ; white lead, dry, 4 ounces ; 
rain water, I quart ; alcohol, 4 ounces. With constant stir- 
ring dissolve the glue and lead in the water, by means of a 
water bath. Add the alcohol, and continue the heat for a 
few minutes. Pour into bottles while still hot. 


Dissolve a teaspoon of alum in a quart of warm water. 
When cold, stir in flc _ir to the consistency of thick cream, 
beating up all the lumps. Stir in powdered resin, and throw 
in a half dozen cloves to give it a pleasant odor. Have on 
the fire a teacup of boiling water ; pour the flour mixture 
into it, stirring well all the time. In a few moments it will 
* 5 6 


Mending Tinware. MISCELLANEOUS. Burning Chimnay. 

be of the consistency of mush. Pour it into an earthern or 
china vessel ; let it cool, lay a cover on, and put it in a cool 
place. When needed for use, take out a portion and soften 
it with boiling water. Paste thus made will last twelve 
months. Better than gum, as it does not gloss paper, and can 
be written on. 


Fill a vial f full muriatic acid, put into it all the chippings 
of sheet zinc it will dissolve ; then add a crumb of sal 
ammoniac and fill up with water. Wet the place to be 
mended with this liquid, put a piece of zinc over the hole, 
and apply a lighted candle below it, which melts the solder 
on the tin and makes the zinc to adhere. 


To i pound resin, put from 2 to 3 ounces tallow ; melt 
very carefully together, and, when hot, stir in fine sawdust, 
and make very thick. Spread it immediately about I inch 
thick upon a board. Sprinkle fine sawdust over the board 
first, to prevent sticking. When cold, break into lumps I 
inch square. If made for sale, take a thin board, grease the 
edge, and mark it off into squares, pressing it deep, while 
yet warm, so it will break in regular shapes. This may be 
sold at a good profit. It takes but very little to kindle a fire. 


C. S. Johnston, Harford, Pa. 

Dissolve 2 drachms nitrate of silver, \ ounce gum arabic 
in a gill of rain water. Add aqua ammonia, a few drops at 
a time, till you get the color the right shade. After mark- 
ing, dry the goods near the fire, or in the sun. Don't mark 
new cloth before the dressing is washed out, but starch and 
iron the garment, then mark, and all creation will not be 
likely to wash it out. Keep it dark. 


Dissolve asphaltum in oil of naptha, and it will answer 
for marking parcels, drying quickly and not spreading. 


Shut all the windows and doors, to prevent a current of 
air, and throw a handful or more of salt in the fire. 





E give diagrams showing the manner of 
cutting up meats at the present day for 
home consumption. Packers have a dif- 
ferent method. On the quarter of beef 
the figures are made to correspond with 
the like parts in the beef on foot. It is 
the same with the porker. 




Shank, for soup-bone. 
Flank, for soup or steak. 

Cheek, for soup. 

Neck, for mince-meat. 

Chuck, for roasting. 

Rib roast best roast. 

Porter-house steak. 

Sirloin, roast or steak. 

Rump, to roast or boil. 

Round, for steak, pot-roast, or dried beef. 

Hock, for soup- meat. 

14. Shoulder-clod, for pot-roast. 

15. Shank, for soup- bone. 

Rib or plate, for corned beef. 16. Breast, for soup or stew. 

Brisket, for corned beef. The pluck is the heart, liver, and lights. 


Veal. CUTTING UP MEATS. Rennet. 


Rinse the paunch in cold water after it is emptied. Use 
great care that the contents do not touch the outside. 
Make a strong lye and pour it hot over the tripe, and let it 
soak 3 hours. Then fasten it to a board with tacks, and 
scrape the inner skin off with a knife. Then sprinkle with 
lime, cover with warm water, and, after soaking- 2 hours, 
scrape again. If the dark comes off it is clean, but if not, 
sprinkle again with lime, and soak once more, and scrape 
again. When clean, cover with salt water, and keep it soak- 
ing for 3 days, putting on clear brine each day. Then take 
out, cut into 6-inch squares, soak in buttermilk (to whiten) for 
\ day ; rinse, and boil in clear water until very tender. It 
may take all day. 


1. End of loin, for roasts. 

2. Loin, for roast or cutlets. 

3. Rib, for roast or chops. 

4. Neck, for stew or soup. 

5. Head, for soup or jelly. 

6. Sweet-breads Located between 
the neck and stomach, on each 
side of the windpipe, between the 
fore-legs, above figure 6 ; sweet- 
breads are also located lower clown, 
above figure 8. For manner of 

cooking, see page 9-1. 9. Feet, for jelly. 

7. Breast, for stew. 10. Fillet, for roasting. 

8. Shank, for stew or soup. 1 1 . Knuckle, for stewing. 


The neck is used for pot-pies and broths. 

The forequarter is divided into two pieces called the bris- 
ket, or breast, and rack. 

The fillet (which is the leg and hind flank) is used to stuff 
and roast, to stuff and boil, or for cutlets. 


Take the stomach of a newly-killed calf and hang it up 
without washing for 5 days, as washing weakens the gastric 
juices. Then slip the curds off with the hand. Fill it with 
salt mixed with a little salt-peter, put it in a crock, pour on 
I teaspoon vinegar and 2 tablespoons salt. Cover closely, 
and keep for use. In six weeks take a piece 4 inches square 





and bottle it with 2\ cups cold water and 2 gills rose 
brandy, cork tightly, and shake when wanted. A table- 
spoon is enough for I quart milk. 


1. Head, for soup in England; 
not used much here. 

2. Neck, for stewing. 

3. Shoulder, for roast, or for 
boning and stuffing. 

Rack, for chops or roast. 
Breast, for stew. 

6. Shank, for soup or stew. 

7. Feet, for jelly. 

8. Loin, for roast. 

. Flank, for stew. 


10. Leg, for roast, chops, or boiling. 

Hock, lor stew or soup. 
A saddle of mutton is two legs and two loins undivided. A chine is the two 
loins, with the backbone, undivided. 


We do not give a diagram for cutting up a lamb, because 
the work is a very simple matter. The lamb is simply 
divide \ into two forequarters and two hindquarters. 



Split the hog through the spine, take off each half of the 
head behind the ear, then take off 3 or 4 pounds next to the 
head in front of the shoulder for sausage. Then take out 
the leaf which lies around the kidneys, for lard. Then cut 
out the lean meat, except what belongs to the shoulders and 
hams. Then cut off the shoulders and hams. Cut out all 
the fat to use foV lard, which is a loose piece in front ^i the 
ham. A narrow strip from the belly is used for sausage- 
meat. Cut the rest up into pieces convenient for salting. 
Smoke the jowl with the hams. Use the upper part of the 
head for boiling, baking, or head cheese. Hold the feet over 
a blaze to loosen the hoofs. Scrape very clean, and after a 
thorough washing they are ready to boil. Clean the fat 
from the intestines for lard. If it is unfit for lard use it for 
soap-grease. The smaller intestines, clean for sausage-cases. 
To salt down pork, let it stand till cold, then cover the bot- 
tom of the barrel with an inch layer of salt ; over this put a 
closely-packed layer of meat, and so continue till the meat is 




Sausage Cases. 

all in. Pour over it a strong brine, boiling hot, that has been 
skimmed carefully. Cover with a board and weight, that 
must be kept under the brine. If the brine turns red or 
frothy, re-heat, skim, and pour over hot. If fresh pork is 
added, pour off all the brine, heat it, and pour over scalding 

Snout, for boiling. 

Cheek, for smoked jowls. 

Hock, for boiling. 

Top of the neck, for sausage. 

Lower part of neck, for sausage and lard. 

Shoulder-top, for steak and sausage. 

Shoulder, for steaks or smoking. 

Loin, for chops or roast. 

Ham, to fry, boil, or bake. 

Side- meat or bacon. 

Tail-piece, to boil or corn. 

Feet, for jelly or pickle. 
The harslet is the heart, liver, and lights. 
A chine is two loins with the backbone, un- 
divided, and is very delicious, either baked 
or stewed. Hogs make the best bacon \s 
when they weigh about 1 50 pounds. They 
should be fed on corn six weeks before 

Empty the intestines without tearing them. 

Wash, and 

cut into 2 yard lengths ; then take a small, smooth, round 
stick, fasten one end of the case to the end of the stick, and 
turn it inside out. Wash very thoroughly, scrape clean, and 
let soak in salt water till ready to use. They should look 
transparent and very thin. For manner of rendering lard, 
see recipe on page 102. 



UITE a number of requests have been sent 
us for a chapter giving recipes for the 
common diseases of animals. In response 
to these calls, we have had this chapter 
prepared. Of course in a work of this 
character, and in the limited space at our 
disposal, we cannot pretend to give an ex- 
haustive treatise on these diseases, but the remedies given 
are believed to be reliable and trustworthy, and we hope 
they will be found useful in the more ordinary cases which 
from time to time arise. 


Take of Oil of spike .............. I ounce. ' 

Oil of hemlock ........... I ounce. 

Turpentine ............... 2 ounces. 

Linseed oil ............... \ ounce. Mix. 

Apply to the parts affected. Feed I tablespoon of jimpson 
seed every other day until you have given 3 doses. 

Take of Chloroform ............... I ounce. 

Linseed oil .............. I pint. Mix. 

Give as a drench. Keep salt constantly within reach of 
the horse. 

Take of Laudanum ................ \ ounce. 

Pulverized asafcetida ....... 2 ounces. 

Ether .................... I ounce. 

Peppermint ............... i ounce. 

Warm water .............. I pint. Mix. 

Give as a drench. Rubbing the horse's belly with turpen- 
tine is also one of the best remedies for colic. 


Curb. THE HORSE. Foundr. 


Take of Tincture of Cantharides. . .1 ounce. 

Tincture of iodine I ounce. Mix. 

Apply to parts affected. Leave on 3 days. Then dress 
with grease or simple cerate for 3 days, and apply again. 


Take of Tincture of gentian I ounce. 

Tincture of catechu I ounce. 

Sweet spirits of niter I ounce. 

Mix in a pint of gruel and give every 2 or 3 hours. 


Take of Carbonate of iron I drachm. 

Powdered gentian 3 drachms. 

Flaxseed meal 2 drachms. 

Mix into a thick paste with molasses, and give this dose 
morning and evening by placing on the root of the tongue. 
Steam the head and apply bran poultices to the throat. 


Take of Gum camphor 20 grains. 

Sugar of lead 10 grains. 

Dissolve in I pint soft water. Apply with a feather. 
Secure the horse, and turn the upper lid inside out to see if 
a speck of dirt is present when the eye appears inflamed. If 
there is, remove it. 


Take of Iodide of iron J drachm. 

Gentian root J ounce. Mix. 

Give this dose twice a day. Touch the ulcers with a 
strong solution of chloride of lime or carbolic acid. Give 
nourishing food, daily exercise, and attend to cleanliness. 
Keep the horse rigidly separate from other animals. 


Apply the ''blistering ointment" (which see) to the parts 
affected. When blistered, make an incision to evacuate mat- 
ter, and apply a solution of i grain of choride of zinc to 
i ounce of water. 


Take of Aloes 5 drachms. 

Podophyllin i drachm. 

Capsicum i drachm. Mix. 

Give this to physic him. Take off the shoes and put, his 


THE HORSE. Staggers. 

feet in hot water, one at a time, if the horse is very stiff, or 
bleed freely from the thigh vein. 


Take of Balsam of copaiba I ounce. 

Balsam of fir I ounce. 

Calcined magnesium sufficient to make into a ball. Givex 
a ball, the size of a hickory-nut, every morning for 10 days, 


Take of alum J ounce and the same amount of double- 
refined sugar, mixed with a little honey. Rub on the swell- 
ing 2 or 3 times a day. 


Take of Tincture of digitalis 2 ounces. 

Tincture veratrum viride. . .2 ounces. 

Tincture of aconite I ounce. 

Ether i ounce. Mix. 

Put I tablespoon on the tongue every 30 minutes until 3 
doses have been given. Wait 4 hours, and if not better 


Physic the horse. Wash the skin with soap suds, and 
apply a strong sulphur ointment frequently. Attend to the 
cleanliness of the stable, and feed the horse well. 


Apply the "blistering ointment" (which see) to the parts 
affected, and leave on for 3 days. Then dress with grease 
for 3 days. Wash off, and apply ointment again. 


Cut the hair off close. Wash the legs with strong soap- 
suds or with warm vinegar saturated with salt. Dry and 
smear them over with lard or mutton tallow. 

Same treatment as "Ringbone." 


Take of Barbadoes aloes 6 drachms. 

Calomel 2 drachms. 

Oil of Peppermint 20 drops. 

Tincture of cardamons 2 ounces. 

Warm water I pint. Mix. 

Give as a drench. 


String Halt. THE HORSE. Galling OH. 


Get a land turtle. Try out the grease, and rub it on the 
inside muscles. 


Take of Oil of Sassafras I ounce. 

Spirits of camphor I ounce. 

Aqua ammonia ^ ounce. 

Oil of cedar J ounce. 

Oil of cajeput \ ounce. 

Hickory-nut oil \ ounce. 

Oil of origanum \ ounce. Mix. 

Apply to the larynx. 


Apply tight bandages soaked with decoction of white oak 
bark. Blister old windgalls. Do not puncture them it 
may cause permanent lameness. 


Take of Corrosive sublimate I ounce. 

Gum camphor I ounce. 

Oil of origanum \ ounce. 

Turpentine . i pint. Mix. 


Take of Spirits of turpentine I pound. 

Tallow i pound. 

Tar i pound. 

Black resin i pound. 

Lard 2 pounds. Mix. 


Take of Alcohol i pint. 

Oil of origanum i ounce. 

Fireweed i ounce. 

Oil of spike i ounce. 

Spirits hartshorn 2 ounces. Mix. 


Take of Linseed oil 2 \ gallons. 

Spirits turpentine 2\ gallons. 

Petroleum ". . i gallon. 

Liquor Potass 8 ounces. 

Sap green I ounce. Mix, 

Mustang Liniment. CATTLE. Dry Murrain. 

Mix equal parts of petroleum, olive oil, and carbonate of 
ammonia. A valuable liniment. 

Take of Castile soap .............. i \ ounces. 

Barbadoes aloes ........... 7j ounces. 

Powdered ginger .......... li ounces. 

Oil of aniseseed ............ 5 drachms. 

Syrup sufficient to mix. Make into 6 balls. Each one is 
a dose. 

Take of Calomel .................. i teaspoon. 

Sulphur .................. i tablespoon, 

Corn meal ................ J cup. Mix. 

Let the animal lick it from a pan SG as not to waste it. In 
24 hours drench with the following: 
Take of melted lard ............... ^ cup, 

Warm, sweet milk ......... i pint. 

Molasses .................. i cup. 

Pulverized copperas ........ i dessert-spoon. Mix, 

Repeat in 10 days, and keep the horse in a dry place. 
This is good for swelling, colic, staggers, and general diseases 
of horses, hogs, and horned cattle. 



By giving a little oil, and then holding the wind-pipe a 
moment so as to shut off the wind and suddenly starting 
the animal, the obstruction will someitmes be removed. It 
can sometimes be forced down by pressing gently very 
gently with a smooth whip-handle. 


Take of Barbadoes aloes i ounce. 

Common soda i ounce. 

Oil of turpentine ! ounce. 

Glauber salts i pound. 

Hot water J pint. 

Mix and give as i dose in \ gallon of thin gruel. One 
half this dose to cattle under 2 years old. 


Distemper. CATTLE. Scouting. 


Give 3 quarts tar-water 4 times a day, and gradually lessen 
the dose. 


Apply an ointment made of equal parts of camphor and 
blue ointment to the parts affected. Physic the animal and 
remove the milk frequently. 


Take of Ginger 2 ounces. 

Allspice 2 ounces. 

Mustard 2 ounces. 

Molasses I pint. 

Mix in 2 quarts warm water. Give night and morning in 
2 doses. 

Physic and keep from rich food. 


Mix J pint kerosene in 2 gallons of water. Apply with a 
stiff brush twice a week. Wash the wood-work with lime- 


Take of Powdered ginger 2 ounces. 

Powdered anise-seed 2 ounces. 

Epsom salts I pound. 

Molasses 4 ounces. 

Mix in 3 pints boiling water, and give at blood warm heat. 


Take of Armenian bole i ounce. 

Dragon's blood J ounce. 

Castile soap 2 ounces. 

Powdered alum I drachm. 

Mix in i quart water and at blood heat. Repeat in 12 
hours, if not better. 


Wash with soap suds and apply a light coat of tincture 
of iodine. 


Take of Castor oil i ounce. 

Prepared chalk i teaspoon. 

Powdered rhubarb 2 drachms. Mix 

in i pint warm milk. If no better, repeat in 36 or 48 hours. 

Sore Throat. SHEEP. Scabs and Ticks. 


Wash the teats clean with soap suds and a r .ply cream 
or grease with lard. Draw the milk with a milking-tube 
instead of the usual way. 


Put I quart of tar in 4 quarts water. Stir for 15 minutes, 
then let it stand for half an hour, pour off, and it is ready 
for use. 



If near a stream of water, throw the animal in and let it 
swim a while. Give a dose of physic, if it can be obtained 


Give 2 drachms laudanum and 2 ounces castor oil, mixed. 
One-third of this dose for lambs. One part white of egg to 
six parts water may be given freely. 


Pare off all surplus hoof, though not enough to start the 
blood. Wash the foot and dip it in tar. Keep on dry pas- 
turage and apply again in a week, if necessary. Sprinkle 
dry air-slaked lime on the floor if kept in-doors. 


Give some tar-water (which see), and apply a little tar to 
the nose. Cure not difficult. 

Take of Castor oil ................ 2 tablespoons. 

Laudanum .......... ....15 drops. Mix. 

One-third to J this dose for lambs. 


Mix fresh butter and sulphur, and apply to the parts 

Boil i pound tobacco leaves in 2 gallons water. When 

47Q _ __ 

Coughs. SWINE. Worms. 

cold, add \ barrel cold water and dip the sheep (all but the 
head) in this mixture. Apply some to the sheep's head 
with the hand. This is the best remedy known. 



Physic a little with castor oil and sulphur and give a 
warming diet. 

Give 2 ounces of olive oil mixed with 2 drachms laudanum. 


Thought to be incurable. A good preventive when it is 
prevailing, is to put ashes or charcoal in the trough once a 
week, and slightly acidulate the drinking water with sulphuric 


It is said that as much arsenic as can be put on a dime 
will always cure this disease. 

Same as for cattle (which see). 

Take of Muriate of ammonia ....... ^ drachm. 

Gum camphor ............. 8 grains. 

Molasses ............ ..... i teaspoon. Mix. 


Take a piece of indigo as large as a hickory-nut, mash up 
in water and pour it down. 


Cover the pigs with a paste made of aloes and water. 
The bitter taste disgusts the sow. 

Sulphur mixed with the food is the best remedy. 


T is difficult to exaggerate the importance of 
good roads to the farmers who are obliged to 
transport their produce to market, and we insert 
the cut which is taken from the report of the De- 
partment of Agriculture for the State of Illinois 
by special request, as it shows the best manner 
of grading a road-bed. It is advisable that the 
road-bed be at least 25 feet wide with the ditches not less 
than 7 feet wide, and 9 feet is preferable. This extreme 
<vidth cf road-bed (and water-ways) will leave I2j feet on 
<>ach side for the planting of shade-trees, and yet give ample 
space for pedestrians. Ditches should begin at nothing, run- 
ning gradually back to the extreme depth, 1 1 inches to 2 feet. 
The grade should be carried continuously up and down 
fr.he slopes and over the summits of the undulations, as well 
as in the valleys, then the crowning surface of the road 
carries the water naturally to the water-ways or ditches at 
the side, thus always leaving the road-bed in good condition. 
One of the mistakes most often made in road-making is 
that the ditches are left deepest in the middle, and rising 
alike toward the road and the bank, or deposit near the 
road-bed. This is entirely wrong. They should slope grad- 
ually to a point at the outside of the ditch next the fence, 
and from thence they should rise sharply to the surface of 
the ground. The reason is obvious : If the lowest point of 
the gutter be in the center of the ditches or near the road-bed, 
and there be enough water to wash at all, there will be danger 
that the road-way may be abrased, or eaten into by water. If 
deepest next the fence, then water will wear from, rather than 
towards the road-way, and all difficulty of washing will be 
avoided. Thus the whole when completed should present 
an appearance as hereafter illustrated. 

A road thus made, graded high, with ample ditches on each 
side, will be good for fully ten months in the year. It is as 
perfect a road as can be made in a prairie country, and so 
cheaply, that the ordinary road-tax for three years will fur- 
nish good and sufficient earth-roads, well-graded, on every 
sectional line in every prairie township. 

We desire to state that we receive no pay, directly or in- 
directly, for the insertion of this notice. We believe it will 
contribute a little to the attainment of that great desider- 
atum, good roads in the farming districts. 



Table for 10 Feet. ROAD-MAKING. Table for 12 Feet. 

We give the following tables for the benefit of farmers 
interested in making levees, roads, or turnpikes. It is con- 
tributed by the Wauchope Road Grader Manufacturing 
Company of Chicago. The tables show the measure- 
ment of embankments of stations of 100 feet in length, with 
slopes i horizontal to I perpendicular : 












. Yds. 





0.0. . 


2.0. . 






8.0. . . 


I . . 


I . . 


I . 


i . 


I. . . 


2. . 


2. . 




2 . 





1 1.6 


I 14.6 














. 464.6 

4.. . 







































. 508.7 














.0. . 








9.0 . . 


i . . 


i . . 


i . 


i . 


i. . . 


2 . 


2. . 






2.. . 









.566. 4 














































22 1. 




























. Yds. 





0.0. . 


2.O. . 






8.0. . . 


I . . 


I . . 


I . 


i . 


i.. . 


2 . 


2. . 


2 . 


























































39- i 





















Table for 12 Feet. 


Table for 14 Feet. 












. Yds. 





.1.0. . 








9 .0... 


I . . 


I . . 


I . 


I . 


I.. . 


2. . 


2 . 


2 . 




2.. . 




3 - 




3 - 













9 08.7 

































8. . 






8.. . 










9.. . 














, Yds. 


. Yds. 


, Yds. 



0.0. . 


2.O. . 








I . . 


I . . 


I . 

. 306.0 

i . 


I.. . 


2. . 


2 . 


















4. . 








4.. . 










































9 .. 










I.O. . 








9.0. . . 

9 l6.7 

i . . 


i . . 


i . 


i . 


i. . . 


2. . 


2 . 


2 . 










































. 464.6 













7 V 






















The cut represents the road which was graded with the 
Wauchope Grader at a cost of I and 7-10 of a cent per cubic 
foot of earth removed, or at an average cost of only $68 per 
mile of road made, and for which the above grader, now 
called the New Era Grader, received the $ 100 premium offered 
by the Illinois State Board of Agriculture. 



Premium Road. 


(68 Pr Mil*. 



Chas. H. Hodge, Sherman, Texas. 

Take 4 pieces of common tin eave-trough, each 18 inches 
long. Join them together to form a square, and lay on the 
ant-hill. Bank the dirt up even with both edges. In the 
center of one section make a hole to fit a small tube. Any 
tubing will do, or a piece of tin a foot long can be bent, or 
use a tall lamp chimney. Let it run from the hole in the 
eave-trough down into the closely-fitted cover on a baking- 
powder can sunk in the earth. The ants in going to and 
from the ant-hill will naturally come to the eave-trough and 
crawl in. Then when once in they cannot crawl up the 
smooth sides, and will eventually reach the opening. Then 
they will drop down into the can, and as fast as the can is 
filled, it can be emptied, and the ants killed. In one day I 
emptied 18 two-pound cans that were filled with these pests. 

To get rid of red or black ants in your pantry, sprinkle 
salt over the shelves. 


Common black pepper ground and sifted over the plants 
will kill every moth without fail. Three or four times in a 
season will insure the plants. 


Sow a square yard of ground with common mustard. The 
seed may be ground as wanted, and although it will look 
brown instead of yellow, will have a better taste than that 
bought at the drugstores, which is frequently mixed with 


Scour the inside with sand, then apply a sprinkling of 
charcoal dust. Or, rinse with a strong solution of oil of vit- 
riol and water. Either method will rid them of foulness. 

In cold weather set the churn in a vessel of hot water. 
Remove as soon as the churn is heated through. In warm 
weather set the churn in cold water. If hot water is poured 
into the cream, the butter is apt to be white and oily. 

Bore 3 or 4 holes in the sides of the sash, into which 


Foot-Warmers. MISCELLANEOUS. Cement 

insert common bottle-cork, projecting about i-i6of an inch. 
These will press against the window frames along the usual 
groove and by their elasticity support the sash at any height 
which may be required. 


A bag of sand well heated is the best possible article for 
warming the feet. It is well to have two or more of them in 
the house. Excellent for elderly people or invalids. The 
openings should be sewed well, and a binding put over it, 
The bag is best made of flannel, and covered with a cotton 
one that can be removed and washed. 


Wrap some newspapers about the legs, and tie them 
securely with twine. They are the best possible protection 
from cold, and can be worn through a deep snow and then 
thrown away and replenished with fresh papers Never 
mind the looks. Folks don't stop you in a snowdrift to look 
at the cut of your clothes. 


One-half pound gum shellac ; cover with alcohol, cork, 
and let stand 3 days, shaking occasionally. Then add a 
piece of gum camphor the size of art egg. Let stand as 
above, and add I ounce of lampblack. Black boots or shoes 
with a sponge or cloth. 

Warm the soles and apply a heavy coat of warm coal tar. 
Dry it in, and apply 2 more coats before wearing them. 
Smear the edges as long as they will absorb the tar. They 
will wear like horn, and once giving it a trial will convince 
the most skeptical of its value. The tar costs but a few 
cents at gas works. Warm it on the stove in a tin dish. 

Cut gutta-percha in small pieces, and dissolve it in benzine 
to a thin mucilage. Clean the boots free from grease with 
benzine and a sponge, and apply the patch covered with the 
gutta-percha cement. The cement should be warmed by 
putting the bottle in hot water before it is used. 



Browned flour 


Clarifying soup 

Coloring soups 1 1 


Dressing for chicken.. . . 
Dumplings for soup .... 

Egg balls 

Force-meat balls 

Hints for soup 


Parsley, to dry 

Soup-balls, German 

Soup powder 

Soup stock 

Barley soup 

Bean soup 

Beef soup with rice 


Brown fish soup 

Brown rabbit soup. 

Catfish soup 

Clam soup 

Chestnut soup 

Chicken soup 

Chicken soups 

Chicken vegetable soup. . 
Confederate Army soup. . 

Cream soup of fish 

Fish soups 

Game soups 

Giblet soup 

Good game soup 


13 Green corn soup 28 

1 1 Green pea soup 27 

1 1 Green turtle soup 16 

12 Gumbo fela 20 

12 Gumbo soups 20 

10 Julienne soup 26 

19 Kentucky gumbo soup. . . 20 

19 Lobster soup 14 

10 Meat soups 21 

10 Mississippi gumbo soup. . 21 
9 Mock turtle soup 23 

1 1 Mushroom soup 25 

9 Mutton soup 23 

1 1 Okra soup 26 

12 Onion soup 27 

13 Ox-tail soup 22 

2 5 Oyster soup 14 

28' Partridge soup 17 

22 Pea soup 27 

2 1 Pepper-pot 15 

1 5 Potage a la Reine 18 

17 Potato soup 27 

1 5 Puree of fish 15 

14 Rabbit soup 17 

25 Stock soup 24 

18 Tomato soup 27 

1 8 Veal soup 22 

19 Veal soup with vegetables 23 

24 Victoria soup 24 

J 5 Vegetable soups 25 

14 Vermicelli soup 25 

1 6 White chicken soup 19 

18 White soup 26 

1 6 Wrexham soup 24 


Hints about fish 29 

Baked fish 32 

Baked fish, cream sauce . . 33 
Baked fish with tomatoes 33 

Boiled fish 33 

Boiled fish, egg sauce.. . . 33 
Boiled fish, Hollandaise.. 34 
Broiled fish 31 





FISH Continued. 

Chowder, fish, 30 

Codfish balls 34 

Codfish stew 34 

Crimped salmon 30 

Eels 35 

Fish croquettes 107 

Fried fish 35 

Fried perch 36 

Halibut Creole style... 33 

Pickled fish 31 

Potted fish 30 

Mackerel, fresh 31 

Mackerel, salt 35 

Shad roe with oysters. . . 36 

Smelts, to fry 36 

Stuffing for fish 32 

Turbans of fish 32 

Turbot, fish 31 


Oyster croquettes 108 

Oyster fricassee 39 

Oyster fritters 196 

Oyster omelet 40 

Oyster patties 43 

Oyster pie 42 

Oyster salads 124 

Oyster sauce with turkey. 39 

Oyster soup 14 

Oyster stews 38-39 

Oysters and macaroni. . . 43 

Oysters, broiled 41 

Oysters, cream, half shell. 41 

Oysters, deviled 40 

Oysters, fried 40 

Oysters, Mobile roast. ... 41 

Oysters on toast 40 

Oysters, panned 43 

Oysters, pickled 44 

Oysters, raw 38 

Oysters, scalloped 41 

Oysters, stuffed 42 


Beaver, roast 51 

Cranes 56 

Ducks, canvas-back 56 

Ducks, wild, roasted 57 

Ducks, wild, stewed 57 

Frogs 62 

Game 49 

Hare, jugged 52 

Herons 56 

Oysters, steamed 44 

Oysters, spiced 44 

Oysters, to use 37-3$ 

Clams 45 

Clams, fried . . 46 

Clam chowder 45 

Clam fritters 196 

Clam pie 46 

Clam soup 14 

Clams, stewed 45 

Crabs 47 

Crabs, boiled 48 

Crabs, fried 48 

Crabs, stuffed 47 

Crabs, to choose 47 

Lobsters 46 

Lobsters, boiled 46 

Lobsters, scalloped 47 

Lobsters, to choose 46 

Shrimps 47 

Shrimps, buttered 48 

Shrimps, potted 48 


Larks 58 

Opossum 5 2 

Partridge, broiled 58 

Partridge pie 57 

Pemmican, to prepare ... 54 

Pigeons, potted 58 

Pigeons, stewed 59 

Pilau of birds 59 

Plover 50 





Prairie chickens 59-60 

Quail, broiled 60 

Quail pie 60 

Quail, steamed 61 

Rabbit, boiled, liver sauce 52 

Rabbit, fried 53 

Rabbit pie 53 

Rabbit, roasted 53 

Rabbit stew 53 

Raccoons 54 

Rail birds. . 61 

Reed birds 6 1 

Snipe 6 1 

Squirrel pie 54 

Terrapin or turtle 62 

Venison, roast 54 

Venison sausage 55 

Venison steaks 55 

Venison stew 55 

Woodchucks and 'coons.. 56 

Winged game 56 

Woodcock . 6 1 

Ham and eggs 2 recipes 

Omelet Celestine 

Omelet, egg and orange. 

Omelet, plain 

Omelet saccharine 

Omelet souffle 

Baked eggs 

Boiled eggs 

Chowder, egg 

Coloring eggs 


65 Curried eggs 66 

68 Fried eggs 65 

68 Panned eggs 66 

67 Pickled eggs 6; 

68 Poached eggs 65 

68 Preserving eggs 64 

66 Scalloped eggs 66 

64 Scrambled eggs 6$ 

67 Steamed eggs. 6$ 

64 Stuffed eggs 67 


Chicken, Brunswick stew . 74 

Chicken, filling for boned . 72 

Chicken, fricasseed 73 

Chicken, fried 74 

Chicken, how to bone ... 72 

Chicken, how to cut up. . 71 

Chicken pie 75 

Chicken pot-pie 75 

Chicken, pressed 75 

Chicken, smothered 73 

Chicken stews 74-76 

Chicken with oysters. ... 75 

Duck, apple stuffing for. . 78 

Ducks, roast 78 

Ducks, stuffing for 78 

German relish 78 

Geese livers, fried ?8 

Goose, roast. 77 

Turkey, filling for boned . 72 

Turkey, fried' 77 

Turkey, oyster dressing. 77 

Turkey, roast 76 


Steaming meats 81 Beefsteak, round 84 

Beef a la mode 83 

Beefsteak, broiled. 84 

Beefsteak, English 85 

Beefsteak, mock duck, ... 83 

Beefsteak, stuffed 83 

Beefsteak, to make tender 85 
Beefsteak, with onions. . . 84 
Boiled dinner 81 


Meats. INDEX. HasX 


Dried beef. 85 Roast 82 

Dumplings, Rhode Island 89 Sausage cake 86 

Corned beef to press 86 Spiced beef. 87 

Heart 86 Stew 84 

Kidneys 2 recipes 87 Stuffed pressed 86 

Liver 3 recipes 87-88 Tongue 85 

Pot roast 82 Tripe 3 recipes 88 

Pressed 86 Yorkshire pudding 83 


Cutlets, veal 90 Marbled, veal 90 

Liver 2 recipes 9 J -9 2 Pot-pie, veal., 89 

Sweet breads 3 recipes. 91 Roast veal 89 

Loaf, veal 90 Stuffed veal 89 


Boiled mutton 93 Lamb, leg of, -to roast. . . 93 

Chops, mutton 93 Lamb, with green peas. . 94 

Irish stew 93 Macaroni mutton 93 

Lamb, blanquette 94 Roast mutton 92 


Bacon and cabbage 98 Pigs' feet 96-97 

Bacon and snaps 98 Pork and fried apples.. . . 98 

Chine 2 recipes 95 Pork and liver 98 

Ham, cold-boiled 100 Pork-pie, English 95 

Ham noodles 99 Pork roast 94 

Ham omelet 99 Pork toast 97 

Ham, to stuff 99 Pork, to keep fresh 96 

Head cheese 97 Souse 97 

Parsnip stew 97 Spare-ribs 95 

Pig, roast 96 Tenderloins 2 recipes. . .96 

MEATS Curing Meats. 

Beef corning 100 Lard, to render 102 

Beef, dried, to cure 101 Mutton, corned IOI 

Beef, pickle 100 Sausage 3 recipes. . 101-102 

Ham, to cure 101 Tongues, corning 100 


Beef balls and patties. 103- 104 Meat pies 2 recipes. . . . 104 

Dumplings, meat 106 Minced mutton 106 

Fish cake 107 Minced veal 105 

Fricassee of beef 104 Omelet, meat 104 

Hash, corned beef. 105 Ragout 105 

Hash, union 106 Scrapple 106 

Hash, veal 105 Wonders 106 






Croquettes, how fried .... 107 

Bread croquettes no 

Chicken croquettes 109 

Egg croquettes 108 

Fish croquettes 107 

Green corn croquettes. . . 109 

Lobster croquette. ..... 108 

Oyster croquettes 108 

Potato croquettes, ...... 1 10 

Rice croquettes 1 10 

Salmon croquettes 108 

Veal croquettes 109 


Caper butter 112 Hollandaise sauce 113 

Curry powder 1 1 1 German sauce 1 16 

Mustard, Kentucky .....112 Lobster sauce 114 

Soy, green tomato 115 Maitre d'hotel sauce 112 

Sweet herbs in Mint sauce 114 

Anchovy sauce 115 Mushroom sauce 114 

Anchovy sauce (essence).. 1 1 5 Onion sauce 114 

Asparagus sauce 1 14 Parsley sauce 113 

Celery sauce 113 Queen of Oude sauce. .116 

Chili sauce 115 Shrimp sauce 115 

Cream sauce 112 Sour sauce 113 

Drawn-butter sauce 112 Tartar sauce 112 

Egg sauce for fish 113 White sauce 113 


Remarks and suggestions 117-118 


To crisp celery, etc 119 Salad, orange 121 

To fringe celery stalks. . . 119 Salad, oyster 124 

Dressing, French salad. . . 1 19 Salad, potato 122 

Dressing, lettuce 120 Salad Russian 125 

Dressing, Mayonnaise.. . . 1 19 Salad salmon 124 

Horse-radish, to keep. . . 125 Salad, summer 120 

Relish, camp 125 Salad, winter 121 

Salad, chicken 123-124 Salmagundi 125 

Salad, German potato. . . 123 Slaw, cooked dressing. . . 121 

Salad, hot egg 123 Slaw, cold dressing 12 1 

Salad, lettuce 1 20 Slaw, hot 122 

Salad, lobster. . 124 Water-cresses 122 


Spiced currants 128 Grape catsup., 126 

Spiced peaches 128 Mushroom catsup 127 

Cucumber catsup, green. 126 Pepper catsup 126 

Currant catsup 126 Tomato catsup 3 recipes 127 

Gooseberry catsup 126 Walnut catsup 128 




Weights and Measures. 


Preparing for cooking.. . . 129 

Artichokes 141 

Asparagus 140 

Beans 5 recipes. . . . 136-137 

Beets 2 recipes 141 

Cabbage 6 recipes. . 139-140 

Carrots 143 

Cauliflower 2 recipes . . . 140 

Celery 147 

Corn, dried 148 

Corn, hulled, lye hominy. 148 

Corn patties 135 

Corn porridge 135 

Corn pudding 2 recipes. 135 

Corn, roasted 147 

Corn, stewed 135 

Corn, green, to can 136 

Corn, to dry 148 

Cucumbers, fried 144 

Egg plant 2 recipes 142 

Greens 137 

Hominy, large 148 

Lettuce, wilted 138 

Macaroni 2 recipes 145 

Macaroni and mushrooms 146 

Macaroni rice 145 

Mushrooms, 4 recipes. 146-147 

Okra 145 

Onions 2 recipes 144 

Parsnips 143 

Peaches, Fried 144 

Peas 3 recipes 141 

Potato balls 131 

Potato cakes 133 

Potato dumplings, German 1 32 

Potato mangle 132 

Potato patties 132 

Potato pudding 130 

Potato puffs 131 

Potato rolls 132 

Potatoes a la creme....i3O 
Potatoes, baked ........ 130 

Potatoes, boiled 131 

Potatoes, cooked dry. . . . 129 

Potatoes, Lyonnaise 131 

Potatoes, mashed 129 

Potatoes, Parisian .131 

Potatoes, quirled 130 

Potatoes, Saratoga 13^ 

Potatoes, scalloped 131 

Potatoes, sweet 3 recipes 133 

Potato pumpkin 147 

Rice 2 recipes 145 

Sauerkraut, -to cook 139 

Sauerkraut, to make. ... 138 

Sea kale 147 

Spinach 2 recipes 138 

Squash 3 recipes 143 

Squash a la fried oysters. 144 

Succotash 136 

Tomatoes 6 recipes 133-1 34 

Turnips 2 recipes 142 

Vegetable oyster 142 

Yams 133 


The relation of weights to measures 


Substitutions 152 

Yeast 153 

A cup of flour 151 

Baking powder 152 

Flour, entire wheat 150 Bread-making, easy 154 

Flour, self-raising 150 Bread-making, quick. ... 154 

Lime water for bread. ... 152 
Heat your flour 150 

To test heat of oven 151 

Bread, brown 3 recipes. 1 57 

Bread, corn 157 

Bread, egg 157 





Bread, milk yeast 155 

Bread, pumpkin 1 56 

Bread, Graham 2recipesi56 

Bread, Indian 156 

Bread, rye and Indian. . .156 

Bread, salt rising 155 

Bread omelet 2 recipes. . 171 
Bread or biscuit, steamed 170 
Bread or cake, to freshen. 170 
Bread for communion. . . . 169 
Biscuit 6 recipes . . . 160-161 

Biscuit, beaten 162 

Biscuit, cream 162 

Buns 160 

Cakes, buckwheat 163 

Cakes, corn batter 163 

Cakes, flannel 164 

Cakes, griddle 162-163 

Cakes, hominy 163 

Crackers 3 recipes. .... 168 

Crumpets 166 

Gems 3 recipes 166 

Hoe cake 158 

Johnny cake 158-159 

Laplanders 166 

Muffins 7 recipes. . . 164-165 

Pancakes, bread 162 

Pones 3 recipes 158 

Puffs 167 

Rice flour cake 159 

Rolls, corn-meal 160 

Rolls 2 recipes.. . . . 159-160 

Rusk 159 

Sally Lunn 167 

Sandwiches, 4 recipesi7O-i7i 
Short bread, Scottish. . . . 169 
Toast 5 recipes. . . . 169-170 
Waffles 3 recipes. . . 167-168 

Cracked wheat 171 

Hasty pudding 172 

Hominy, fine 172 

Mush, fried 172 

Mush, Graham 172 

Oatmeal 171 


Pie-crust I/4-I75 

Pie-crust, Graham 176 

Tart shells 176 

Amber pie 185 

Apple pie 2 recipes. ... 183 

Apple-custard pie 183 

Banana pie 178 

Buttermilk pie 183 

Cherry pie 2 recipes . . . . 181 
Cocoanut pie 2 recipes.. 185 

Corn starch pie 186 

Cracker pie 185 

Cranberry tart pie 180 

Cream pie 3 recipes. ... 184 

Currant pie 180 

Custard pie 2 recipes. . . 183 

Dried apple pie 182 

Emancipation pie 182 

English currant pie 181 

Fried pies 182 

Hickory-nut pie 185 

Huckleberry pie 181 

Jelly pie 186 

Lemon pie 2 recipes. ... 178 

Lemon pie 2 crusts 179 

Lemon-molasses pie 179 

Lemon-potato pie 179 

Lemon-tapioca pie 179 

Mince pies 2 recipes. ... 176 

Mince pies, summer 177 

One egg pie 184 

Orange pie, 2 recipes 179-1 80 

Peach pie 181 

Pie plant pie 182 

Pine-apple pie 178 

Pumpkin pie 2 recipes. . 177 
Raisin pie 2 recipes. . . . 180 
Rhubarb pie 182 


Dumplings and Shortcakes. 


Fritters Pudding- Sauces. 

PIES Continued. 

Service-berry pie 180 Transparent pie. ... ... 186 

Squash pie 177 Vinegar pie 185 

Sweet potato pie. ... 177-178 Wine plant and raisin piei86 

Tomato pie 181 Orange tarts 189 


Apple cobbler 187 Plum duff. 189 

Apple dumplings, baked. 188 
Apple dumplings, boiled. 188 

Apple puffs 187 

Apple pot-pie 187 

Bird's nest 188 

Brother Johnathan 188 

Brown Betty 192 

Dessert cake, Chicago. . . 190 

Dried apple rolls 189 

Peach pandowdy 189 

Popovers 190 

Roly poly 189 

Royal dessert 190 

Sally Lunn 190 

Shortcake, cranberry. ... 191 
Shortcake, hard winter ... 191 

Shortcake, lemon 191 

Shortcake, orange 191 

Shortcake, peach 191 

Shortcake, strawberry. . . 191 


The batter 193 

Apple fritters 194 

Banana fritters 194 

Clam fritters 2 recipes.. 196 

Corn fritters 195 

Cream fritters 195 

Cymling fritters 196 

Grape fritters 194 

Lemon fritters 194 

Orange fritters 193 

Oyster fritters 196 

Pine-apple fritters 194 

Plain fritters 193 

Potato fritters 2 recipes. 195 

Rice fritters 195 

Tomato fritters 196 


Amber sauce 200 

Beehive sauce 197 

Butter sauce 199 

Cider sauce 201 

Cream sauce 198 

Cream and sugar 198 

Egg sauce 199 

Golden sauce 199 

Hard gold sauce 198 

Hard silver sauce 198 

Jelly sauce 200 

Lemon sauce 199 

Maple sugar sauce 200 

Milk sauce 198 

Molasses sauce 200 

Orange sauce 199 

Silver sauce 199 

Sour cream 198 

Strawberry sauce 200 

Transparent sauce 200 

Vanilla sauce 198 

Vinegar sauce 201 


i 2 3 4 211 Apple plum 201 

Almond 213 Apple-sago 202 

Apple and baked Indian. 202 Apple-suet 202 

Apple, boiled 202 Apple-tapioca 202 






Baking day 210 

Baked Indian 2 recipes. 21 5 

Batter 211 

Bird's nest pudding 203 

Blackberry 2 recipes. . .204 

Blue grass 209 

Boiled bread 212 

Boiled Indian 216 

Bread 212 

Buckeye 210 

Cabinet 210 

Cassava 214 

Chocolate 2 recipes.212-213 

Citron 205 

Cocoanut 2 recipes 205 

Corn starch, 2 recipes.2o6-2O7 

Cottage 211 

Crumb 212 

Electric 209 

French 21 1 

Ginger 205 

Graham 209 

Indian-rice 207 

Jelly 205 

Kiss 207 

L'Elegante 210 

Lemon 2 recipes. . .203-204 

Minute 215 

Napoleon 213 

Old English plum 201 

Orange 2 recipes 202 

Pine-apple 205 

Puft 211 

Queen of puddings 212 

Rice 207 

Rolled 210 

Sago 214 

Suet, baked 213 

Suet, boiled 3 recipes. ..216 

Snow 214 

Tapioca 5 recipes. .208-209 
Transparent puddings. . .214 

Wash day 202 

Whortleberry 204 


Weights and measures. ..151 

Almonds 219 

Butter and eggs 217 

Cochineal coloring 219 

Cooking in high altitudes. 223 
Directions for mixing cake222 

Extracts 222 

Flour and sugar 218 

Frosting 9 recipes.. 223-224 

Heatingthe oven 220 

Paper for cake pans 219 

Raisins and currants. .... 218 

Steaming fruit cake 221 

To prevent browning. . . .221 

I 2 3 4 cake 242 

Almond cake 232 

Angels' food 236 

Apple fruit cake 230 

Birthday cake 243 

Black cake 228 

Bride's cake 225 

Buckeye cake 234 

Canary cake 239 

Cake without eggs 246 

Chocolate cake (3) .. .239-240 

Clove cup cake 233 

Corn starch cake, 2 recipes238 

Cream cake 244 

Dakota cake 238 

Delicate cake 2 recipes . 240 

Empress fruit cake 228 

English fruit cake 231 

Eugenia cake 239 

Everyday cake 238 

Farmer's fruit cake 230 

Feather cake 243 

Fig loaf cake 242 

Fruit cake 2 recipes. . . .227 


Loaf Caks. 


Layer Cakes. 

LOAF CAKES-Continued. 

Coffee cake : 232 

Gold cake 236 

Good common fruit cake. 230 

Graham cake(2) 245-246 

Groom's cake 225 

Hollis cake 241 

Huckleberry cake 242 

Jenny Lind cake 234 

Lady cake 232 

Lemon cake 243 

Marble cake 235 

Old-fashioned pound cake233 

One egg 1 cake 245 

Orange loaf cake 243 

Plum cake 226 

Plymouth cake 236 

Porcupine cake 244 

Pork cake 231 

Quaker pound cake 229 

Raised loaf cake 242 

Raisin cake 231 

Silver cake 236 

Sister Julia's cup cake.. . .245 

Snowball cake 239 

Soda pound cake 234 

Spice cake 233 

Spice raisin cake 232 

Sponge cake 3 recipes. .237 

Surprise cake 244 

Tea cake 244 

Village fruit cake 228 

Walnut cake 241 

Watermelon cake 235 

Wedding cake 226 

Welcome fruit cake 229 

White cake 2 recipes. . .241 

White citron cake 233 

White fruit cake, 2 recipes229 

White pound cake 234 

White sponge cake 237 


To prepare cocoanut meat.246 Cocoanut cream cake .... 254 

Almond filling 247 Confectioner's cake 25 

Boiled frosting for filling. 247 

Boiled icing 247 

Chocolate filling 248 

Cocoanut filling 248 

Cream filling 248 

Icing for filling 247 

Lemon filling 248 

Orange filling 248 

Quick frosting 247 

Whipped cream filling. . .247 

Almond nagout 251 

Apple jelly cake 260 

Banana cake 257 

Belvidere cream cake. . . .254 

Blackberry cake 258 

Caramel cake 250 

Caramel layer cake 258 

Charlotte polonaise 251 

Chocolate cake 250 

Cream layer cake 249 

Dolly Varden cake 260 

Fig cake 2 recipes 256 

Gilt-edge cake 254 

Ice cream cake 253 

Irving Park cake 250 

Layer cake 249 

Lemon jelly cake 257 

Orange cake, 2 recipes2$6-257 

Peach cake 259 

Pine-apple cake 258 

Prince of Wales cake .... 259 
Ribbon cake 2 recipes. .255 
Rocky mountain cake. . . .252 

Roll jelly cake 248 

Sponge layer cake (2) .... 249 

Variety cake .261 

White Lincoln cake 253 

White Mountain cake.. . .253 

Cookies, etc. 


Miscellaneous Cake*. 


Cookies 262 

Cream cookies 264 

Christmas cookies 261 

Cocoanut cookies 263 

Delicate cookies 265 

Garfield cookies 262 

German cookies 262 

Ginger cookies 3 recipes266 
Ginger snaps, 2 recipes266-267 

Graham cookies 265 

Hermit cookies 264 

Lemon cookies. . . 263 

Lincoln cookies .262 

Measure cookies 264 

Molasses cookies, 2 recipes265 

Nutmeg cookies 263 

Oatmeal cookies .265 

Soft cream cookies 264 

Vanilla cookies 263 

Water cookies 262 

i 2 3 -4 jumbles 267 

Jumbles 2 recipes 267 


Andover wonders 270 

Crullers 271 

Doughnuts, 3 recipes . 268-269 
Doughnuts, amalgamation269 

Doughnuts, lazy 269 

Doughnuts, raised 269 

French puffs 271 

Fried cakes 2 recipes . . . 270 

Mother's love-knots 272 

Nun's sighs 272 

Rissoles : 270 

Spanish ruffs 270 

Vanities 271 

Varieties 271 


Gingerbread 3 recipes.. 273 

Gingerbread gems 276 

Gingerbread, soft (2) 273-274 

Gingerbread, spice 274 

Ginger cake, soft 274 

Ginger cake, very cheap . . 275 

Ginger drops 275 

Ginger jumbles 276 

Molasses cake, soft 275 

Molasses sponge 275 


Cheese cakes 4 recipes . .284 
Cheese, buttermilk. .... .283 

Cheese, Dutch 283 

Cheese, Edinboro' 282 

Cheese, scalloped 283 

Comfits 2 recipes 278 

Cream puffs 280 

Florentines 280 

Florida syrup cake 279 

Fondu 282 

German apple cake 280 

German coffee cake 280 

Hermit cakes 279 

Lady fingers 281 

Pyramid paste 281 

Quajada 283 

Ragamuffins 278 

Sea foam 282 

Seed cakes 279 

Spice cakes . . . .' 277 

Sponge drop cakes 276 

Sponge patty-pans 277 

Tea cakes 277 

Tea cakes, warm 277 

Tea cakes, molasses (2) . . 278 
Thin bread and butter. . .282 

Warm cream cake 280 

Welsh rarebit 283 

Widow's cake 279 

Whistles .281 


Blanc- Mange. 




Blanc-mange, almond 285 Blanc-mange, in colors.. .288 

Blanc-mange, arrow-root. 286 Blanc-mange, Irish moss. 287 
Blanc-mange, corn starch.286 Blanc-mange, isinglass. ..287 

Blanc-mange, farina 286 Blanc-mange, manioc. . . .287 

Blanc-mange, fruit 286 

Blanc-mange, farina-fruit. 286 
Blanc-mange, gelatine. . .287 

Blanc-mange, quince. . . . 287 

Blanc-mange, sago 288 

Blanc-mange, tapioca. . . . 288 

Cream, angel 289 Cream, Oriental 291 

Cream, apple 289 Cream, peach 291 

Cream, Bavarian 289 Cream, pine-apple 292 

Cream, chocolate 289 Cream, Princess 291 

Cream, coffee 289 Cream, rice 292 

Cream, Charlotte 290 

Cream, Duchess 290 

Cream, fruit 290 

Cream, gooseberry 290 

Cream, Oak Park 290 

Cream, orange 2 recipes29i 

Cream, Spanish 292 

Cream, strawberry (2) ... 292 

Cream, tapioca 293 

Cream, vanilla 293 

Cream, velvet . '. 293 

Whipped cream 293 


Custard, baked 294 

Custard, boiled 294 

Custard, chocolate 294 

Custard, lemon 295 

Custard, snow 295 

Custard, sweet potato. . . . 295 
Almond snow balls... . . . .298 

Honey, French 298 

Honey, lemon ......... .298 

Lemon butter 298 

Meringue, apple 296 

Meringue, corn starch. . .296 

Rice balls 297 

Rice Handy- Andy 297 

Apple island 296 Snow balls 297 

Charlotte Russe 295 Souffle vanilla 288 

" " Mississippi. 296 Syllabub --293 

Hen's nest 296 Thickened rice 297 

Honey, artificial 298 Trifle 297 


Ice cream, chocolate. 300-301 Sherbet, pine-apple 302 

Ice cream, cocoanut 301 

Ice cream, coffee 301 

Ice cream, fruit 301 

Ice cream, lemon, 2 recipes3OO 

Ice cream, tea 301 

Icecream,vanilla,2 recipes3OO 

Delmonico 302 

Sherbet, lemon 302 

Sherbet, strawberry 302 

Ice, currant 303 

Ice, lemon 2 recipes. . . . 303 
Ice, orange 2 recipes3O3~3O4 

Ice, pine-apple 304 

Ice, raspberry ..304 

Ice. strawberry. .... . . . .304 

Ice, watermelon,. ..... . .304 






Care of coffee-pot 306 

Chocolate 309 

Chocolate, egg ' 309 

Cocoa, breakfast .309 

Cocoa shells 309 

Coffee-browning 305 

Coffee, " to boil or not " . . 306 
Coffee, with boiling water.3o6 
Coffee, with egg 306 


Coffee, dripped 307 

Coffee, steamed 307 

Coffee for festivals 307 

Coffee, Vienna 308 

Coffee, rye 308 

Mixing coffee 305 

Substitute for cream 308 

Tea 308 

Tea, iced 309 


A freezing mixture 309 

Bottled soda water 309 

Cider, mulled. 312 

Cider, to keep 313 

Cream nectar 310 

Cream soda 310 

Ginger nectar --3IO 

Ginger pop 310 

Grape cordial 311 

Harvest drink 311 

Hydromel. . . 311 

Imperial 311 

Lemonade 311 

Lemonade, powdered ....312 

Lemonade, portable. . .'. .312 

Lemon soda 312 

Lemon syrup 312 

Mead 312 

Mixed syrups .312 

Orgeat 313 

Orange syrup 313 

Pine-apple syrup 313 

Refreshing drink 314 

Raspberry nectar 313 

Strawberry syrup 314 

Sugar nectar 313 

Syrup of vinegar 314 

Unfermented wine (2). . .314 


Almonds 318 

Ambrosia 316 

Apples ..316 

Bananas . 3 1 5 

Blackberries 315 

Cocoanut 316 

Frosted fruits 317 

Grapes 316 

Grapes, to keep fresh. . . .317 

Iced currants 317 

La Composite 316 

Melons . .317 

Nutmeg melons -. .318 

Oranges 316 

Peaches 316 

Pears , 316 

Raisins 317 

Watermelons : 317 


General directions 318 

Apples 321 

Elderberries 320 

Pears 320 

Peaches .320 

Pie-plant. ,. ....... . .320 

Pine-apple 321 

Pumpkin 321 

Raspberries 320 

Strawberries -319 

Tomatoes 321 

Tomatoes, whole 321 


Fruit S.auoe. 


Jelly, Preserve*, eta. 


Apples, baked 2 recipes .323 Apples jellied 324 

Apples, boiled 322 Apples, stewed 2 recipes324 

Apples, boiled, spiced 323 

Apples, compote of. . . . .323 

Apple sauce, cider 324 

Apple croutes 322 

Apple, dewdrop 323 

Apple sauce, dried 324 

Apples, fried 324 

Apples in jelly 322 

Berries, stewed 325 

Cranberries 3 recipes. . .325 
Currants and pie-plant.. .325 

Peaches, stewed 326 

Plums, stewed 326 

Prunes, stewed 326 

Quinces, baked. 325 

Raisins, stewed 326 


To test jelly 327 

To turn jelly out 327 

To weigh fruit juice 329 

Apple jelly 327 

Blackberry jelly 327 

Calf 's-foot jelly 331 

Cherry jelly 328 

Crab-apple jelly 328 

Currant jelly (2) 328-329 

Dried apple jelly,2 recipes328 
Grape jelly, 3 recipes . 329-330 

Jelly of two colors 332 

Lemon jelly 330 

Peach jelly 330 

Quince jelly 331 

Raspberry jelly 331 

Tapioca jelly 331 

Wild plum jelly 331 


To clarify sugar 333 Peach rolls 338 

Apple butter 3 recipes. .341 

Apple marmalade .339 

Apple preserves T. 334 

Blackberry jam 338 

Cherry marmalade 340 

Cherry preserves 334 

Cherries, to dry 342 

Citron preserves 334 

Crab-apple preserves. 334-335 

Cranberry preserves 335 

Currant jam 338 

Currants, to dry 342 

Damson plum preserves. .335 

Gooseberries, to dry 342 

Grape preserves 335 

Orange jam 339 

Orange marmalade 340 

Peach marmalade 339 

Peach paper 338 

Peach preserves 335 

Peaches, to dry 342 

Pear preserves 336 

Persimmons, to keep 342 

Plum butter 341 

Plum-tomato preserves.. .336 
Preserved orange peel. . .338 

Pumpkin preserves 336 

Quince marmalade 340 

Quince preserves 337 

Raspberry jam 339 

Strawberry jam 339 

Strawberry preserves. . . .336 

Tomato butter 342 

Tomato figs 338 

Tomato jam 339 

Tomato preserves 336 

Watermelon rinds 337 

White currant jam 339 

Wild plum marmaUde. . .340 
Wild plum preserves. . . .337 


FiO.te Vinegar. 


Pienics, etc. 


Artichokes 344 

Cabbage 345 

Cabbage, red . . , , : 346 

Cauliflower 346 

Cherries, 2 recipes 346 

Chow-chow 346 

Cucumbers, to keep firm. 343 

Cucumbers 344 

Cucumber pickles, fi^sh. .345 

Cucumber mangoes 345 

French pickles 347 

Higby 349 

Jackson pickles 349 

Lemons 351 

Mangoes 347 

Mixed pickles 350 

Mushrooms 348 

Nasturtions 347 

Onions, silver skinned.. . .348 

Onions, spiced 348 

Piccalilli 350 

Peppers, stuffed 348 

Plum-tomatoes 348 

String beans 350 

Tomatoes 2 recipes .... 349 
Walnuts 351 


Apples, sweet 351 

Beets 355 

Blackberries 355 

Cantaloupe 352 

Citron 352 

Crab-apples 351 

Cucumbers, ripe (2) 353 

Grapes 353 

Huckleberries . 355 

Peaches --354 

Pears 2 recipes 353 

Pine-apples 353 

Plums 354 

Plum-tomatoes 354 

Quinces 354 

Raisins 355 

Rhubarb, spiced 355 

Strawberries 355 

Tomatoes, green 353 

Watermelon rinds 352 


Apple vinegar 356 Lemor* vinegar 357 

Beet vinegar 356 Potato vinegar 357 

Cayenne vinegar 356 

Celery vinegar 356 

Clover bloom vinegar. . . .356 

Corn vinegar 356 

Currant vinegar 357 

Honey vinegar 357 

Horse-radish vinegar 357 

Raspberry vinegar 357 

Rhubarb vinegar 357 

Spearmint vinegar 358 

Spiced vinegar 358 

Sugar vinegar 358 

Tarragon vinegar 358 

Tomato vinegar 358 


Suggested dishes 359 Potential energy of food. 367 

Five food principles .... 368 
Uses of food in body. . . . 369 
Evidences of good health369 

Quantities required 360 

School lunches 361 

Lunches for traveling ... 361 

Luncheons 362-363 

Holiday menus 364-366 

Chafing dish cookery . . . 370 
French translations. 37 1-37 5 


To a Young Wife. 





An old citizen's letter, 377 


Description of 381 


Whom to invite 384 The table 386 

Form of invitation 385 Serving the dinner 386 

" Dinner is ready " 385 Hints to the invited 387 


Dishes suggested 389 


Suggestions for 392 


Almond taffy 396 Fruit candy 397 

Anabel's candy .397 

Butter scotch 396 

Chocolate candy,2 recipes395 
Chocolate cream drops. . 395 

Christmas candy 394 

Cocoanut cream candy.. .395 

Cocoanut macaroons 397 

Cocoanut taffy 396 

Cream taffy. . . . ^ 395 

Excelsior cream candy. -.393 

Hickory-nut macaroons . . 397 

Horehound candy 397 

Lemon macaroons 397 

Lemon taffy 396 

Maple caramels 394 

Molasses candy 2recipes394 

Peanut candy 396 

Popcorn balls 398 

Snow candy 396 

Sugar kisses 397 

Vinegar Candy 396 


With illustrations 398-400 


A word to the wise 401 Cream soup 406 

Apple drink 2 recipes. .402 

Baked milk 403 

Beaten egg 403 

Beef extract, Mrs. G.'s. . .405 

Beef, raw 405 

Beeftea 405 

Broiled chicken 404 

Broth 2 recipes .405 

Broth, mutton -46 

Corn for weak stomachs. .406 

Cracker relish 406 

Cracker and egg 406 

Crust coffee 402 

Dried flour 407 

Egg and sponge cake. . . .406 

Egg lemonade 403 

Flaxseed lemonade 403 

Gruel, boiled flour 405 

Gruel, Indian meal 404 

Hop tea 402 

Jelly 5 recipes 404 

Lime water and milk. . . .403 

Milk porridge (2) 405 

Milk punch 402 


Invalid Cookery. 




Mulled buttermilk 402 

Panada 406 

Panada, cider 406 

Refreshing drink 402 

Roasted potatoes 404 

Tamarind water 402 

Toast water 402 

Tomato custard 407 

Whey, alum 403 

Whey, buttermilk 403 

Whey, rennet 403 

Whey, wine 403 


Bathing infants 407 Nursing bottles, to cleanse4o8 

Biting finger nails, to cure.4i I Rocking the baby 408 

Croup, simple treatment.. 410 

Earache 410 

Ear, care of the 410 

Milk for the baby 407 

Nose bleed 410 

Save yourself 409 

Substances in the nose. . .410 

To mothers 408 

Turn the baby over. ... 408 

Vermin in heads 411 

Whooping cough cures.. 411 

Nursing bottles 407 


Aqua ammonia for nausea4i2 Hot drops for cholera. . . .414 

Hydrophobia (2). 

Baldness, to cure 417 

Bearing down 419 

Blackberry cordial 414 

Burns, to cure. . . , 418 

Bunions 415 

Chapped hands, to cure. .413 

Chilblains 415 

Citric acid 418 

Cold, excellent remedy. . .413 

Constipation 418 

Corns 415 

Cough, dry irritating. . . .414 
Cough, home remedy for. 41 3 

Cough syrup. ... 414 

Cut or bruise, best remedy4!2 

Diphtheria 414 

Discoloration of the skin. 41 2 
Disinfectants 3 recipes. .412 

Eyes, weak 413 

Eye water for weak eyes. 41 3 
Eye water, very superior. 41 3 

Felon, to cure 416 

Frozen feet 415 

Herbs, to steep 412 

Hops, to heat 418 

. . .419-420 
Inflammatory rheumatisirmp 

Liver bitters 415 

Lockjaw 419 

Linseed poultice 417 

Mustard poultice 416 

Moles, to remove 416 

Neuralgia cure. . , 418 

Neuralgia, lemons for. . . .418 

Night-sweats 419 

Ointment for bruises, etc. 41 3 

Piles 419 

Piles, dieting for 419 

Poisons 416 

Poison ivy or bee sting.. .416 

Refreshing wash 411 

Ringworm 420 

Sleeplessness 417 

Smallpox and scarlet fever42O 
Sore throat, inveterate . . .414 

Sprain, best cure 412 

Stimulating sponge bath. 412 

Tooth-ache 418 

W T arts, to cure 416 

Warts, to remove 416 


Beds Lamps. 


Laundry Dye^. 


Beds and bedding 420-426 


Suggestions for 426 


Blankets, to wash 432 Lace, white Spanish 435 

Blue, a fast color 432 

British enamel 429 

Calico liable to fade 432 

Chamois skin, 433 

Cleaning clothes wringers43i 

Cleaning white fur 435 

Clothes lines, pliable. . . .432 
Eureka cleansing fluid. . .438 

Flannels 432 

Folding a shirt 431 

Holders 431 

Linen suits 433 

Magic washing soap 428 

Red table linen 433 

Removing fruit stains. . . .434 
Removing grease spots. .434 

Removing mildew 434 

Removing tar 434 

Rene wing black woolens. 43 1> 
Renovating black silk. . .435 

Renovating carpets 438 

Smoothing irons, to clean43:? 

Hose 433 'Soap 12 recipes436, 437,438 

Imperial star blueing. . . .429 Starch, 4recipes..430, 432, 433 

Ink stains 435 

Ironing a shirt 430 

Iron rust 434 

Javelle water 434 

Lace, black 435 


Lace collars, doing up. 
Lace mitts, to color. . 
Laces 435 

Starching shirts 430 

Stiffening black goods. . .433 
Towels, colored borders.. 432 

Washday 427 

Washing fluid 428 

Wash-tubs to save 43 ( 

White clothes put away43.'; 
Woolen pants 433 


Annato 439 

Black 2 recipes. 439 

Blue 440 

Blue, navy 440 

Brown 440 

Brown, seal 440 

Canary, for cotton 440 

Composition 440 

Green 2 recipes 441 

Orange 2 recipes 441 

Purple 441 

Red 2 recipes 441 

Red, madder 442, 

Red, Turkey 442 

Wine 442 

Yellow for cotton 442 


Bad breath 

Bed bug poison 457 

Bloom of youth 443 

Burning chimney .458 

Camphor ice 443 

Carpet cleaner 456 

Cement, crockery 457 

Cleaning brass or copper. 450 

Cleaning house 451-454 

Cleaning silver 450 

Charcoal preservative. . .445 
Cologne water 


Farmers' Department. 


Cutting Up Meats. 


Court plaster, to make. . . 445 
Digestion of food. . .446-447 

Dry Shampoo /\/\<\ 

Fire Kindlers 458 

Freckles, to remove 443 

Foods in season 448 

Furniture polish . .450 and 457 

Grates to blacken 456 

Grease spots 456 

Hair brushes 445 

Hair crimping 444 

Hair wash 2 recipes. . . .444 

Home-made carpet 455 

Honey, candied 445 

Indigestible foods 447 

Ink, indelible 458 

Ink, marking 458 

Ink stains 456 

Kalsomine 455 

Liquid glue 457 

Moths to destrop 457 

Oil-cloths to clean 457 

Oriental cold cream 443 

Paint for floors 450 

Paste that will keep 457 

Patching carpets 456 

Roaches to destroy. . . .457 

Scent powder ^/\/[ 

Shellac for floors 450 

Stain for floors 450 

Stair carpets to save .(2)455 

Softening of hands 443 

Sweeping carpets 45 G 

Tinware to mend 458 

Tooth paste 444 

To beautify teeth 444. 

Wax from comb 47$ 

Whitewash 454 

See also page 300. 


HK *** 


Beef 459 Rennet to prepare 460 

Lamb 461 Sausage cases to clean .462 

Mutton 461 Tripe to clean 460 

Pork 461 Veal 460 


Big head 463 Liniment 466 

Lung fever 465 

Blistering ointment 466 

Bots 463 

Colic 463 

Curb 464 

Diarrhea 464 

Distemper or influenza. .464 

Eye lotion 464 

Farcy, or glanders 464 

Fistula, or poll evil 464 

Founder 464 

Heaves 465 

Hoof ointment 466 

Lampas 465 

Mange 465 

Merchant's gargling oil. .466 

Mustang liniment 467 

Physic. 467 

Ringbone 465 

Scratches 465 

Skinfast 467 

Spavin and Splint 465 

Staggers 465 

Stringhaltor springhalt. .466 

Thick wind 466 

Windgalls 466 


Diseases of Animals. iNDEX. Road-Making. 


Choking 467 Lice on cattle .468 

Distemper 468 Physic for cattle. ...... .468 

Dry murrain 467 Red-water 468 

Fardel-bound 467 Ringworm. 468 

Garget, or caked udder. .468 Scouring .468 

Hide-bound 468 Sore teats 469 

Hoven, or blown . .468 Tar-water for cattle 469 


Bloating 469 Physic 469 

Diarrhea .469 Sore-mouth 469 

Foot-rot 469 Scabs and ticks 469 

Foul noses 469 Scours 469 


Cholera 470 Sniffle disease 470 

Coughs and colds 470 Sore throat .470 

Diarrhea 470 Sows eating their pigs. . ..470 

Kidney worm and lice. . .470 Worms .470 

Suggestions for, with illustration . . .471-474 

MISCELLANEOUS. See also pag* 499. 

Ant-colony to destroy. .475 Keeping up windows. . . .475 

Black or red ants 475 Leggings, improvised. . .476 

Cabbage worm, to destroy475 Mustard to cultivate. . .475 

Cement, rubber. . . , 476 To preserve soles 476 

Foot-warmers 476 Water casks to clean . . .489 

Frothing of cream 475 Waterproof blacking. . . .476 


In Every City and Town to Introduce 

Sold by Subscription Only. 


Terras and full information will be cheerfully furnished those who desire 
to engage in the business on application to 




2101 Valley Life Sciences Bldg. 642-2531 





EP 2 7 2006 -3 { 


\'\\ |d 

JAN Q 7007 


24M 4-00 Berkeley, California 94720-6500